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Encyclopedia > Cleves
Map of Germany showing Cleves
Map of Germany showing Cleves


Cleves (in German Kleve, sometimes used in English as well; Dutch: Kleef) is a city in the north-west of North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany, near the Dutch border and the river Rhine, at 51°47′N 6°11′E. Population: 49,398 (2002), Area 97.72 km². Today it belongs to and is capital of the district of Cleves. Image File history File links Lage_der_Stadt_Kleve_in_Deutschland. ... North Rhine-Westphalia (German: Nordrhein-Westfalen, short: NRW) is the largest in population (though only fourth in area) among Germanys 16 federal states. ... At 1,320 kilometres (820 miles) and an average discharge of more than 2,000 cubic meters per second, the Rhine (German Rhein, French Rhin, Dutch Rijn, Romansch: Rein, Italian: Reno) is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... Cleves (Kleve in German and these days also usually in English) is a Kreis (local-government district) in northwestern North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ...


History

The name Cleves derives from the word cliff (German Kliff), as the Schwanenburg (English: Swan Castle), where the dukes of Cleves resided, was founded on a steep hill. The old castle has a massive tower, the Schwanenturm 180 feet high, that is associated in legend with the Knights of the Swan, immortalized in Richard Wagner's Lohengrin. The story of the Knight of the Swan, or Swan Knight, is a medieval myth about a mysterious rescuer who comes in a swan-drawn boat to defend a damsel, his only condition being that he must never be asked his name. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (May 22, 1813 in Leipzig – February 13, 1883 in Venice) was an influential German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his groundbreaking symphonic-operas (or music dramas). His compositions are notable for their continuous contrapuntal texture, rich harmonies and orchestration, and elaborate... Lohengrin is a romantic opera in three acts by Richard Wagner. ...


Medieval Cleves grew together from four parts — the castle Schwanenburg, the village below the castle, the first city of Cleves on the Heideberg hill, and the Neustadt ("New City") from the 14th century. In 1242 Cleves received city rights. The Duchy of Cleves, which roughly covered today's districts Cleves, Wesel and Duisburg, was united with the Duchy of Mark in 1368, was made a duchy itself in 1417, and then united with the neighboring duchies of Jülich and Berg in 1521, when Duke Johann III of Cleves, married Mary, the heiress of Jülich-Berg-Ravenburg. This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right}. It is housed in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was that century which lasted from 1301 to... // Events April 5 - During a battle on the ice of Chudskoye Lake, Russian forces rebuff an invasion attempt by the Teutonic Knights. ... The Duchy of Cleves (Herzogtum Kleve) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire in present Germany (part of North Rhine-Westphalia) and the Netherlands (parts of Limburg, Noord-Brabant and Gelderland). ... Wesel is a Kreis (district) in the norther-western part of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Duisburg is a German city in the western part of the Ruhr Area (Ruhrgebiet) in North Rhine-Westphalia. ... Mark was a medieval territory in todays North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Events Timur ascends throne of Samarkand. ... The Duchy of Jülich was a state of the Holy Roman Empire in present Germany (part of North Rhine-Westphalia) and the Netherlands (part of Limburg). ... John III The Peaceful, Duke of Kleve-Mark, (Johann III Der Friedfertige, Herzog von Kleve-Jülich-Berg) (10 November 1490 - 6 February 1538/9) was a son of Johann II der Kindermacher Duke of Kleve-Mark and Matilda von Hessen. ...


Perhaps, Cleves' most famous native is Anne of Cleves (1515-1557), daughter of John III, Duke of Cleves and wife of Henry VIII of England. Anne of Cleves also known as The Mare of Flanders (see below) (September 22, 1515 – July 16, 1557) was the queen consort of Henry VIII of England from January 6, 1540 to July 9, 1540. ... // Events June - Invasion of Persia by Sultan Selim I of the Ottoman Empire. ... Events Spain is effectively bankrupt. ... John III The Peaceful, Duke of Kleve-Mark, (Johann III Der Friedfertige, Herzog von Kleve-Jülich-Berg) (10 November 1490 - 6 February 1538/9) was a son of Johann II der Kindermacher Duke of Kleve-Mark and Matilda von Hessen. ... Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ...


The local line became extinct in the male line in 1609, when Cleves passed to the son-in-law, the elector of Brandenburg and became an exclave of the territory of Prussia. // Events April 4 – King of Spain signs an edit of expulsion of all moriscos from Spain April 9 – Spain recognizes Dutch independence May 23 - Official ratification of the Second Charter of Virginia. ... Surrounding but excluding the national capital Berlin, Brandenburg is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ... D is Bs exclave, but is not an enclave. ...


The mineral waters of Cleves and the wooded parkland surrounding it made it a fashionable spa in the 19th century. The term spa is traditionally used to mean a place where water that is believed to have special health-giving properties occurs. ...


Cleves suffered heavy bombing during the Second World War, with over 90% of buildings in the city severely damaged. As a result, relatively little of the pre-1945 City remains, although the Schwanenburg and the Stiftskirche, the Catholic Parish church, do remain and positioned as they are on top of a hill, dominate the surrounding flat countryside for many miles. World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrination, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons such as the atom bomb. ... A parish is a type of administrative subdivision. ... A church building (or simply church) is a building used in Christian worship. ...


Since 1953 there has been a broadcasting facility for FM radio and television from regional broadcaster WDR near Cleves. It uses as aerial mast a 126.4 metre high guyed steel tube mast with a diametre of 1.6 metres, which is guyed 57 and 101.6 metres above ground. This mast replaced the old radio mast from the 1960s, which was used until 1993, additionally for transmissions in the medium wave range. 1953 (MCMLIII) is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Roberts FM radio FM radio is a broadcast technology invented by Edwin Howard Armstrong that uses frequency modulation to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio. ... The Westdeutsche Rundfunk (WDR) is a public broadcaster in the German Bundesland North Rhine-Westphalia with its main office is in Köln. ... The 1960s in its most obvious sense refers to the decade between 1960 and 1969, but the expression has taken on a wider meaning over the past twenty years. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... Mediumwave radio transmissions (sometimes called Medium frequency or MF) are those between the frequencies of 300 kHz and 3000 kHz. ...


See also

The Duchy of Cleves (Herzogtum Kleve) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire in present Germany (part of North Rhine-Westphalia) and the Netherlands (parts of Limburg, Noord-Brabant and Gelderland). ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... Events March 6 - Battle of St. ... August 23 is the 235th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (236th in leap years), with 130 days remaining. ... ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Charles of Valois, Duc dOrléans (November 24, 1394 – January 5, 1465) became Duke of Orléans in 1407, following the murder of his father, Louis of Valois. ... Louis XII the Father of the People (French: Louis XII le Père du Peuple) (June 27, 1462 – January 1, 1515) was King of France 1498 – January 1, 1515. ... Anne of Cleves also known as The Mare of Flanders (see below) (September 22, 1515 – July 16, 1557) was the queen consort of Henry VIII of England from January 6, 1540 to July 9, 1540. ... Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... John III The Peaceful, Duke of Kleve-Mark, (Johann III Der Friedfertige, Herzog von Kleve-Jülich-Berg) (10 November 1490 - 6 February 1538/9) was a son of Johann II der Kindermacher Duke of Kleve-Mark and Matilda von Hessen. ... Engelbert of Cleves, Count of Nevers (ca. ...

External link

  • City of Kleve - Official city website

  Results from FactBites:
 
Cleves - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (511 words)
Cleves (in German Kleve, sometimes used in English as well; Dutch: Kleef) is a city in the north-west of North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany, near the Dutch border and the river Rhine, at 51°47′ N 6°11′ E.
The Duchy of Cleves, which roughly covered today's districts Cleves, Wesel and Duisburg, was united with the Duchy of Mark in 1368, was made a duchy itself in 1417, and then united with the neighboring duchies of Jülich and Berg in 1521, when Duke Johann III of Cleves, married Mary, the heiress of Jülich-Berg-Ravenburg.
Mary of Cleves (19 September 1426 23 August 23, 1487, Chauny, Picardie), the daughter of Adolf of Cleves (1316 - 1425) and Mary of Burgundy.
CLEVES - LoveToKnow Article on CLEVES (498 words)
Cleve or Kleve), a town of Germany in the kingdom of Prussia, formerly the capital of the duchy of its own name, 46 m.
With it is associated the legend of the Knights of the Swan, immortalized in Wagners Lohen grin.
The French held Cleves from 1757 to 1762 and in 1795 the part of the duchy on the left bank of the Rhine was ceded to France; the remaining portion suffered a similar fate in 1805.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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