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Encyclopedia > Cleveland in the Civil War
A photograph taken on Public Square of hundreds of Cleveland veterans from the American Civil War in 1865
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A photograph taken on Public Square of hundreds of Cleveland veterans from the American Civil War in 1865

Cleveland, Ohio, was an important Northern city during the American Civil War. It provided thousands of troops to the Union Army, as well as millions of dollars in supplies, equipment, food, and support to the soldiers. Image File history File links Civilwar-cleveland. ... Image File history File links Civilwar-cleveland. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert Edward Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Nickname: The Forest City Motto: Progress and Prosperity Location in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, USA Coordinates: Country United States State Ohio County Cuyahoga Founded 1796 Incorporated 1836 Mayor Frank G. Jackson (D) Area    - City 82. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert Edward Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ...

Contents

Public sentiment on the war

Prior to the Civil War, residents of Cleveland, Ohio, viewed the slaveholding South based on political affiliation. While a majority of Clevelanders tended to side with the abolitionist North, not all of them loathed slavery, nor were all convinced that a civil war would resolve ideological differences between North and South. As the 1860 election year approached and impending clouds of war loomed, Cleveland's newspapers reflected divisions in the city. For example, The Cleveland Herald and Gazette and The Cleveland Leader, both largely Republican papers, argued that Southern injustices had driven John Brown to raid Harpers Ferry in October 1859. The Plain Dealer, a largely Democratic publication, blamed Brown and abolitionist Republicans for the raid. Nickname: The Forest City Motto: Progress and Prosperity Location in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, USA Coordinates: Country United States State Ohio County Cuyahoga Founded 1796 Incorporated 1836 Mayor Frank G. Jackson (D) Area    - City 82. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Southern United States The states shown in dark red are usually included in the South, while all or portions of the striped states may or may not be considered part of the Southern United States. ... This article is about the abolition of slavery. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... List of civil wars List of divided nations List of fictional wars (including fictional civil wars) Wars of national liberation The Logic of Violence in Civil War What makes a civil war? The Wars of the Roses Information about the English civil war fought between 1455 and 1487. ... GOP redirects here. ... John Brown John Brown (May 9, 1800 – December 2, 1859) was an American abolitionist, the first white abolitionist to advocate and to practice insurrection as a means to the abolition of slavery. ... Harpers Ferry is the name of several places in the United States of America: Harpers Ferry, Iowa Harpers Ferry, West Virginia There was also John Browns raid on the armory at Harpers Ferry, West Virginia as well as a Battle of Harpers Ferry in the American Civil War. ... The Plain Dealer is the major daily newspaper of Cleveland, Ohio. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States; the other being the Republican Party. ...


Republican leader Abraham Lincoln spoke in the city during the 1859 gubernatorial election, and won 58% of the vote in 9 of 11 wards for the Presidency in 1860. As the secession crisis loomed closer, the partisan rhetoric of Cleveland newspapers became more and more heated. The Herald celebrated Lincoln's victory as one of right over wrong, of Unionists over secession-minded southern Democrats, while the Leader dismissed threats of the South's secession. The Plain Dealer, meanwhile, warned that secession was eminent. Lincoln came through Cleveland on his way to Washington, D.C. for his inauguration. When war finally did break out with the Confederate firing on Fort Sumter in April 1861, Cleveland's Democrats and Republicans decided to end their dispute and united to form the National Union party to support Lincoln's war effort. However, this coalition did not go untested. Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865), sometimes called Abe Lincoln and nicknamed Honest Abe, the Rail Splitter, and the Great Emancipator, was an American politician who served as the 16th President of the United States (1861 to 1865), and the first president from the Republican Party. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States; the other being the Republican Party. ... Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia. ... Fort Sumter, located in Charleston, South Carolina, harbor, was named after General Thomas Sumter. ...


Economic impact of the war

The Civil War years brought an economic boom to Cleveland. The city made the transition from a small town to an industrial giant. Railroad iron and gun-carriage axles were manfactured for military use. Due to the cutoff of Southern trade, Cleveland opened its first tobacco factory, T. Maxfield & Co., in 1862. The city's garment industry also began to prosper. The German Woolen Factory (also in 1862) became the first company to manufacture wool cloth in Cleveland. By 1865, its banks held $2.25 million in capital and $3.7 million in deposits. In 1863, 22% of all U.S. warships built for use on the Great Lakes were built in Cleveland. That figure increased by 1865 to 44%. Species Nicotiana acuminata Nicotiana alata Nicotiana attenuata Nicotiana benthamiana Nicotiana clevelandii Nicotiana excelsior Nicotiana forgetiana Nicotiana glauca Nicotiana glutinosa Nicotiana langsdorffii Nicotiana longiflora Nicotiana obtusifolia Nicotiana paniculata Nicotiana plumbagifolia Nicotiana quadrivalvis Nicotiana repanda Nicotiana rustica Nicotianasuaveolens Nicotiana sylvestris Nicotiana tabacum Nicotiana tomentosa Ref: ITIS 30562 as of August 26, 2005... The Great Lakes from space The Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ...


Civilian aid to the military centered around establishment and maintenance of the Soldiers' Aid Society of Northern Ohio (1861), the U.S. General Hospital (1862), Camp Taylor (1861), and Camp Cleveland (1862). Food, blankets, and reading material were provided by citizens to recruits at both military camps until government stores and equipment could be distributed.


Memorialization and lingering issues

When the war ended, Cleveland welcomed home troops after service in the field, treating them to a meal and a short welcoming ceremony on Public Square before they marched to Camp Cleveland for payment and discharge from the army. Those Clevelanders who died in the war were honored at Woodland Cemetery with the memorials commemorating the 7th Ohio Volunteer Infantry Regiment and the 23rd Ohio Volunteer Infantry Regiment. Another famous regiment with Cleveland ties was the 8th Ohio Infantry, which helped repel Pickett's Charge. In April 1865, the Lincoln funeral train stopped briefly in Cleveland, and his coffin was displayed on Public Square. In the United States, a town square is an area in the middle of a traditional town consisting of a park or plaza and surrounded by small shops. ... 23rd Ohio Infantry The 23rd Ohio Volunteer Infantry (OVI) was an infantry regiment that participated in the American Civil War. ... The 8th Ohio Volunteer Infantry (or 8th OVI) was an infantry regiment in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... Map of Picketts Charge, July 3, 1863. ...


The issue of full emancipation still lingered. The Herald and the Leader had supported the proposed Emancipation Proclamation of January 1, 1863, commending Lincoln for the "for the stalwart blow he struck for freedom and for the peace and future tranquility of the Union." The Plain Dealer, on the other hand, argued that the only purpose of the war was to preserve the Union and that making "citizens of the entire black population" would ultimately tarnish the white race. This French poster depicting the horrific conditions on slave ships was influential in mobilizing public opinion against slavery. ... The Emancipation Proclamation The Emancipation Proclamation was an executive decree by U.S. President Abraham Lincoln during that countrys Civil War, which declared the freedom of all slaves in those areas of the rebellious Confederate States of America that had not already returned to Union control. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar). ...


Following the war, the Soldier's and Sailors' Monument was erected in Public Square. The Soldiers and Sailors Monument in the southeast quadrant of Public Square in downtown Cleveland, Ohio is a monument to the Civil War soldier and sailors from Ohio. ...


See also

During the American Civil War, nearly 320,000 Ohioans served in the Union Army, more than any other northern state except New York and Pennsylvania. ... The Cleveland Civil War Roundtable is a nonprofit historical society and social group dedicated to the study and discussion of the Civil War (1861–1865). ...

References

  • Condon, George E., Yesterday's Cleveland ISBN 0-912458-73-9.
  • Miller, Carol Poh and Wheeler, Robert Anthony, Cleveland: A Concise History, 1796-1996 ISBN 0-253-21147-6.
  • Van Tassel, David D. and Grabowski, John J. (editors), The Encyclopedia Of Cleveland History Cleveland: Cleveland Bicentennial Commission, ISBN 0-253-33056-4.

 
 

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