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Encyclopedia > Clifford Irving
Clifford Irving in 1972.

Clifford Michael Irving (born November 5, 1930) is an American writer, best known for an "authorized autobiography" of Howard Hughes that turned out to be a hoax. Clifford Irving was a former Chairman of the Executive Council and Member of the Legislative Council in the Isle of Man. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cover of the first English edition of 1793 of Benjamin Franklins autobiography. ... For the Welsh murderer, see Howard Hughes (murderer). ... A hoax is an attempt to trick an audience into believing that something false is real. ...

Contents

Early life and writing career

Irving grew up in New York City, the son of Dorothy and Jay Irving, a magazine cover artist and the creator of the syndicated comic strip Pottsy, about a New York policeman. [1] After graduating in 1947 from Manhattan's High School of Music and Art, Irving attended Cornell University, had a two-year marriage (to Nina Wilcox) and worked on his first novel, On a Darkling Plain (Putnam, 1956) while he was a copy boy at The New York Times. He completed his second novel, The Losers (1958), as he traveled about Europe. While living on the island of Ibiza he met an Englishwoman, Claire Lydon, and they married in 1958, moving to California. She was killed in Big Sur in an automobile accident. [2] New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Jay Irving (born Irving Joel Rafsky in New York) is a cartoonist best known for his syndicated strip Pottsy about a New York policeman. ... The Fiorello H. LaGuardia High School of Music & Art and Performing Arts is located near the Juilliard School in the Lincoln Center district of Manhattan, on Amsterdam Avenue between 65th Street and 64th Street. ... Cornell redirects here. ... Putnam is a surname. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... “Ebusus” redirects here. ...


On a Darkling Plain and The Losers were not financially successful but received excellent reviews. On a Darkling Plain was sometimes compared with another novel set at Cornell, Charles Thompson's Halfway Down the Stairs (1957). John O. Lyons, in an addendum to his 1962 survey, "The College Novel in America: 1962-1974" (Critique, 1974) saw a tendency toward pranks and put-ons in Irving's early work:

Richard Farina's Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up to Me (1966) continues the iconoclastic Cornell Bildungsroman of the fifties by Clifford Irving, On a Darkling Plain (1956); Charles Thompson, Halfway Down the Stairs (1957); and Robert Gutwillig, After Long Silence (1958). The oscillation between Weltschmerz and pranks in these novels was undoubtedly an influence on "The Whole Sick Crew" of Pynchon's V. [3]

Irving himself says this is "all nonsense." Richard Farina was an influential and important figure in both the Counter culture scene of the early to mid sixties as well as the budding folk rock scene of the same time. ... A Bildungsroman (IPA: /, German: novel of self-cultivation) is a novelistic form which concentrates on the spiritual, moral, psychological, or social development and growth of the protagonist usually from childhood to maturity. ... Weltschmerz (from the German meaning world-pain or world-weariness, see wiktionary entry) is a term coined by the German author Jean Paul and denotes the kind of feeling experienced by someone who understands that the physical reality can never satisfy the demands of the mind. ... Thomas Ruggles Pynchon, Jr. ... book cover V. is the debut novel of Thomas Pynchon published in 1963, concerning the journey of discharged U.S. Navy sailor Benny Profane through a decadent group of artists in 1956, along with the attempt of an aging traveller named Herbert Stencil to locate the mysterious woman he knows...


His third novel, The Valley, is a mythic Western, published by McGraw-Hill in 1960. Irving moved in 1962 back to Ibiza with his third wife, English model Fay Brooke and their newborn son, Josh. In 1967 he married Swiss/German artist Edith Sommer, and they had two sons, Nedsky and Barney. He was acquainted with art forger Elmyr de Hory and wrote his biography, Fake! (1969). Irving and de Hory are both featured in Orson Welles' documentary F for Fake (1974), which was originally a BBC documentary written by Irving and directed by Francois Reichenbach. [4] The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Elmyr de Hory (born Elmyr Dory-Boutin) (1906 – December 11, 1976) was a famous Hungarian-born painter and art forger. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... F for Fake (1974) (original French title, Vérités et Mensonges) is the last major film completed by Orson Welles. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...


Hughes' fake autobiography

By 1958 Howard Hughes had become a recluse who hated any kind of public scrutiny. Whenever he found out that someone was writing an unauthorized biography about him, he bought the writer off. By the 1960s he even refused to appear in court. According to various rumors, he was either terminally ill, mentally unstable, or even dead and replaced by an impersonator. For the Welsh murderer, see Howard Hughes (murderer). ...


In 1970, in Spain, Irving met with an author and old friend, Richard Suskind, and created the scheme to write Hughes's "autobiography." Irving and Suskind believed that because Hughes had completely withdrawn from public life, he would never want to draw attention to himself by denouncing the book or filing a lawsuit for slander. Suskind would do most of the necessary research in news archives. Irving started by forging letters in Hughes's own hand, imitating authentic letters he'd seen displayed in Newsweek magazine. [5] Richard Suskind is an author who participated with author Clifford Irving in creating a fraudulent autobiography of the reclusive billionaire Howard Hughes. ... In English and American law, and systems based on them, libel and slander are two forms of defamation (or defamation of character), which is the tort or delict of making a false statement of fact that injures someones reputation. ... Forgery is the process of making or adapting objects or documents (see false document), with the intention to deceive. ... The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ...


Irving contacted his publisher, McGraw-Hill, and claimed that he had corresponded with Hughes because of his book about de Hory and that Hughes had expressed interest in letting him write his autobiography. The McGraw-Hill board invited him to New York where he showed them three forged letters, one of which claimed that Hughes wished to have his biography written but that he wanted the project to remain secret for the time being. The autobiography would be based on interviews Hughes was willing to do with Irving. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


McGraw-Hill agreed to the terms and wrote up contracts between Hughes, Irving and the company; Irving forged Hughes's signatures. McGraw-Hill paid an advance of $100,000, with an additional $400,000 that would go to Hughes. Irving later bargained the sum up to $765,000, with $100,000 going to Irving and the rest to Hughes. McGraw-Hill paid by cheque, which Irving had his wife deposit to a Swiss bank account. [6] Swiss banks are world-renowned for their secretive nature and protection of clients. ...


Irving and Suskind researched all the available information about Hughes. To reinforce the public perception of Hughes as an eccentric recluse, Irving also created fake interviews that he claimed were conducted in remote locations all over the world, including one on a Mexican pyramid. In reality, Irving was meeting his various mistresses at these destinations.


Irving and Suskind also gained access to the private files of Time-Life, as well as a manuscript by James Phelan, who was ghostwriting memoirs of Noah Dietrich, former business manager to Hughes. Mutual acquaintance Stanley Meyer showed Irving a copy of the manuscript—without Phelan's consent—in the hope that he would be willing to rewrite it in a more publishable format. Irving made a copy of it for his own purposes. Time-Life is a book, music, and video marketer, that since 2003 has been combined with catalog reseller Lillian Vernon as a subsidiary of Direct Holdings Worldwide, and is no longer owned by its former parent Time Warner. ... There are several prominent people named James Phelan, including three American politicians: James Phelan, Sr. ... This article is about a ghostwriter, the type of writer. ... Noah Dietrich (February 28, 1889 - February 15, 1982) was the chief executive officer of the Howard Hughes empire from 1925 - 1957. ... The Water Fuel Cell is an electrolysis device which is claimed to break water into hydrogen and oxygen gas using less energy than the energy present in the bond itself. ...


In the early winter of 1971 Irving delivered the manuscript to McGraw-Hill. He also included notes in Hughes's forged handwriting that an expert forensic document analyst declared genuine. Hughes experts at Time-Life were also convinced. McGraw-Hill announced its intention to publish the book in March, 1972. Questioned document examination (QDE) is known by many names including forensic document examination, document examination, diplomatics, handwriting examination, and sometimes handwriting analysis, although the latter name is not often used as it may be confused with graphology. ...


Several representatives of Hughes's companies and other people who had known the billionaire expressed their doubts about the forthcoming work's authenticity. Irving countered that Hughes had simply not told them about the book. Meanwhile Frank McCulloch, known for years as the last journalist to interview Hughes, received an angry call from someone claiming to be Hughes himself. But when McCulloch read the Irving manuscript he declared that it was indeed accurate. Mike Wallace interviewed Irving for a news broadcast. Wallace later said his camera crew told him Irving was "a phony. They understood. I didn't. He got me." Mike Wallace can refer to: Mike Wallace, the long-time television correspondent for CBS. Mike Wallace, the historian. ...


McGraw-Hill and Life magazine, which had paid to publish excerpts of the book, continued to support Irving. Osborn Associates, a firm of handwriting experts, declared the writing samples were authentic. Irving had to submit to a lie-detector test, the results of which indicated inconsistencies, but no outright lies.[1] For weeks there was no sign of Hughes. Philippe Halsmans famous portrait of Marilyn Monroe Life generally refers to two American magazines: A humor and general interest magazine published from 1883 to 1936; A publication created by Time founder Henry Luce in 1936, with a strong emphasis on photojournalism. ... A polygraph or lie detector is a device which measures and records several physiological variables such as blood pressure, heart rate, respiration and skin conductivity while a series of questions is being asked, in an attempt to detect lies. ...


On January 7, 1972, Hughes finally contacted the outside world. He arranged a telephone conference with seven journalists that had known him years before. It took place two days later; the journalists' end of the conversation was televised. Hughes denounced Irving, said that he had never even met him, and said that he was still living in the Bahamas. Irving claimed that the voice was probably a fake. is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Hughes's lawyer, Chester Davis, filed suit against McGraw-Hill, Life, Clifford Irving and Dell Publications. Swiss authorities investigated a bank account in the name of "H. R. Hughes," which had received $750,000. Edith Irving had opened it with the name "Helga R. Hughes." When Swiss police visited the Irvings on Ibiza, they denied everything, although Clifford Irving tried to hint that he might have been dealing with an impostor. Then James Phelan read an excerpt of the book and realized that a few of the facts had been taken from his book. Finally the Swiss bank identified Edith Irving as the depositor of the funds, and the jig was up.


Eventually the Irvings gave up and confessed on January 28, 1972. They and Suskind were indicted for fraud, appeared in court March 13, and were found guilty June 16. Despite the efforts of Irving's lawyer, Maurice Nessen, Irving was convicted and spent 17 months in prison, where he stopped smoking and did weightlifting. He voluntarily returned the $765,000 advance to his publishers. Suskind was sentenced to six months and served five. is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the sport of weightlifting. ...


Following his release, Irving continued to write books, including several bestsellers, notably Trial, Tom Mix and Pancho Villa, Final Argument and Daddy's Girl. The fraudulent autobiography was published in a private edition in 1999, now out of print. Irving's website [7] features downloads of his new novel, several free chapters of The Autobiography of Howard Hughes and even a complete unexpurgated version for a small fee. All the events of the experience were described in detail in Irving's The Hoax (1981). Irving currently lives in Aspen, Colorado. View south along Galena Street in downtown Aspen. ...


Film

In July 2005, filming began in Puerto Rico and New York on The Hoax, starring Richard Gere as Clifford Irving. Irving has said of the project, "I had nothing to do with this movie, and it had very little to do with me." Against his wishes, his name appears in credit lists as "technical consultant." On March 6, 2007, Hyperion reissued Clifford Irving's The Hoax in a movie tie-in edition. The film opened April 6, 2007 with a DVD release following on October 16. The Hoax is a 2006 movie directed by Lasse Hallström, starring Richard Gere and Alfred Molina. ... Richard Tiffany Gere[1] (born August 31, 1949) is an American actor. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Books of Clifford Irving

  • On a Darkling Plain (1956)
  • The Losers (1958)
  • The Valley (1960)
  • The 38th Floor (1965)
  • The Battle of Jerusalem (1967)
  • Spy (1968)
  • Fake! The Story of Elmyr de Hory, the Greatest Art Forger of Our Time (1969)
  • Autobiography of Howard Hughes (1971)
  • The Death Freak (1976)
  • The Sleeping Spy (1979)
  • The Hoax (1981)
  • Tom Mix and Pancho Villa (1981)
  • The Angel of Zin (1983)
  • Daddy's Girl (1985)
  • Trial (1987)
  • Final Argument (1990)
  • The Spring (1995)

Works about the Hughes autobiography affair

  • Stephen Fay, Lewis Chester and Magnus Linklater. Hoax: The Inside Story of the Howard Hughes-Clifford Irving Affair (1972)
  • Irving, Clifford & Suskind, Richard. Project Octavio: The Story of the Howard Hughes Hoax (1977)
  • F for Fake, a documentary film by Orson Welles (1974), includes a segment on Irving filmed around the time the Hughes autobiography scandal broke.
  • Der Scheck heiligt die Mittel, another documentary film by Henry Kolarz on German TV (1974). Richard Suskind played himself.
  • Talbot, Ken. Enigma! The New Story of Elmyr de Hory (1991)

Magnus Linklater is a Scottish journalist and former newspaper editor. ... F for Fake (1974) (original French title, Vérités et Mensonges) is the last major film completed by Orson Welles. ... Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...

References

Audio reference

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Clifford Irving's hoax, the fake autobiography of Howard Hughes --- The Crime Library - The Crime library (1109 words)
Clifford would tell his publisher that the book would be based on interviews conducted with Howard.
Clifford later stated in his book that in actuality, they would "never meet Hughes and the interviews would be faked".
Clifford suggested that Dick collaborate with him on the literary hoax, by conducting the necessary research for the project.
Clifford Irving - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1095 words)
Clifford Irving (born November 5, 1930) is a US writer famous for his "authorized autobiography" of Howard Hughes.
Irving claimed that he had corresponded with Hughes because of his book about Elmyr de Hory and that Hughes had expressed interest in letting him write his autobiography.
Irving and Suskind also gained access to the private files of Time-Life, as well as a manuscript by James Phelan, who was ghostwriting memoirs of Noah Dietrich, former business manager to Hughes.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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