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Encyclopedia > Cleveland
Cleveland, Ohio
Official flag of Cleveland, Ohio
Flag

Seal
Nickname: The Forest City
Motto: Progress & Prosperity
Location in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, USA
Coordinates: 41°28′56″N 81°40′11″W / 41.48222, -81.66972
Country United States
State Ohio
County Cuyahoga
Founded 1796
Incorporated 1814 (village)
  1836 (city)
Government
 - Mayor Frank G. Jackson (D)
Area [1]
 - City  82.4 sq mi (213.4 km²)
 - Land  77.6 sq mi (200.9 km²)
 - Water  4.8 sq mi (12.5 km²)
Elevation [2]  653 ft (199 m)
Population (2000)[1]
 - City 478,403
 - Density 6,166.5/sq mi (2,380.9/km²)
 - Metro 2,250,871
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 - Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
Area code(s) 216
Website: www.city.cleveland.oh.us

Cleveland is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Cuyahoga County, the most populous county in the state. The municipality is located in northeastern Ohio on the southern shore of Lake Erie, approximately 60 miles (100 km) west of the Pennsylvania border. It was founded in 1796 near the mouth of the Cuyahoga River, and became a manufacturing center owing to its location at the head of numerous canals and railroad lines. With the decline of heavy manufacturing, Cleveland's businesses have diversified into the service economy, including the financial services, insurance, and healthcare sectors. Cleveland is also noted for its association with rock music. The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame is located here.[3] NASA image of Greater Cleveland and Lake Erie Greater Cleveland is a nickname for the metropolitan area surrounding Cleveland in Ohio. ... Cleveland is the name of a number of places around the world, and also some people. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1705x1281, 623 KB) Summary View of Downtown Cleveland Skyline, taken from the Superior Viaduct. ... Image File history File links Cleveland_Municipal_Flag. ... Municipal Flag of the City of Cleveland The municipal flag of Cleveland serves as the representative banner of the city of Cleveland, Ohio. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article or section seems to contain too many examples (or of a poor quality) for an encyclopedia entry. ... The Forest City is a nickname or alternate toponym for Cleveland, Ohio. ... A motto (from Italian) is a phrase or a short list of words meant formally to describe the general motivation or intention of an entity, social group, or organization. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1080x720, 74 KB)Made using US Census Bureau Data. ... Cuyahoga County is a county located in the state of Ohio. ... Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The political units and divisions of the United States include: The 50 states, which are... Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... Listed are the 88 counties of the state of Ohio. ... Cuyahoga County is a county located in the state of Ohio. ... Masouleh village, Gilan Province, Iran. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... Frank George Jackson (born October 4, 1946) is an American politician of the Democratic Party. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude and geographical regions, we list here areas between 100 km² and 1000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... The Eastern Standard Time Zone is a geographic region that keeps time by subtracting five hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). ... -12 | -11 | -10 | -9:30 | -9 | -8 | -7 | -6 | -5 | -4 | -3:30 | -3 | -2:30 | -2 | -1 | -0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... Though DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Eastern Daylight Time or EDT is equal to: In North America, Eastern Standard Time + 1, or UTC − 4 hours. ... −12 | −11 | −10 | −9:30 | −9 | −8 | −7 | −6 | −5 | −4 | −3:30 | −3 | −2:30 | −2 | −1 | −0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... Area code 216 is the telephone area code serving the state of Ohio. ... Look up city, City in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the... Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... A county seat is a term for an administrative center for a county, primarily used in the United States. ... Cuyahoga County is a county located in the state of Ohio. ... Lake Erie (pronounced ) is the tenth largest lake on Earth[2] and, of the five Great Lakes of North America, is the fourth largest by surface area, the southernmost, shallowest, and smallest by volume. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... ‹ The template below (Unit of length) is being considered for deletion. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... The Cuyahoga River (IPA pronunciation: , or kuy-a-HAW-ga, locally kie-uh-HOE-guh) is located in Northeast Ohio in the United States. ... Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ... For other uses, see Canal (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Heavy industry does not have a single fixed meaning compared to light industry. ... The tertiary sector of industry (also known as the service sector or the service industry) is one of the three main industrial categories of a developed economy, the others being the secondary industry (manufacturing), and primary industry (extraction such as mining, agriculture and fishing). ... Insurance, in law and economics, is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent loss. ... Health care in the United States is provided by many separate legal entities. ... For other uses, see Rock music (disambiguation). ... The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame at sunset. ...


As of the 2000 Census, the city proper had a total population of 478,403, making it the 33rd largest city in the nation[4] and the second largest city in Ohio. It is the center of Greater Cleveland, the largest metropolitan area in Ohio, which spans several counties and is defined in several different ways by the Census Bureau. The Cleveland-Elyria-Mentor Metropolitan Statistical Area has 2,250,871 people and is the 23rd largest in the country, according to the 2000 Census. Cleveland is also part of the larger Cleveland-Akron-Elyria Combined Statistical Area, which is the 14th largest in the country with a population of 2,945,831 according to the 2000 Census.[5] 2000 US Census logo The Twenty-Second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ... NASA image of Greater Cleveland and Lake Erie Greater Cleveland is a nickname for the metropolitan area surrounding Cleveland in Ohio. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... Old county building. ... Mentor is a city in Lake County, Ohio, United States. ... In the United States, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has produced a formal definition of metropolitan areas. ... Nickname: The Rubber Capital of the World Location within the state of Ohio Country United States State Ohio County Summit Founded 1825 Incorporated 1835 (village) - 1865 (city) Government  - Mayor Don Plusquellic (D) Area  - City  62. ... The United States Office of Management and Budget (OMB) defines micropolitan and metropolitan statistical areas. ...


In studies conducted by The Economist in 2005, Cleveland and Pittsburgh were ranked as the most livable cities in the United States,[6] and the city was ranked as the best city for business meetings in the continental U.S.[7] Nevertheless, the city faces continuing challenges, in particular from concentrated poverty in some neighborhoods and difficulties in the funding and delivery of high-quality public education.[8] The Economist is a weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London, UK. It has been in continuous publication since September 1843. ... “Pittsburgh” redirects here. ... The well-being or quality of life of a population is an important concern in economics and political science. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... // Public education is education mandated for the children of the general public by the government, whether national, regional, or local, provided by an institution of civil government, and paid for, in whole or in part, by taxes. ...


Residents of Cleveland are usually referred to as "Clevelanders". Nicknames used for the city include "The Forest City", "Metropolis of the Western Reserve", "The New American City", "America's North Coast", "Sixth City", "The Land", and "C-Town".[9] The following is a list of people from Cleveland, Ohio: Steven Adler Corey Allen Ray Anthony Albert Ayler Avant Jim Backus LeCharles Bentley Halle Berry Earl Billings David Birney Nina Blackwood Hanne Blank Earl Boykins Jim Brickman Jim Brown Charles Brush Eliza Bryant, (1827-May 13, 1907), humanitarian Ken Cameron... The Forest City is a nickname or alternate toponym for Cleveland, Ohio. ...

Contents

History

Map of Cleveland in 1904
Map of Cleveland in 1904

Cleveland obtained its name on July 22, 1796 when surveyors of the Connecticut Land Company laid out Connecticut's Western Reserve into townships and a capital city they named "Cleaveland" after their leader, General Moses Cleaveland. Cleaveland oversaw the plan for the modern downtown area, centering on the Public Square, before returning home, never again to visit Ohio. The first settler in Cleaveland was Lorenzo Carter, who built a cabin on the banks of the Cuyahoga River. The Village of Cleaveland was incorporated on December 23, 1814. The spelling of the city's name was later changed to "Cleveland" when, in 1831, an "a" was dropped so the name could fit a newspaper's masthead.[10] A photograph of the Euclid Avenue Arcade entrance from 1928 This article chronicles the history of Cleveland, Ohio. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1576x1154, 843 KB) Summary 1904 map of Cleveland, Ohio source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1576x1154, 843 KB) Summary 1904 map of Cleveland, Ohio source: http://www. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1796 (MDCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Connecticut Land Company was formed in the late eighteenth century to survey and encourage settlement in the Connecticut Western Reserve, part of the Old Northwest Territory. ... Official language(s) English Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport Largest metro area Hartford Area  Ranked 48th  - Total 5,543[2] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... Connecticuts land claims in the West The Connecticut Western Reserve was land claimed by Connecticut in the Northwest Territory in what is now northeastern Ohio. ... The City of Cleveland, Ohio was named after Moses Cleaveland, a surveyor of the Connecticut Land Company. ... In the United States, a town square is an area in the middle of a traditional town consisting of a park or plaza and surrounded by small shops. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ...


In spite of the nearby swampy lowlands and harsh winters, its waterfront location proved providential. The area began rapid growth after the 1832 completion of the Ohio and Erie Canal. This key link between the Ohio River and the Great Lakes connected the city to the Atlantic Ocean via the St. Lawrence Seaway and the Gulf of Mexico via the Mississippi River. Growth continued with added railroad links.[11] Cleveland incorporated as a city in 1836.[10] The Ohio and Erie Canal in 1902 The Ohio and Erie Canal was constructed in the early 1800s and connected the Ohio River at Portsmouth and Lake Erie at Cleveland, Ohio. ... View of Pittsburgh, the largest metropolitan area on the Ohio River, where the Allegheny River (left) and the Monongahela River (right) join at Point State Park to form the Ohio River Cincinnati, Ohio is a well known city along the Ohio River, historically known for its riverboats. ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... The Saint Lawrence Seaway in its broadest sense (see Great Lakes Waterway) is the system of canals that permits ocean-going vessels to travel from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes as far as Lake Superior. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ...


In 1836, the city, then located only on the eastern banks of the Cuyahoga River, nearly erupted into open warfare with neighboring Ohio City over a bridge connecting the two.[12] Ohio City remained an independent municipality until it was annexed by Cleveland in 1854.[10] The site flourished as a halfway point for iron ore from Minnesota shipped across the Great Lakes and other raw materials (coal) carried by rail from the south. Cleveland emerged as a major American manufacturing center, home to numerous major steel producers. By 1920, Standard Oil founder John D. Rockefeller had made his fortune and Cleveland had become the fifth largest city in the country.[10] The city was a center for the national progressive movement, headed locally by Mayor Tom L. Johnson. Many Clevelanders of this era are buried in the historic Lake View Cemetery, along with James A. Garfield, the twentieth U.S. President.[13] Ohio City (City of Ohio) Originally part of Brooklyn Township, Ohio City, is one of Cleveland, Ohios oldest neighborhoods, Located immediately to the west of the Cuyahoga River. ... Ceremonies during the annexation of Hawaii. ... This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... Standard Oil (Esso) was a predominant integrated oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing company. ... John Davison Rockefeller, Sr. ... In the United States, the Progressive Era was a period of reform which lasted from the 1890s through the 1920s. ... Tom Loftin Johnson (July 18, 1854–April 10, 1911) was an American politician of the Democratic Party from the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Lakeview Cemetary, Cleveland, Ohio Founded in 1869, Lake View Cemetery sits on 285 acres (1. ... James Abram Garfield (November 19, 1831–September 19, 1881) was a major general in the United States Army, member of the U.S. House of Representatives, and the twentieth President of the United States. ... For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ...

The Cuyahoga River winds through the Flats in a December 1937 aerial view of downtown Cleveland.
The Cuyahoga River winds through the Flats in a December 1937 aerial view of downtown Cleveland.

In commemoration of the centennial of Cleveland's incorporation as a city, the Great Lakes Exposition debuted in June 1936 along the Lake Erie shore north of downtown. Conceived as a way to energize a city hit hard by the Great Depression, it drew 4 million visitors in its first season, and 7 million by the end of its second and final season in September 1937.[14] The exposition was housed on grounds that are now used by the Great Lakes Science Center, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Burke Lakefront Airport, among others.[15] Download high resolution version (1422x1080, 350 KB)Downtown Cleveland, Ohio, in winter, from the air. ... Download high resolution version (1422x1080, 350 KB)Downtown Cleveland, Ohio, in winter, from the air. ... The Cuyahoga River (IPA pronunciation: , or kuy-a-HAW-ga, locally kie-uh-HOE-guh) is located in Northeast Ohio in the United States. ... The Flats is a mixed-use industrial, entertainment, and increasingly residential area of Cleveland, Ohio, USA. The area was given its name due to its mostly flat appearance and is defined as being the lower lying areas that line the banks of the Cuyahoga River. ... Panorama of Cleveland in 1909 Downtown Cleveland in 2006 Downtown Cleveland is the central business district of the City of Cleveland and Northeast Ohio. ... A centennial is a 100-year anniversary of an event, or the celebrations pertaining thereto. ... Obverse of commemorative half dollar showing Moses Cleaveland Reverse of commemorative half dollar showing the exposition logo The Great Lakes Exposition was held in Cleveland, Ohio, in the summers of 1936 and 1937, along the Lake Erie shore north of downtown. ... Lake Erie (pronounced ) is the tenth largest lake on Earth[2] and, of the five Great Lakes of North America, is the fourth largest by surface area, the southernmost, shallowest, and smallest by volume. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... The Great Lakes Science Center is a museum and educational facility in downtown Cleveland, Ohio. ... The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame at sunset. ... Burke Lakefront Airport -- see Cleveland Burke Lakefront Airport. ...


Immediately after World War II, the city experienced a brief boom. In sports, the Indians won the 1948 World Series and the Browns dominated professional football in the 1950s. Businesses proclaimed that Cleveland was the "best location in the nation".[16] The city's population reached its peak of 914,808, and in 1949 Cleveland was named an All-America City for the first time.[17] By the 1960s, however, heavy industries began to slump, and residents sought new housing in the suburbs, reflecting the national trends of white flight and urban sprawl. Like other major American cities, Cleveland also began witnessing racial unrest, culminating in the Hough Riots from July 18, 1966July 23, 1966 and the Glenville Shootout on July 23, 1968July 25, 1968. The city's nadir is often considered to be its default on its loans on December 15, 1978, when under Mayor Dennis Kucinich it became the first major American city to enter default since the Great Depression.[10] National media began referring to Cleveland as "the mistake on the lake" around this time, in reference to the city's financial difficulties, a notorious 1969 fire on the Cuyahoga River (where industrial waste on the river's surface caught on fire), and its struggling professional sports teams.[18] The city has worked to shed this nickname ever since, though in recent times the national media have been much kinder to the city, using it as an exemplar for public-private partnerships, downtown revitalization, and urban renaissance.[19] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The 1948 World Series matched the Cleveland Indians, who had won the American League pennant in a one-game playoff against the Boston Red Sox, and the Boston Braves, who had won the National League pennant for the first time since the Miracle Braves team of 1914. ... “Browns” redirects here. ... NFL redirects here. ... All-America City Program Logo The All-America City Award is given by the National Civic League annually to ten cities in the United States. ... White flight is a term for the demographic trend where working- and middle-class white people move away from increasingly racially mixed inner-city neighborhoods to predominantly white suburbs and exurbs. ... Urban sprawl (also: suburban sprawl) is the spreading out of a city and its suburbs over rural land at the fringe of an urban area. ... The Hough Riots, were race riots in the predominantly black community of Hough in Cleveland, Ohio that took place over a six-night period from July 18 to July 23, 1966. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... The Glenville Shootout was a violent series of events that occurred from July 23, 1968 to July 28, 1968 in Cleveland, Ohio. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In finance, default occurs when a debtor has not met its legal obligations according to the debt contract, e. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Dennis John Kucinich (born October 8, 1946) is an American politician of the Democratic party and a candidate for President of the United States in both 2004 and 2008. ... The Cuyahoga River (IPA pronunciation: , or kuy-a-HAW-ga, locally kie-uh-HOE-guh) is located in Northeast Ohio in the United States. ... Public-private partnership (PPP) is a system in which a government service or private business venture is funded and operated through a partnership of government and one or more private sector companies. ... Urban Renaissance is a term used to describe the recent period of repopulation and regeneration of many British cities, including, Bristol, Cardiff, Glasgow, Leeds, Manchester, and parts of London after a period of suburbanisation during the mid-20th century. ...

The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and the Cleveland skyline
The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and the Cleveland skyline

The metropolitan area began recovery thereafter under Mayors George Voinovich and Michael R. White. Redevelopment within the city limits has been strongest in the downtown area near the Gateway complex—consisting of Jacobs Field and Quicken Loans Arena, and near North Coast Harbor—including the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, Cleveland Browns Stadium, and the Great Lakes Science Center. Although Cleveland was hailed by the media as the "Comeback City,"[20] many of the inner-city residential neighborhoods remain troubled, and the public school system continues to experience serious problems. Economic development, retention of young professionals, and capitalizing upon its waterfront are current municipal priorities.[21] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame at sunset. ... George Victor Voinovich (born July 15, 1936) is an American politician of the Republican Party. ... Michael R. White (born August 13, 1951) is an American politician of the Democratic party and the 55th and longest-serving mayor of Cleveland, Ohio encompassing three four-year terms, from 1990 to 2001. ... The Gateway Sports and Entertainment Complex, located in Cleveland, Ohio, consists of Jacobs Field and Gund Arena. ... Jacobs Field (informally called The Jake) is a baseball stadium located in the middle of downtown Cleveland, Ohio. ... Quicken Loans Arena (aka The Q) is a multipurpose arena in downtown Cleveland, Ohio, USA. Until August 2005, it was known as Gund Arena, named for Gordon Gund, a former owner of the Cavaliers, after he paid for the naming rights. ... North Coast Harbor is a district in downtown Cleveland, Ohio on the shore of Lake Erie. ... The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame at sunset. ... Entrance ramp of the stadium Cleveland Browns Stadium is a football stadium located in Cleveland, Ohio ( ). It is the home of the Cleveland Browns NFL franchise. ... The Great Lakes Science Center is a museum and educational facility in downtown Cleveland, Ohio. ... Economic development is a sustainable increase in living standards that implies increased per capita income, better education and health as well as environmental protection. ... This article is about the emigration term. ...


Geography

Topography

Panorama of Public Square in 1912
Panorama of Public Square in 1912

Cleveland is located at 41°28′56″N, 81°40′11″W.GR1 According to the United States Census Bureau,[1] the city has a total area of 82.4 square miles (213.5 km²), of which, 77.6 square miles (201.0 km²) is land and 4.8 square miles (12.5 km²) is water. The total area is 5.87% water. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1979x420, 324 KB) Summary 1912 panorama of Public Square in Cleveland, Ohio Source: American Memory Project, U.S. Library of Congress Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Cleveland, Ohio Category: Images of Cleveland, Ohio ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1979x420, 324 KB) Summary 1912 panorama of Public Square in Cleveland, Ohio Source: American Memory Project, U.S. Library of Congress Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Cleveland, Ohio Category: Images of Cleveland, Ohio ... In the United States, a town square is an area in the middle of a traditional town consisting of a park or plaza and surrounded by small shops. ... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ...


The shore of Lake Erie is 569 feet (173 m) above sea level; however, the city lies on a series of irregular bluffs lying roughly parallel to the lake. In Cleveland these bluffs are cut principally by the Cuyahoga River, Big Creek, and Euclid Creek. The land rises quickly from the lakeshore. Public Square, less than a mile (2 km) inland, sits at an elevation of 650 feet (198 m), and Hopkins Airport, only five miles (8 km) inland from the lake, is at an elevation of 791 feet (241 m).[22] Lake Erie (pronounced ) is the tenth largest lake on Earth[2] and, of the five Great Lakes of North America, is the fourth largest by surface area, the southernmost, shallowest, and smallest by volume. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... The term above mean sea level (AMSL) refers to the elevation (on the ground) or altitude (in the air) of any object, relative to the average sea level. ... The Cuyahoga River (IPA pronunciation: , or kuy-a-HAW-ga, locally kie-uh-HOE-guh) is located in Northeast Ohio in the United States. ... In the United States, a town square is an area in the middle of a traditional town consisting of a park or plaza and surrounded by small shops. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... ‹ The template below (Unit of length) is being considered for deletion. ...


Climate

Monthly normal and record high and low temperatures[23]
Mon. Avg.
High
Avg.
Low
Avg. Rec.
High
Rec.
Low

Jan 33 °F 19 °F 26 °F 73 °F -20 °F
Feb 36 °F 21 °F 29 °F 74 °F -16 °F
Mar 46 °F 29 °F 38 °F 83 °F -5 °F
Apr 57 °F 38 °F 48 °F 88 °F 10 °F
May 69 °F 48 °F 59 °F 92 °F 25 °F
Jun 77 °F 58 °F 68 °F 104 °F 31 °F
Jul 81 °F 62 °F 72 °F 103 °F 41 °F
Aug 79 °F 61 °F 70 °F 102 °F 38 °F
Sep 72 °F 54 °F 63 °F 101 °F 32 °F
Oct 61 °F 44 °F 52 °F 90 °F 19 °F
Nov 49 °F 35 °F 42 °F 82 °F 3 °F
Dec 37 °F 25 °F 31 °F 77 °F -15 °F

Cleveland possesses a humid continental climate (Koppen climate classification Dfa), typical of much of the central United States, with hot, humid summers and cold, snowy winters. The Lake Erie shoreline is very close to due east-west from the mouth of the Cuyahoga west to Sandusky, but at the mouth of the Cuyahoga it turns sharply northeast. This feature is the principal contributor to the lake effect snow that is typical in Cleveland (especially east side) weather from mid-November until the surface of Lake Erie freezes, usually in late January or early February. The lake effect causes snowfall totals to range greatly across the city: while Hopkins Airport has only reached 100 inches (254 cm) of snowfall in a given season three times since 1968,[24] seasonal totals approaching or exceeding 100 inches are not uncommon in an area known as the "Snow Belt", extending from the east side of Cleveland proper through the eastern suburbs and up the Lake Erie shore as far as Buffalo, New York. The humid continental climate is a climate found over large areas of land masses in the temperate regions of the mid-latitudes where there is a zone of conflict between polar and tropical air masses. ... The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. ... For other uses, see Summer (disambiguation). ... Winter is one of the four seasons of temperate zones. ... Aerial view of Sandusky, Ohio on Sandusky Bay Muddy brown water fills Sandusky Bay, just south of Lake Erie in this astronaut photograph. ... Lake-effect precipitation coming off the Great Lakes, as seen from NEXRAD. Lake effect snow, which can be a type of snowsquall, is produced in the winter when cold, artic dry winds move across long expanses of warmer lake water, picking up water vapor which freezes and is deposited on... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... A centimetre (American spelling centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of length that is equal to one hundredth of a metre, the current SI base unit of length. ... A snowbelt is a region, many of which lie downwind of the Great Lakes, where heavy snowfall is particularly common. ... Nickname: Location of Buffalo in New York State County Government  - Mayor Byron Brown (D) Area  - City 52. ...


The all-time record high in Cleveland of 104 °F (40 °C) was established on June 25, 1988, and the all-time record low of −20 °F (−29 °C) was set on January 19, 1994.[23] On average, July is the warmest month with a mean temperature of 71.9 °F (22.2 °C), and January, with a mean temperature of 25.7 °F (−3.5 °C), is the coldest. Normal yearly precipitation based on the 30-year average from 1971 to 2000 is 38.7 inches (930 mm).[25] For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... The degree Celsius (symbol: °C) is an SI derived unit of temperature. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ...


Cityscape

Architecture

Cleveland's downtown architecture is diverse. Many of the city's government and civic buildings, including City Hall, the Cuyahoga County Courthouse, the Cleveland Public Library, and Public Auditorium, are clustered around an open mall and share a common neoclassical architecture. Built in the early 20th century, they are the result of the 1903 Group Plan, and constitute one of the most complete examples of City Beautiful design in the United States.[26] The Terminal Tower, dedicated in 1930, was the tallest building in the United States outside New York City until 1967 and the tallest in the city until 1991.[27] It is a prototypical Beaux-Arts skyscraper. The two newer skyscrapers on Public Square, Key Tower (currently the tallest building in Ohio) and the BP Building, combine elements of Art Deco architecture with postmodern designs. Another of Cleveland's architectural treasures is The Arcade (sometimes called the Old Arcade), a five-story arcade built in 1890 and renovated in 2001 as a Hyatt Regency Hotel.[28] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2559x660, 301 KB) Summary View of Cleveland, Ohio skyline from Cliff Drive, Cleveland. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2559x660, 301 KB) Summary View of Cleveland, Ohio skyline from Cliff Drive, Cleveland. ... Panorama of Cleveland in 1909 Downtown Cleveland in 2006 Downtown Cleveland is the central business district of the City of Cleveland and Northeast Ohio. ... The Cleveland Public Library was founded in 1869 and is located in Cleveland, Ohio. ... Public Auditorium (sometimes called Public Hall) is located in the central business district of downtown Cleveland, Ohio. ... View of the Mall, looking north, towards Lake Erie. ... The neoclassical movement that produced Neoclassical architecture began in the mid-18th century, both as a reaction against the Rococo style of anti-tectonic naturalistic ornament, and an outgrowth of some classicizing features of Late Baroque. ... View of the Mall, looking north, towards Lake Erie. ... The City Beautiful movement was a Progressive reform movement in North American architecture and urban planning that flourished in the 1890s and 1900s with the intent of using beautification and monumental grandeur in cities to counteract the perceived moral decay of poverty-stricken urban environments. ... The Terminal Tower complex in 1987 Lobby off of Public Square Construction workers building the Terminal Tower in 1927 The Terminal Tower is a landmark skyscraper located on Public Square in downtown Cleveland, Ohio. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Beaux-Arts architecture[1] denotes the academic classical architectural style that was taught at the École des Beaux Arts in Paris. ... For other uses, see Skyscraper (disambiguation). ... View of the Key Tower from the BP Tower, with The Mall, Cleveland Browns Stadium, and Lake Erie in the background Key Tower is a skyscraper in Cleveland, Ohio designed by architect César Pelli. ... The BP America Building The BP America Building (also known as the Sohio Building, the BP America Tower, 200 Public Square, or simply the BP Building) is the third tallest skyscraper in Cleveland, Ohio. ... Asheville City Hall. ... 1000 de La Gauchetière, with ornamented and strongly defined top, middle and bottom. ... The Cleveland Arcade in downtown Cleveland (late 1960s) The Arcade in Cleveland, Ohio was built in 1890 and is a unique architectural treasure of 19th century urban America. ... For other uses, see Arcade. ... Looking up inside the 32-story atrium of the Shanghai Grand Hyatt, part of the Jin Mao Building. ...

Running east from Public Square through University Circle is Euclid Avenue, which was known for its prestige and elegance. In the late 1880s, writer Bayard Taylor described it as "the most beautiful street in the world."[29] Known as "Millionaire's Row", Euclid Avenue was world-renowned as the home of such internationally-known names as Rockefeller, Hanna, and Hay.[30] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x679, 523 KB) Summary http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x679, 523 KB) Summary http://www. ... The Tower City complex, with the Warehouse District and Lake Erie in the background. ... Now a hot night spot for twenty-somethings and urban professionals, Cleveland’s Warehouse District was once in serious disrepair after the businesses of its namesake had moved on. ... The Cuyahoga River (IPA pronunciation: , or kuy-a-HAW-ga, locally kie-uh-HOE-guh) is located in Northeast Ohio in the United States. ... Lake Erie (pronounced ) is the tenth largest lake on Earth[2] and, of the five Great Lakes of North America, is the fourth largest by surface area, the southernmost, shallowest, and smallest by volume. ... Euclid Avenue is a commonly found name applied to streets in American cities; however Cleveland, Ohio’s Euclid Avenue set the standard for the nation from the 1860s to the 1920s for beauty and sheer wealth. ... Bayard Taylor (James) (January 11, 1825 – December 19, 1878) U.S. writer, was born at Kennett Square in Chester County, Pennsylvania. ... John Davison Rockefeller, Sr. ... Marcus Alonzo Hanna (September 24, 1837 - February 15, 1904) was an American industrialist and politician from Cleveland, Ohio. ... John Milton Hay (October 8, 1838 – July 1, 1905) was an American statesman, diplomat, author, journalist, and private secretary and assistant to Abraham Lincoln. ...


Cleveland is home to four parks in the countywide Cleveland Metroparks system, the "Emerald Necklace" of Olmsted-inspired parks that encircles the region. In the Big Creek valley sits the Cleveland Metroparks Zoo, which contains the largest collection of primates of any zoo in the United States. The other three parks are Brookside Park and parts of the Rocky River and Washington Reservations. Apart from the Metroparks is Cleveland Lakefront State Park, which provides public access to Lake Erie. Among its six parks are Edgewater Park, located between the Shoreway and Lake Erie just west of downtown, and Euclid Beach Park and Gordon Park on the east side. The City of Cleveland's Rockefeller Park, with its many Cultural Gardens[31] honoring the city's ethnic groups, follows Doan Brook across the city's east side. This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... The Cleveland Metroparks are a system of nature preserves in Greater Cleveland that encircle the city of Cleveland. ... Frederick Law Olmsted (April 26, 1822 – August 28, 1903) was a United States landscape architect, famous for designing many well-known urban parks, including Central Park and Prospect Park in New York City. ... Sarah Allison Steffee Center for Zoological Medicine The Cleveland Metroparks Zoo is a zoo in Cleveland, Ohio. ... Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... The Cleveland Memorial Shoreway (often shortened to simply The Shoreway) is a controlled-access freeway in Cleveland, Ohio. ... Euclid Beach Park (1895—September 28, 1969) was an amusement park located on the Lake Erie shore in northeast Cleveland, Ohio. ...


Neighborhoods

Downtown Cleveland includes mixed-use neighborhoods such as the Flats and the Warehouse District, which are occupied by industrial and office buildings and also by restaurants and bars. The number of downtown housing units in the form of condominiums, lofts, and apartments has increased over the past ten years. This trend looks to continue with the recent revival of the Flats. The apartment and condominium project that was recently completed on the West Bank, Stonebridge Apartments, has been highly successful. The East Bank has its own redevelopment project underway orchestrated by Scott Wolstein of Developers Diversified Realty, Inc that looks only to enhance the Flats recent success. Panorama of Cleveland in 1909 Downtown Cleveland in 2006 Downtown Cleveland is the central business district of the City of Cleveland and Northeast Ohio. ... The Flats is a mixed-use industrial, entertainment, and increasingly residential area of Cleveland, Ohio, USA. The area was given its name due to its mostly flat appearance and is defined as being the lower lying areas that line the banks of the Cuyahoga River. ... Now a hot night spot for twenty-somethings and urban professionals, Cleveland’s Warehouse District was once in serious disrepair after the businesses of its namesake had moved on. ... This article refers to a form of housing. ... Loft apartments are apartments that are generally built into former industrial buildings. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

The west bank of the Flats and the Cuyahoga River in downtown Cleveland
The west bank of the Flats and the Cuyahoga River in downtown Cleveland

Cleveland residents often define themselves in terms of whether they live on the east side or the west side of the Cuyahoga River.[32] The east side comprises the following neighborhoods: Buckeye-Shaker Square, Central, Collinwood, Corlett, Euclid-Green, Fairfax, Forest Hills, Glenville, Payne/Goodrich-Kirtland Park, Hough, Kinsman, Lee Harvard/Seville-Miles, Mount Pleasant, Nottingham, St. Clair-Superior, Union-Miles Park, University Circle, Little Italy, and Woodland Hills. The west side of the city includes the following neighborhoods: Brooklyn Centre, Clark-Fulton, Detroit-Shoreway, Cudell, Edgewater, Ohio City, Old Brooklyn, Stockyards, West Boulevard, and the four neighborhoods colloquially known as West Park: Kamm's Corners, Jefferson, Puritas-Longmead, and Riverside. Three neighborhoods in the Cuyahoga Valley are sometimes referred to as the south side: Industrial Valley/Duck Island, Slavic Village (North and South Broadway), and Tremont. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3264x2448, 1786 KB) Summary This is my photo, that I took and would like to donate to public domain/release all rights. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3264x2448, 1786 KB) Summary This is my photo, that I took and would like to donate to public domain/release all rights. ... The Flats is a mixed-use industrial, entertainment, and increasingly residential area of Cleveland, Ohio, USA. The area was given its name due to its mostly flat appearance and is defined as being the lower lying areas that line the banks of the Cuyahoga River. ... The Cuyahoga River (IPA pronunciation: , or kuy-a-HAW-ga, locally kie-uh-HOE-guh) is located in Northeast Ohio in the United States. ... Panorama of Cleveland in 1909 Downtown Cleveland in 2006 Downtown Cleveland is the central business district of the City of Cleveland and Northeast Ohio. ... The Cuyahoga River (IPA pronunciation: , or kuy-a-HAW-ga, locally kie-uh-HOE-guh) is located in Northeast Ohio in the United States. ... The Shaker Mill Stone, which lies in Shaker Square Shaker Square is a neighborhood on the east side of Cleveland, Ohio which is centered around a shopping center and a stop on the rapid transit train line to downtown Cleveland at the intersection of Shaker and Moreland Boulevards. ... Collinwood is a neighborhood on the east side of Cleveland, Ohio annexed by the city in 1910. ... Glenville is a neighborhood in the Eastern section of Cleveland, Ohio. ... St. ... University Circle is a cultural, medical, educational and religious district on the east side of Cleveland, Ohio, occupying approximately 500 acres (2 km²) around the campus of Case Western Reserve University and the adjacent Wade Park Oval, and encompassing a large number of allied and independent institutions. ... Little Italy is a region of Cleveland, Ohio located at the base of Murray Hill, between Clevelands University Circle neighborhood and the suburb of Cleveland Heights. ... Detroit-Shoreway is a west side neighborhood of Cleveland, Ohio. ... Ohio City (City of Ohio) Originally part of Brooklyn Township, Ohio City, is one of Cleveland, Ohios oldest neighborhoods, Located immediately to the west of the Cuyahoga River. ... Old Brooklyn is a west side neighborhood of Cleveland, extending east-to-west from the Cuyahoga River to the City of Brooklyn and north-to-south from the Brookside Park Valley to the City of Parma. ... General Moses A. Cleaveland and his surveyors arrived on the east bank of the Cuyahoga River in July 1796. ... Slavic Village is a predominantly Eastern European neighborhood in Cleveland, Ohio. ...

Satellite photograph of Cleveland and its surrounding suburbs
Satellite photograph of Cleveland and its surrounding suburbs

Several inner-city neighborhoods have begun to gentrify in recent years. Areas on both the west side (Ohio City, Tremont, Detroit-Shoreway, and Edgewater) and the east side (Collinwood, Hough, Fairfax, and Little Italy) have been successful in attracting increasing numbers of creative class members, which in turn is spurring new residential development.[33] Furthermore, a live-work zoning overlay for the city's near east side has facilitated the transformation of old industrial buildings into loft spaces for artists.[34] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 545 pixelsFull resolution (3032 × 2064 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 545 pixelsFull resolution (3032 × 2064 pixel, file size: 1. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... The creative class is a group of people that social scientist Dr. Richard Florida, Hirst Professor of Public Policy at George Mason University, believes are a key driving force for economic development of post-industrial cities in the USA. The Creative Class concept is controversial, as is Floridas methodology. ... A typical zoning map; this one identifies the zones, or development districts, in the city of Ontario, California Zoning is a North American term for a system of land-use regulation. ...


Suburbs

Main article: Greater Cleveland

Cleveland's older inner-ring or "first" suburbs include Bedford, Bedford Heights, Brook Park, Brooklyn, Cleveland Heights, Cuyahoga Heights, East Cleveland, Euclid, Fairview Park, Garfield Heights, Lakewood, Maple Heights, Parma, Shaker Heights, South Euclid, University Heights, and Warrensville Heights. All are members of the Northeast Ohio First Suburbs Consortium.[35] NASA image of Greater Cleveland and Lake Erie Greater Cleveland is a nickname for the metropolitan area surrounding Cleveland in Ohio. ... Bedford is a city in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, United States. ... Bedford Heights is a city in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, United States. ... Brook Park is a suburb of Cleveland in Cuyahoga County, Ohio. ... Brooklyn is a city located in Cuyahoga County, Ohio. ... Cleveland Heights is a city located in Cuyahoga County, Ohio. ... Cuyahoga Heights is a village in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, United States. ... East Cleveland is a city located in Cuyahoga County, Ohio. ... Euclid is a city in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, United States. ... Fairview Park is a city located in Cuyahoga County, Ohio. ... Garfield Heights is a city in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, United States. ... Lakewood is a city in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, United States. ... Maple Heights is a city in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, United States. ... Parma is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio in Cuyahoga County and is the largest suburb of Cleveland. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... South Euclid (a suburb in the Greater Cleveland area) is a city located in Cuyahoga County, Ohio. ... University Heights is a city in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, United States. ... Warrensville Heights is a city in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, United States. ...


Culture

Entertainment and performing arts

Cleveland is home to Playhouse Square Center, the second largest performing arts center in the United States behind New York's Lincoln Center.[36] Playhouse Square includes the State, Palace, Allen, Hanna, and Ohio theaters within what is known as the Theater District of Downtown Cleveland.[37] Playhouse Square's resident performing arts companies include the Cleveland Opera, the Ohio Ballet, and the Great Lakes Theater Festival.[38] The center also hosts various Broadway musicals, special concerts, speaking engagements, and other events throughout the year. One Playhouse Square, now the headquarters for Cleveland's public broadcasters, was originally used as the broadcast studios of WJW Radio, where disc jockey Alan Freed first popularized the term "rock and roll".[39] Located between Playhouse Square and University Circle are the Cleveland Play House and Karamu House, a well-known African American performing and fine arts center, both founded in the 1920s.[40] The Playhouse Square Center, founded in 1921 in downtown Cleveland, Ohio, is the second largest theater complex in the United States (second only to New York Citys Lincoln Center). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts is a 15 acre (61,000 m²) complex of buildings in New York City which serves as home for 12 arts companies. ... Part of James Daughertys The Spirit of Drama - Europe, one of four murals in the lobby of the State Theater The State Theater is a theater on Playhouse Square in downtown Cleveland, Ohio. ... The Palace Theater is a theater in Playhouse Square Center in downtown Cleveland, Ohio. ... The Allen Theater is a theater on Playhouse Square in downtown Cleveland, Ohio. ... The Hanna Theater is a theater on Playhouse Square in downtown Cleveland, Ohio. ... This article is about the theater in Cleveland, Ohio. ... Cleveland Opera was the citys leading professional opera company from 1976 to 2006. ... The Great Lakes Theater Festival is the oldest theater company in Greater Cleveland. ... The Fantasticks is the longest-running musical in history Musical theatre is a form of theatre combining music, songs, spoken dialogue and dance. ... Public broadcasting is a form of public service broadcasting (PSB) intended to serve the diverse needs of the listening public. ... For the complete history of WKNR in Cleveland from 1990 to 2001, and its predecessor WGAR (AM), see WHKW. WKNR is an AM all-sports station in Cleveland, Ohio, broadcasting at 850 kHz with its transmitter in North Royalton, Ohio and studios at its former transmitter site in Broadview Heights... For other meanings of DJ, see DJ (disambiguation). ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... Cleveland Play House is a theater complex in the Fairfax neighborhood of Cleveland, Ohio. ... Karamu Theater in Cleveland, Ohio is the oldest African-American theater in the United States. ...


Cleveland is also home to the Cleveland Orchestra, widely considered one of the finest orchestras in the world, and often referred to as the finest in the United States.[41] It is one of the "Big Five" major orchestras in the United States. The Orchestra plays in Severance Hall during the winter and at Blossom Music Center during the summer.[42] The Cleveland Orchestra is one of the major symphony orchestras in the United States. ... For the song titled Orchestra, see The Servant (band). ... In the context of classical music in America, the Big Five refers to a group of five specific symphony orchestras considered to be the most prominent, significant, and accomplished ensembles when the term gained widespread use by music critics and journalists in the late 1950s. ... Interior detail of Severance Hall Severance Hall is a major concert hall located in the University Circle district of Cleveland, Ohio and home to the Cleveland Orchestra. ... Blossom Music Center, located in Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio, is the summer home of the Cleveland Orchestra and also hosts a full summer schedule of popular music acts and symphonic performances. ...


There are two main art museums in Cleveland. The Cleveland Museum of Art is a major American art museum,[43] and its collection is comprised of more than 40,000 works of art ranging over 6,000 years, from ancient masterpieces to contemporary pieces. Museum of Contemporary Art Cleveland showcases established and emerging artists, particularly from the Cleveland area, through hosting and producing temporary exhibitions.[44] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Cleveland Museum of Art, South View from Wade Lagoon Located in the University Circle neighborhood of Cleveland, Ohio, the Cleveland Museum of Art has a permanent collectionof more than 40,000 objects in 70 galleries. ... Arts of the ancient world refers to the many types of art that were in the cultures of ancient societies, such as those of ancient China, India, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece and Rome // The earliest figurine the Venus of Tan-Tan discovered to date originated somewhere between 500,000 and 300... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... The Museum of Contemporary Art Cleveland, better known by its acronym, MOCA, is a contemporary art museum located in Cleveland, Ohio. ...


Cleveland has served as the filming location for several noteworthy movies, including The Fortune Cookie (1967) with Walter Matthau and Jack Lemmon, the Academy Award-winning Deer Hunter (1978), Antwone Fisher (2002), and the holiday favorite A Christmas Story (1983).[45] Scenes for Spider-Man 3 were filmed in Cleveland in April 2006.[46] Cleveland is the lifelong home of cartoonist Harvey Pekar and the setting for most of his autobiographical comic books. The city was also the setting for the popular sitcom, The Drew Carey Show which starred Cleveland native Drew Carey. The Fortune Cookie is a 1967 film with Walter Matthau and Jack Lemmon. ... Walter Matthau (October 1, 1920 – July 1, 2000) was an Academy Award-winning American comedy actor best-known for his role as Oscar Madison in The Odd Couple and his frequent collaborations with fellow Odd Couple star Jack Lemmon. ... John Uhler Lemmon III (February 8, 1925 – June 27, 2001), better known as Jack Lemmon, was a two-time Academy Award-winning American actor and comedian. ... Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ... For other uses, see Deer Hunter. ... For the autobiographical film, see Antwone Fisher (film). ... For the Christian Christmas story, see Nativity of Jesus A Christmas Story is a 1983 film based on the short stories and semi-fictional anecdotes of author and raconteur Jean Shepherd, including material from his books In God We Trust, All Others Pay Cash and Wanda Hickeys Night of... Spider-Man 3 is a 2007 American superhero film written and directed by Sam Raimi, with a screenplay by Ivan Raimi and Alvin Sargent. ... Harvey Pekar on the cover of American Splendor: Portrait of the Author in his Declining Years Harvey Pekar (pronounced /ar-vay pea-kar/) (born October 8, 1939 in Cleveland, Ohio) is a U.S. underground comic book writer. ... The Drew Carey Show was a long-running American sitcom (set in Cleveland, Ohio) that aired on ABC from 1995 to 2004 and was known for its everyman characters and themes. ... Drew Allison Carey (born May 23, 1958) is an American comedian and actor. ...


Cleveland was the home of Joe Shuster and Jerry Siegel, who created the comic book character Superman in 1932. Both attended Glenville High School, and their early collaborations resulted in the creation of "The Man of Steel".[47] Joseph Joe Shuster (July 10, 1914 - July 30, 1992) was a Canadian-born comic book artist best known for co-creating the DC Comics character Superman, with writer Jerry Siegel, first published in Action Comics #1 (March 1938). ... Jerome Jerry Siegel a. ... Superman is a fictional character and comic book superhero , originally created by American writer Jerry Siegel and Canadian artist Joe Shuster and published by DC Comics. ... Glenville High School is a public high school in the Glenville neighborhood on the East Side of Cleveland, Ohio. ...


Cleveland is the home of heavy metal group Mushroomhead, rap group Bone Thugs-n-Harmony. Eric Carmen and his band, The Raspberries.[48] R&B singer Gerald Levert also was a lifelong resident of Cleveland, and it was the hometown of R&B groups the Dazz Band and The Rude Boys, as well as R&B singer Avant. It was also home to protopunk bands Pere Ubu, Rocket From the Tombs, and Electric Eels.[49] Heavy metals, in chemistry, are chemical elements of a particular range of atomic weights. ... Mushroomhead is an American band from Cleveland, Ohio. ... RAP may mean: the IATA airport code for Rapid City Regional Airport Rassemblement pour lalternative progressiste, a Québecois political party. ... Bone Thugs-n-Harmony is an American rap group from Cleveland, Ohio, best known for their high pace rapping style and harmonizing vocals. ... Eric Howard Carmen (born August 11, 1949, in Cleveland, Ohio, USA) is an American singer, songwriter, guitarist and keyboardist. ... The Raspberries were a rock and roll band from Cleveland, Ohio. ... For other uses, see Rhythm and blues (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Dazz Band was a funk music band based in Cleveland, Ohio that enjoyed brief popularity in the United States in the early 1980s. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... For other uses, see Avant (disambiguation). ... Protopunk is a term used to describe a number of performers who were important precursors of punk rock, or who have been cited by early punk rockers as influential. ... Pere Ubu are a rock music group formed in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1975. ... Rocket From The Tombs was an American rock band that formed in the summer of 1974. ... The Electric Eels were a punk band in the 1970s - 1980s. ...


Tourism

Five miles (8 km) east of downtown Cleveland is University Circle, a 550-acre (220 ha) concentration of cultural, educational, and medical institutions, including Case Western Reserve University, University Hospitals, Severance Hall, the Cleveland Museum of Art, the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, and the Western Reserve Historical Society. Cleveland is also home to the I. M. Pei-designed Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, located on the Lake Erie waterfront at North Coast Harbor downtown. Neighboring attractions include Cleveland Browns Stadium, the Great Lakes Science Center, the Steamship Mather Museum, and the USS Cod, a World War II submarine.[50] ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 184 KB) Photographer: Jason Pratt from Pittsburgh, PA Title: Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Taken on: 2004-02-15 17:40:48 Original source: Flickr. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 184 KB) Photographer: Jason Pratt from Pittsburgh, PA Title: Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Taken on: 2004-02-15 17:40:48 Original source: Flickr. ... The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame at sunset. ... Lake Erie (pronounced ) is the tenth largest lake on Earth[2] and, of the five Great Lakes of North America, is the fourth largest by surface area, the southernmost, shallowest, and smallest by volume. ... University Circle is a cultural, medical, educational and religious district on the east side of Cleveland, Ohio, occupying approximately 500 acres (2 km²) around the campus of Case Western Reserve University and the adjacent Wade Park Oval, and encompassing a large number of allied and independent institutions. ... An acre is the name of a unit of area in a number of different systems, including Imperial units and United States customary units. ... A hectare (symbol ha) is a unit of area, equal to 10 000 square metres, commonly used for measuring land area. ... Case Western Reserve University is a private research university located in Cleveland, Ohio, United States, with some residence halls on the south end of campus located in Cleveland Heights. ... University Hospitals is a major not-for-profit medical center in Cleveland, Ohio with 150 locations throughout Northeast Ohio, encompassing a network of hospitals, outpatient centers and primary care physicians. ... Interior detail of Severance Hall Severance Hall is a major concert hall located in the University Circle district of Cleveland, Ohio and home to the Cleveland Orchestra. ... The Cleveland Museum of Art, South View from Wade Lagoon Located in the University Circle neighborhood of Cleveland, Ohio, the Cleveland Museum of Art has a permanent collectionof more than 40,000 objects in 70 galleries. ... The Cleveland Museum of Natural History is a natural history museum located approximately 5 miles (8 km) east of downtown Cleveland, Ohio in University Circle, a 500 acre (2 km²) concentration of educational, cultural and medical institutions. ... The Western Reserve Historical Society (WRHS) is located in Cleveland, Ohio, USA. Its mission is to promote and preserve the history of the Western Reserve region of northeast Ohio. ... Ieoh Ming Pei (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; b. ... The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame at sunset. ... Entrance ramp of the stadium Cleveland Browns Stadium is a football stadium located in Cleveland, Ohio ( ). It is the home of the Cleveland Browns NFL franchise. ... The Great Lakes Science Center is a museum and educational facility in downtown Cleveland, Ohio. ... The Steamship William G. Mather is a retired Great Lakes bulk freighter now restored as one of four maritime museums in the Great Lakes region. ... USS Cod (SS-224), a Gato-class submarine, was the only vessel of the United States Navy to be named for the cod, the well-known food fish of the North Atlantic and North Pacific. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Gato-class submarine was the state of the art in American design at the start of World War II. Using the previous Tambor-class submarine as a basis, Gatos incorporated improvements to increase their overall patrol and combat abilities. ...


Cleveland is home to many festivals throughout the year. Cultural festivals such as the annual Feast of the Assumption in the Little Italy neighborhood, the Greek Orthodox Festival in the Tremont neighborhood, and the Harvest Festival in the Slavic Village neighborhood are popular events. Vendors at the West Side Market in Ohio City offer many different ethnic foods for sale. Cleveland hosts an annual parade on Saint Patrick's Day that brings hundreds of thousands to the streets of downtown.[51] For other uses, see Festival (disambiguation). ... The annual Feast of the Assumption Festival takes place each year in Clevelands Little Italy neighborhood and is annually attended by Jennifer A. Kosek and Danielle M. Kasmer. ... The West Side Market Located at the corner of West 25th Street and Lorain Avenue in Cleveland, Ohios Ohio City district, the West Side Market is the city’s oldest operating indoor/outdoor market space. ... United States Marines on parade. ... St. ...

Oldenburg and van Bruggen's Free Stamp, located in Willard Park to the east of City Hall

In addition to the cultural festivals, Cleveland hosted the CMJ Rock Hall Music Fest, which featuring national and local acts, including both established artists and up-and-coming acts, but the festival was discontinued in 2007 due to financial and manpower costs to the Rock Hall.[52] The city recently incorporated an annual art and technology festival, known as Ingenuity, which features a combination of art and technology in various installations and performances throughout lower Euclid Avenue. The Cleveland International Film Festival has been held annually since 1977, and its eleven day run drew a record 52,753 people in 2007.[53] Cleveland also hosts an annual holiday display lighting and celebration, dubbed Winterfest, which is held downtown at the city's historic hub, Public Square.[54] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (3008 × 2000 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (3008 × 2000 pixel, file size: 3. ... Claes Oldenburg is gay (born January 28, 1929) is a sculptor, best known for his public art installations typically featuring very large replicas of everyday objects. ... The CMJ Rock Hall Music Fest is a now-annual music festival that takes place in venues across Cleveland, Ohio. ... The Cleveland International Film Festival, first held in 1977, is the largest film festival in Ohio. ...


A large concentration of Poles in the metropolitan Cleveland area resulted in a number of impressive churches in the Polish Cathedral style, such as the Shrine of old St. Stanislaus in Slavic Village or St. John Cantius in Tremont. Both churches are included on tour itineraries.[55] [56] Our Lady of Mount Carmel Roman Catholic Church in Wyandotte, Michigan. ... Stanisław Szczepanowski (Stanislaus of Szczepanów; b. ... Slavic Village is a predominantly Eastern European neighborhood in Cleveland, Ohio. ... Saint John Cantius (Polish: Jan Kanty; 23 June 1390 - 24 December 1473) was a renowned Polish Scholastic and theologian. ... Tremont is a suburb in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ...


Sports

See also: List of Cleveland sports teams

Cleveland's professional sports teams include the Cleveland Indians (Major League Baseball), Cleveland Browns (National Football League), Cleveland Cavaliers (National Basketball Association), Cleveland City Stars (United Soccer Leagues), and Lake Erie Monsters (American Hockey League). Annual sporting events held in Cleveland include the Champ Car Grand Prix of Cleveland, the Cleveland Marathon, the Mid-American Conference college basketball tournament and the Ohio Classic college football game.[57] The city hosted the Gravity Games, an extreme sports series, from 2002 to 2004. Local sporting facilities include Jacobs Field, Cleveland Browns Stadium, Quicken Loans Arena, and the CSU Wolstein Center. Sports teams ever to play in Cleveland. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 751 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Cleveland, Ohio ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 751 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Cleveland, Ohio ... Jacobs Field (informally called The Jake) is a baseball stadium located in the middle of downtown Cleveland, Ohio. ... Major league affiliations American League (1901–present) Central Division (1994–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 3, 5, 14, 18, 19, 21, 42, 455 Name Cleveland Indians (1915–present) Cleveland Naps (1905-1914) Cleveland Bronchos (1902-1904) Cleveland Blues (1901) Other nicknames The Tribe, The Redskins, The Wahoos Ballpark Jacobs Field... In professional sports, as opposed to amateur sports, athletes receive payment for their performance. ... Major league affiliations American League (1901–present) Central Division (1994–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 3, 5, 14, 18, 19, 21, 42, 455 Name Cleveland Indians (1915–present) Cleveland Naps (1905-1914) Cleveland Bronchos (1902-1904) Cleveland Blues (1901) Other nicknames The Tribe, The Redskins, The Wahoos Ballpark Jacobs Field... MLB and Major Leagues redirect here. ... “Browns” redirects here. ... NFL redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “NBA” redirects here. ... The Cleveland City Stars are a team of the USL Second Division scheduled to begin play in 2007. ... The United Soccer Leagues (USL) is directly affiliated with the United States Soccer Federation (USSF), United States Adult Soccer Association (USASA) and the Canadian Soccer Association (CSA). ... The Lake Erie Monsters will be an ice hockey team in the American Hockey League. ... The American Hockey League (AHL) is a professional ice hockey league in North America, that serves as the primary developmental circuit for the National Hockey League (NHL). ... “CART” redirects here. ... The Grand Prix of Cleveland is an event of the Champ Car World Series, held annually at Burke Lakefront Airport in Cleveland, Ohio. ... The Cleveland Marathon is an annual marathon foot-race run in Cleveland, Ohio, USA. The 26. ... The Mid-American Conference (MAC) is a college athletic conference with a membership base that stretches from Pennsylvania to Illinois. ... College basketball most often refers to the American basketball competitive governance structure established by the National Collegiate Athletic Association, or NCAA. Game between Illinois State Redbirds & Ball State Cardinals, February 17, 2007 in an ESPN Bracketbuster contest. ... The Ohio Classic is a college football game played annually between two teams from historically black universities. ... A college football game between Colorado State and Air Force. ... Gravity Games is a multi-sport competition, broken down into Winter and Summer versions, which feature a variety of extreme sports such as skateboarding and BMX freestyle (during the summer) and snowboarding (during the winter). ... This article is about various Extreme Sports. ... Jacobs Field (informally called The Jake) is a baseball stadium located in the middle of downtown Cleveland, Ohio. ... Entrance ramp of the stadium Cleveland Browns Stadium is a football stadium located in Cleveland, Ohio ( ). It is the home of the Cleveland Browns NFL franchise. ... Quicken Loans Arena (aka The Q) is a multipurpose arena in downtown Cleveland, Ohio, USA. Until August 2005, it was known as Gund Arena, named for Gordon Gund, a former owner of the Cavaliers, after he paid for the naming rights. ... The Wolstein Center, formerly known as the CSU Convocation Center is an indoor arena located in Cleveland, Ohio. ...


The Cleveland Browns dominated the NFL from 1950 to 1955. The city's franchise is one of the most storied in football, though it last won an NFL championship in 1964 and has never appeared in the Super Bowl. The Cleveland Indians last reached the World Series in 1995 and 1997, though they lost to the Atlanta Braves and Florida Marlins, respectively, and have not won the series since 1948. Between 1995 and 2001, Jacobs Field sold out for 455 consecutive games, a Major League Baseball record.[58] The Cleveland Cavaliers are experiencing a renaissance with Cleveland fans due to LeBron James, a native of nearby Akron and the number one overall draft pick of 2003. The Cavaliers won the Eastern Conference in 2007, but were defeated in the NBA Finals by the San Antonio Spurs. The city's recent lack of success in sports has earned it a reputation of being a cursed sports city, which ESPN validated by proclaiming Cleveland as its "most tortured sports city" in 2004.[59] The 1950 NFL season was the 31st regular season of the National Football League. ... The 1955 NFL season was the 36th regular season of the National Football League. ... This is a list of National Football League champions prior to the 1970 AFL-NFL Merger, that is, all the franchises that have won the championship of the National Football League. ... The 1964 NFL season was the 45th regular season of the National Football League. ... The winning Super Bowl team receives the Vince Lombardi Trophy. ... For other events named World Series, see World Series (disambiguation). ... Dates October 21, 1995–October 28, 1995 MVP Tom Glavine (Atlanta) Television network ABC Games 1, 4, and 5, NBC Games 2, 3, and 6 Announcers ABC: Al Michaels, Jim Palmer, and Tim McCarver NBC: Bob Costas, Joe Morgan, and Bob Uecker Umpires Harry Wendelstedt (NL), Joe Brinkman (AL), Bruce... Dates October 18, 1997 – October 26, 1997 MVP Liván Hernández (Florida) Television network NBC Announcers Bob Costas, Joe Morgan and Bob Uecker Umpires Ed Montague (NL), Dale Ford (AL), Joe West (NL), Greg Kosc (AL), Randy Marsh (NL), Ken Kaiser (AL) The 1997 World Series is regarded as... Major league affiliations National League (1876–present) East Division (1994–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 3, 21, 35, 41, 42, 44 Name Atlanta Braves (1966–present) Milwaukee Braves (1953-1965) Boston Braves (1941-1952) Boston Bees (1936-1940) Boston Braves (1912-1935) Boston Rustlers (1911) Boston Doves (1907-1910) Boston... Major league affiliations National League (1993–present) East Division (1993–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 5, 42 Name Florida Marlins (1993–present) Other nicknames The Fish Ballpark Dolphin Stadium (1993–present) a. ... The 1948 World Series matched the Cleveland Indians, who had won the American League pennant in a one-game playoff against the Boston Red Sox, and the Boston Braves, who had won the National League pennant for the first time since the Miracle Braves team of 1914. ... LeBron Raymone James (born December 30, 1984)) is an American professional basketball player who currently plays for the Cleveland Cavaliers of the National Basketball Association. ... The 2003 NBA Draft logo The 2003 NBA Draft was held on June 26, 2003 at The Theater at Madison Square Garden in New York City, New York. ... The Eastern Conference of the National Basketball Association is made up of fifteen teams, and organized in three divisions of five teams each. ... The 2007 NBA Finals was the championship series of the 2006-07 National Basketball Association season, and was the conclusion of the 2007 NBA Playoffs. ... The San Antonio Spurs are an American professional basketball team based in San Antonio, Texas. ... ESPN/ESPN-DT, formerly an acronym for Entertainment and Sports Programming Network, is an [[United States|Amer<nowiki>Insert non-formatted text here--68. ...


At the 2005 Major League Soccer All-Star Game in Columbus, MLS commissioner Don Garber announced that Cleveland was one of several top areas in contention for an expansion team in 2007.[60] Delays in securing a soccer-only stadium have now prevented any such team from beginning play until the 2009 season, but the Cleveland area is still a contender for expansion. Cleveland fielded an NHL team, the Cleveland Barons, from 1976 to 1978, which was later merged into the Minnesota North Stars. The city has had other major-league hockey teams in the past. The most recent incarnation of the Barons, was an AHL affiliate of the San Jose Sharks, that moved to Worcester, Massachusetts in 2006. The tradition of professional hockey in Cleveland started with the original Cleveland Barons in 1937.[61] A new professional team is slated to begin play in 2007 with the Lake Erie Monsters, an AHL team purchased by Cavaliers owner Dan Gilbert.[62] Cleveland was also home to the Cleveland Rockers, one of the original eight teams[63] in the WNBA in 1997. However, in 2003, the team folded after owner Gordon Gund dropped the team from operation. Major League Soccer (MLS) is a professional soccer league with teams in the United States and Canada. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Ohio, USA Coordinates: , Country State Counties Franklin, Delaware, and Fairfield Government  - Mayor Michael B. Coleman (D) Area  - City  212. ... Don Garber (born October 9, 1957 in Johannesburg, Africa) is the commissioner of Major League Soccer, succeeding Doug Logan. ... An expansion team is a term used for a brand new team in a sports league. ... “NHL” redirects here. ... The Oakland Seals were a team in the National Hockey League (NHL). ... The 1976-77 NHL season was the 60th season of the National Hockey League. ... The classic NHL shield logo The 1977-78 NHL season was the 61st season of the National Hockey League. ... The Minnesota North Stars were a team in the National Hockey League between 1967 and 1993. ... See also: Cleveland Barons (NHL) and Cleveland Barons (1937-1972). ... The American Hockey League (AHL) is a professional ice hockey league in North America, that serves as the primary developmental circuit for the National Hockey League (NHL). ... The San Jose Sharks are a professional ice hockey team based in San Jose, California, United States. ... Nickname: Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: Country United States State Massachusetts County Worcester County Settled 1673 Incorporated 1684 Government  - Type Council-manager also known as Plan E  - City Manager Michael V. OBrien  - Mayor Konstantina B. Lukes  - City Council Dennis L. Irish Michael C. Perotto Joseph M. Petty Gary Rosen Kathleen... For the more recent AHL team, see Cleveland Barons (2001-2006). ... The Lake Erie Monsters will be an ice hockey team in the American Hockey League. ... Daniel (Dan) Gilbert is the Chairman and Founder of Quicken Loans Inc. ... The Cleveland Rockers were a Womens National Basketball Association team. ... The Womens National Basketball Association (WNBA) is an organization governing a professional basketball league for women in the United States. ... Gordon Gund was formely the principal owner of the NBA franchise the Cleveland Cavaliers, a co-owner of the San Jose Sharks NHL team, and remains the CEO of Gund Investment Corporation. ...


Media

Cleveland is served in print by The Plain Dealer, the city's sole remaining daily newspaper. The competing Cleveland Press ceased publication on June 17, 1982, and the Cleveland News ended its run in 1960. Cleveland also supports several alternative weekly publications, including the Free Times and Cleveland Scene. The following is a list of media in Cleveland, Ohio, United States. ... The Plain Dealer is the major daily newspaper of Cleveland, Ohio. ... The Cleveland Press was a daily American newspaper that was published in Cleveland, Ohio from November 2, 1878 until June 17, 1982. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Recent cover of Portland, Oregons Willamette Week An alternative weekly is a type of weekly newspaper that eschews comprehensive coverage of general news in favor of opinionated reviews and columns, investigations into edgy topics and magazine-style feature stories highlighting local people and culture. ... The Free Times is an alternative weekly newspaper from Cleveland, Ohio. ... The Cleveland Scene is an alternative weekly newspaper from Cleveland, Ohio. ...


Cleveland, combined with nearby Akron, was ranked in 2006–2007 as the 17th largest television market by Nielsen Media Research.[64] The market is served by stations affiliated with major American networks including: WKYC-TV (channel 3, NBC), WEWS (channel 5, ABC), WJW-TV (channel 8, Fox), WOIO (channel 19, CBS), WUAB (channel 43, MNTV), and WBNX (channel 55, The CW). Cleveland is also served by WVPX (channel 23, i) and Spanish-language channel WQHS-TV (channel 61, Univision). WVIZ (channel 25) and WEAO (channel 49) are members of PBS. A Cleveland first in television was The Morning Exchange program on WEWS, which defined the morning show format, and served as the inspiration for Good Morning America.[65] Nielsen Media Research (NMR) is a U.S. firm, headquartered in New York City, and operating primarily from Oldsmar, FL, which measures media audiences, including television, radio and newspapers. ... WKYC-TV, Channel 3 is the NBC affiliate in Cleveland, Ohio. ... The National Broadcasting Company (NBC) is an American television network headquartered in the GE Building in New York Citys Rockefeller Center. ... WEWS (Channel 5) is the local ABC network affiliate in Cleveland, Ohio. ... The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) operates television and radio networks in the United States and is also shown on basic cable in Canada. ... WJW, also known on-air as FOX8, is a television station in Cleveland, Ohio, broadcasting on VHF channel 8. ... The Fox Broadcasting Company, usually referred to as just Fox (the company itself prefers the capitalized version FOX), is a television network in the United States. ... WOIO channel 19 is a CBS-affiliated television station licensed to Shaker Heights, Ohio and serving the Cleveland-Akron, Ohio television market. ... CBS Broadcasting, Inc. ... WUAB, identified on-air as My 43, WUAB, is the My Network TV affiliate in Cleveland, Ohio. ... My Network TV (sometimes written MyNetworkTV, and unofficially abbreviated MNT or MNTV) is an upcoming television network in the United States, owned by News Corporation, which is scheduled to launch on September 5, 2006. ... WBNX is a WB television affiliate serving the Cleveland television market broadcasting on channel 55. ... “The CW” redirects here. ... WVPX is the Cleveland, Ohio affiliate of the i television network (formerly known as Pax TV). ... . The initial letter is shown capitalized due to technical restrictions. ... WQHS-TV is a Spanish-language television station owned by and affiliated with Univision. ... Univision is a Spanish-language television network in the United States. ... WVIZ was the 100th public television station to sign on in America. ... WEAO is a PBS station located in Akron, Ohio (although technically broadcasting from Kent, Ohio). ... “PBS” redirects here. ... The Morning Exchange was a daily morning TV show that aired on WEWS-TV Channel 5 in Cleveland, Ohio from 1972 to 1999. ... Good Morning America is a weekday morning news show that is broadcast on the ABC television network. ...


Cleveland is also served by over 43 AM and FM radio stations directly, and dozens of other stations are heard from elsewhere in Northeast Ohio.[66] A radio station is an audio (sound) broadcasting service, traditionally broadcast through the air as radio waves (a form of electromagnetic radiation) from a transmitter to an antenna and a thus to a receiving device. ... Greater Cleveland and Northeast Ohio are nicknames for the metropolitan area surrounding Cleveland in Ohio. ...


Economy

Downtown Cleveland as viewed from Edgewater State Park
Downtown Cleveland as viewed from Edgewater State Park

Cleveland's location on the Cuyahoga River and Lake Erie has been key to its growth. The Ohio and Erie Canal coupled with rail links helped establish the city as a major American manufacturing center. Steel and many other manufactured goods emerged as its industries.[67] Image File history File linksMetadata Picture_1229. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Picture_1229. ... The Cuyahoga River (IPA pronunciation: , or kuy-a-HAW-ga, locally kie-uh-HOE-guh) is located in Northeast Ohio in the United States. ... Lake Erie (pronounced ) is the tenth largest lake on Earth[2] and, of the five Great Lakes of North America, is the fourth largest by surface area, the southernmost, shallowest, and smallest by volume. ... The Ohio and Erie Canal in 1902 The Ohio and Erie Canal was constructed in the early 1800s and connected the Ohio River at Portsmouth and Lake Erie at Cleveland, Ohio. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ...


The city has sought to diversify its economy to become less dependent on its struggling manufacturing sector. Cleveland is the corporate headquarters of many large companies such as National City Corporation, Eaton Corporation, Forest City Enterprises, Sherwin-Williams Company, and KeyCorp. NASA maintains a facility in Cleveland, the Glenn Research Center. Jones Day, one of the largest law firms in the world, traces its origins to Cleveland, and its Cleveland office remains the firm's largest.[68] Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ... The National City Corporation (NYSE: NCC) is one of the ten largest banks in America in terms of deposits. ... This article is about an industrial manufacturer. ... Forest City Enterprises is a diversified real estate management and development company based in Cleveland, Ohio. ... The Sherwin-Williams Company NYSE: SHW is an American company in the general building materials industry. ... Key Bank is a bank headquartered in the Key Tower in Cleveland, Ohio. ... This article is about the American space agency. ... Aerial View of Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field The Glenn Research Center is a NASA center, located in Cleveland, Ohio between Cleveland Hopkins International Airport and the Rocky River Reservation (part of the Cleveland Metroparks). ... Jones Day (http://www. ...


Cleveland's largest employer, the renowned Cleveland Clinic,[69] ranks among America's best hospitals as tabulated by U.S. News & World Report.[70] Cleveland's healthcare industry includes University Hospitals of Cleveland, a noted competitor which ranked twenty-fifth in cancer care,[71] and MetroHealth medical center. Cleveland Clinic is a multispecialty academic medical center located in Cleveland, Ohio. ... U.S. News & World Report is a weekly newsmagazine. ... University Hospitals is a major not-for-profit medical center in Cleveland, Ohio with 150 locations throughout Northeast Ohio, encompassing a network of hospitals, outpatient centers and primary care physicians. ...


Cleveland is an emerging area for biotechnology and fuel cell research, led by Case Western Reserve University, the Cleveland Clinic, and University Hospitals of Cleveland. Cleveland is among the top recipients of investment for biotech start-ups and research.[72] Case Western Reserve, the Clinic, and University Hospitals have recently announced plans to build a large biotechnology research center and incubator on the site of the former Mt. Sinai Medical Center, creating a research campus to stimulate biotech startup companies that can be spun off from research conducted in the city.[73] The structure of insulin Biological technology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ... Case Western Reserve University is a private research university located in Cleveland, Ohio, United States, with some residence halls on the south end of campus located in Cleveland Heights. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A startup company is a company with a limited operating history. ...


City leaders stepped up efforts to cultivate a technology sector in its economy in the early 2000s. Former Mayor Jane L. Campbell appointed a "tech czar" whose job is to actively recruit tech companies to the downtown office market, offering connections to the high-speed fiber networks that run underneath downtown streets in several "high-tech offices" focused on the Euclid Avenue area. Cleveland State University hired a Technology Transfer Officer to work full time on cultivating technology transfers from CSU research to marketable ideas and companies in the Cleveland area, and appointed a Vice President for Economic Development to leverage the university's assets in expanding the city's economy. Case Western Reserve University participates in technology initiatives such as the OneCommunity project[74] a high-speed fiber optic network linking the area's major research centers intended to stimulate growth. OneCommunity's work attracted the attention of Intel and in mid-2005, Cleveland was named an Intel "Worldwide Digital Community" along with Corpus Christi, Texas, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Taipei, Taiwan. This distinction will add about $12 million for marketing to expand regional technology partnerships, create a city-wide WiFi network, and develop a tech economy. In addition to this Intel initiative, in January 2006 a New York-based think tank, the Intelligent Community Forum, selected Cleveland as the sole American city among its seven finalists for the "Intelligent Community of the Year" award. The group announced that it nominated the city for its OneCleveland network with potential broadband applications.[75] The OneCommunity Network is collaborating with Cisco Systems to deploy a cutting-edge wireless network that could provide widespread access to the region. Cisco is testing new technologies in wireless "mesh" networking. OneCommunity and Cisco officially launched the first phase in September 2006, blanketing several square miles of University Circle with wireless connectivity. Additionally, Cisco Systems acquired the former Aironet Wireless Networks, which was based in the Greater Cleveland area, to form its wireless networking product lineup and maintain a facility in the region.[76] Jane L. Campbell, (born May 19, 1953) is an American politician of the Democratic party who served as the 56th and first female mayor of Cleveland, Ohio from 2002 to 2005. ... Euclid Avenue is a commonly found name applied to streets in American cities; however Cleveland, Ohio’s Euclid Avenue set the standard for the nation from the 1860s to the 1920s for beauty and sheer wealth. ... Cleveland State University (abbr. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Texas Counties Government  - Mayor Henry Garrett Area  - City 1,192. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country Republic of China Region Northern Taiwan City seat Xinyi District (信義區) Government  - Mayor Hau Lung-bin (KMT)1 E9 Area  - City 271. ... Wi-Fi (or Wi-fi, WiFi, Wifi, wifi), short for Wireless Fidelity, is a set of standards for wireless local area networks (WLAN) currently based on the IEEE 802. ... A Cisco ASM/2-32EM router deployed at CERN in 1987. ...


Demographics

Historical populations[77]
Census
year
Population Rank  %±

1820 606 - -
1830 1,075 - 77.3%
1840 6,071 67 464.7%
1850 17,034 41 180.5%
1860 43,417 21 154.8%
1870 92,829 15 113.8%
1880 160,146 11 72.5%
1890 261,353 10 63.1%
1900 381,768 7 46.1%
1910 560,663 9 46.8%
1920 796,841 5 42.1%
1930 900,429 6 13.0%
1940 878,336 6 -3.5%
1950 914,808 7 4.1%
1960 876,050 8 -5.4%
1970 750,903 10 -15.3%
1980 573,822 18 -24.6%
1990 505,616 23 -12.9%
2000 478,403 33 -6.4%

As of the 2000 Census,GR2 there were 478,403 people, 190,638 households, and 111,904 families residing in the city. The population density was 6,166.5 people per square mile (2,380.9/km²). There were 215,856 housing units at an average density of 2,782.4 per square mile (1,074.3/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 50.99% Black or African American, 41.49% White, 1.35% Asian, 0.30% Native American, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 3.59% from other races, and 2.24% from two or more races. 7.26% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race.[1] Ethnic groups include Germans (9.2%), Irish (8.2% ), Poles (4.8%), Italians (4.6%), and English (2.8%). There are also substantial communities of Hungarians, Arabs (mostly Maronite Christians and Sunni Muslims), Romanians, Czechs, Slovaks, Greeks, Ukrainians, Albanians, Croats, Serbs, Lithuanians, Slovenians, Koreans, and Han Chinese. The presence of Hungarians within the Cleveland proper was so great that the city once boasted the highest concentration of Hungarians in the world outside of Budapest.[78] The United States Census of 1820 was the fourth Census conducted in the United States. ... The United States Census of 1830 was the fifth Census conducted in the United States. ... The Sixth Census of the United States, conducted by the Bureau of the Census, determined the resident population of the United States to be 17,069,453 — an increase of 32. ... The Seventh Census of the United States, conducted by the Bureau of the Census, determined the resident population of the United States to be 23,191,876 — an increase of 35. ... The United States Census of 1860 was the eighth Census conducted in the United States. ... The Ninth United States Census was taken in 1870. ... 1880 US Census The United States Census of 1880 was the tenth United States Census. ... The Eleventh United States Census was taken June 1, 1890. ... 1900 US Census The Twelfth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 76,212,168, an increase of 21. ... The Thirteenth United States Census was taken in 1910. ... The Fourteenth United States Census was taken in 1920. ... The Fifteenth United States Census was taken in 1930. ... The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7. ... The Seventeenth United States Census was taken in 1950. ... The Eighteenth United States Census was taken in 1960. ... The Nineteenth United States Census was taken in 1970. ... The Twetieth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 226,542,199, an increase of 11. ... The Twenty-first United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 248,709,873, an increase of 9. ... 2000 US Census logo The Twenty-Second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ... 2000 US Census logo The Twenty-Second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ... The household is the basic unit of analysis in many microeconomic and government models. ... It has been suggested that Ethnicity (United States Census) be merged into this article or section. ... A Masai man in Kenya Black people or blacks is a political, social or cultural classification of people. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... “Whites” redirects here. ... An Asian American is a person of Asian ancestry or origin who was born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... Pacific Islands (or Pacific Person, pl: Pacific People, also called Oceanic[s]), is a geographic term used in several places, such as New Zealand and the United States, to describe the inhabitants of any of the three major sub-regions of Oceania. ... It has been suggested that Ethnicity (United States Census) be merged into this article or section. ... Hispanic flag, not widely used. ... // The term Latino is a linguistic identity that refers to an individual that has significant ancestry from a nation-state where a Latin derived language is spoken or is the offical language of the government. ... English Americans (occasionally known as Anglo-Americans) are citizens of the United States whose ancestry originates wholly or in part in the northwest European nation of England. ... Arab Americans constitute an ethnicity made up of several waves of immigrants from 22 Morocco in the west to Oman in the east. ... Maronites (Arabic: , transliteration: , Syriac: ܡܪܘܢܝܐ) are members of one of the Eastern Catholic Churches, with a heritage reaching back to Maroun in the early 5th century. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... Americans of Croatian Descent Bill Belichick Nick Saban Categories: | ... Serbian Americans are citizens of the United States who are of Serbian ancestry. ... A Chinese American is an American who is of ethnic Chinese descent. ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ...

Built as the Second Church of Christ, Scientist, this building on Cleveland's East Side now serves a primarily African American congregation.
Built as the Second Church of Christ, Scientist, this building on Cleveland's East Side now serves a primarily African American congregation.

There were 190,638 households out of which 29.9% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 28.5% were married couples living together, 24.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41.3% were nonfamilies. 35.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.1% had someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.19. The population was spread out with 28.5% under the age of 18, 9.5% from 18 to 24, 30.4% from 25 to 44, 19.0% from 45 to 64, and 12.5% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 90.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.2 males.[1] True Holiness Temple on East Superior Ave. ... True Holiness Temple on East Superior Ave. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Marriage is an interpersonal relationship with governmental, social, or religious recognition, usually intimate and sexual, and often created as a contract, or through civil process. ...


The median income for a household in the city was $25,928, and the median income for a family was $30,286. Males had a median income of $30,610 versus $24,214 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,291. 26.3% of the population and 22.9% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 37.6% of those under the age of 18 and 16.8% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.[1] The median household income is commonly used to provide data about geographic areas and divides households into two equal segments with the first half of households earning less than the median household income and the other half earning more. ... ISO 4217 Code USD User(s) the United States, the British Indian Ocean Territory,[1] the British Virgin Islands, East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau, Panama, Turks and Caicos Islands, and the insular areas of the United States Inflation 2. ... The per capita income for a group of people may be defined as their total personal income, divided by the total population. ... Map of countries showing percentage of population who have an income below the national poverty line The poverty line is the level of income below which one cannot afford to purchase all the resources one requires to live. ...


Cleveland was hit hard in the 1960s and early 1970s by white flight and suburbanization, further exacerbated by the busing-based desegregation of Cleveland schools required by the United States Supreme Court. Although busing ended in the 1990s, Cleveland continued to slide into poverty, reaching a nadir in 2004 when it was named the poorest major city in the United States.[79] Cleveland was again rated the poorest major city in the U.S. in 2006, with a poverty rate of 32.4%.[80] White flight is a term for the demographic trend where working- and middle-class white people move away from increasingly racially mixed inner-city neighborhoods to predominantly white suburbs and exurbs. ... Suburbanisation is a term used by many to describe the current social urban dynamic operating within many parts of the developed world and is related to the phenomenon of urban sprawl. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Desegregation is the process of ending racial segregation, most commonly used in reference to the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries  Atlas  Politics Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ...


Government and politics

See also: List of mayors of Cleveland, Ohio, Cleveland City Council, and Notable Cleveland politicians
Cleveland City Hall
Cleveland City Hall

Cleveland's position as a center of manufacturing established it as a hotbed of union activity early in its history. This contributed to a political progressivism that has influenced Cleveland politics to the present. While other parts of Ohio, particularly Cincinnati and the southern portion of the state, have historically supported the Republican Party, Cleveland commonly breeds the strongest support in the state for the Democrats;[81] Cleveland's two representatives in the House of Representatives are Democrats: Dennis Kucinich and Stephanie Tubbs Jones. During the 2004 Presidential election, although George W. Bush carried Ohio, John Kerry carried Cuyahoga County,[82] which gave him the strongest support in the state. The Mayor of Cleveland is the chief executive of the citys government. ... Cleveland City Hall The Cleveland City Council is the legislative branch of the government of the City of Cleveland in Ohio. ... Notable politicians from the city of Cleveland, Ohio: John W. Willey was the first mayor of Cleveland from 1836 to 1837. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1760x1168, 502 KB) Summary Cleveland City Hall Photo by Stu Spivack Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: City hall Cleveland City Council Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1760x1168, 502 KB) Summary Cleveland City Hall Photo by Stu Spivack Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: City hall Cleveland City Council Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Labor unions in the United States today function as legally recognized representatives of workers in numerous industries, but are strongest among public sector employees such as teachers and police. ... In the United States the term progressivism refers to two political movements: first, the original political progressive movement towards social and economic reform of the late 1800s and early 1900s; and second, the continuation of this movement/ideology in the form of modern progressivism which sees itself as a reform... “Cincinnati” redirects here. ... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. ... Dennis John Kucinich (born October 8, 1946) is an American politician of the Democratic party and a candidate for President of the United States in both 2004 and 2008. ... Stephanie Tubbs Jones (born September 10, 1949) is a Democratic politician who currently serves as a member of the United States House of Representatives, for the 11th District of Ohio. ... Presidential election results map. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts, in his fourth term of office. ...


The city of Cleveland operates on the mayor-council (strong mayor) form of government.[83] The mayor is the chief executive of the city, and the office is held in 2007 by Frank G. Jackson. Previous mayors of Cleveland include progressive Democrat Tom L. Johnson, Republican Senator George V. Voinovich, two-time Democratic Ohio governor and senator Frank J. Lausche, and Carl B. Stokes, the first African American mayor of a major American city.[84] Mayor-Council government is one of two variations of government most commonly used in modern representative municipal governments in the United States. ... Categories: Lists of mayors | Mayors of Cleveland ... In political science and constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the state. ... Frank George Jackson (born October 4, 1946) is an American politician of the Democratic Party. ... Tom Loftin Johnson (July 18, 1854–April 10, 1911) was an American politician of the Democratic Party from the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Politics Portal      The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the bicameral United States Congress, the... George Victor Voinovich (born July 15, 1936) is an American politician of the Republican Party. ... Frank John Lausche (November 14, 1895 - April 21, 1990) was a Democratic politician from Ohio. ... Carl Burton Stokes (June 21, 1927–April 3, 1996) was an American politician of the Democratic party who served as the 51st mayor of Cleveland, Ohio. ...


Education

Adelbert Hall on the campus of Case Western Reserve University
Adelbert Hall on the campus of Case Western Reserve University

Cleveland is home to a number of colleges and universities. Most prominent among these is Case Western Reserve University, a world-renowned research and teaching institution located in University Circle. A private university with several prominent graduate programs, Case was ranked 38th in the nation in 2007 by U.S. News & World Report.[85] University Circle also contains Cleveland Institute of Art, the Cleveland Institute of Music, and the Ohio College of Podiatric Medicine. Cleveland State University (CSU), based in downtown Cleveland, is the city's public four-year university. In addition to CSU, downtown hosts the metropolitan campus of Cuyahoga Community College, the county's two-year higher education institution, as well as Myers University, a private four-year school that focuses on business education.[86] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 297 KB) Summary Adelbert Hall, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA Photo by Mark McCartney http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 297 KB) Summary Adelbert Hall, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA Photo by Mark McCartney http://www. ... Adelbert Hall is an administration building at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio and a registered historic building, listed in the National Register on 1973-10-30. ... Case Western Reserve University is a private research university located in Cleveland, Ohio, United States, with some residence halls on the south end of campus located in Cleveland Heights. ... Case Western Reserve University is a private research university located in Cleveland, Ohio, United States, with some residence halls on the south end of campus located in Cleveland Heights. ... U.S. News & World Report is a weekly newsmagazine. ... The Cleveland Institute of Art is a private college of art and design located in University Circle, Cleveland, Ohio. ... The Cleveland Institute of Music is one of the nations leading independent music conservatories. ... The Ohio College of Podiatric Medicine is a four-year, private college in Cleveland, Ohios University Circle. ... Cleveland State University (abbr. ... Cuyahoga Community College (also known as Tri-C, and CCC) is a two-year college in Cuyahoga County, Ohio. ... David N. Myers University is a private, not-for-profit university located in Cleveland, Ohio. ...


The Cleveland Metropolitan School District is the largest K–12 district in the state, with 127 schools and an enrollment of 55,567 students during the 2006–2007 academic year.[87] It is the only district in Ohio that is under direct control of the mayor, who appoints a school board.[88] It In the 2007–08 academic year, the Cleveland Municipal School District will change its name to the Cleveland Metropolitan School District. Cleveland Metropolitain School District is a school district that serves the city of Cleveland, Ohio, United States. ... K–12 (pronounced Kay through twelve or just Kay twelve) is the North American designation for primary and secondary education. ... A board of education or a school board or school committee is the title of the board of directors of a school, local school district or higher administrative level. ...


Transportation

A collection of fixed and movable bridges crosses the Cuyahoga River in downtown Cleveland.
A collection of fixed and movable bridges crosses the Cuyahoga River in downtown Cleveland.
1992 aerial view of the Cleveland harbor, with the mouth of the Cuyahoga River in the foreground. View is to the east.
1992 aerial view of the Cleveland harbor, with the mouth of the Cuyahoga River in the foreground. View is to the east.

Cleveland Hopkins International Airport is the city's major airport and an international airport that serves as one of three main hubs for Continental Airlines. It holds the distinction of having the first airport-to-downtown rapid transit connection, established in 1968. In 1930, the airport was the site of the first airfield lighting system and the first air traffic control tower. In addition to Hopkins, Cleveland is served by Burke Lakefront Airport, on the north shore of downtown between Lake Erie and the Shoreway. Burke is primarily a commuter and business airport.[89] ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1018 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Cleveland, Ohio Categories: Images of Cleveland, Ohio ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1018 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Cleveland, Ohio Categories: Images of Cleveland, Ohio ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixel Image in higher resolution (1500 × 1001 pixel, file size: 680 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cleveland, Ohio Cuyahoga... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixel Image in higher resolution (1500 × 1001 pixel, file size: 680 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cleveland, Ohio Cuyahoga... Cleveland Hopkins International Airports new logo, unveiled in July 2005. ... An International airport is an airport where flights from other countries land and/or take off. ... An airline hub is an airport that an airline uses as a transfer point to get passengers to their intended destination. ... Continental Airlines (NYSE: CAL) is a US certificated air carrier. ... The control tower at Schiphol airport. ... Burke Lakefront Airport -- see Cleveland Burke Lakefront Airport. ... The Cleveland Memorial Shoreway (often shortened to simply The Shoreway) is a controlled-access freeway in Cleveland, Ohio. ...


Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service to Cleveland, via the Capitol Limited and Lake Shore Limited routes, which stop at Cleveland Lakefront Station. Cleveland has also been identified as a hub for the proposed Ohio Hub project, which would bring high-speed rail to Northeast Ohio.[90] Acela Express in West Windsor, NJ Amtrak Cascades service with tilting Talgo trainsets in Seattle, Washington Amtrak train in downtown Orlando, Florida For other uses, see Amtrak (disambiguation). ... Amtraks Capitol Limited is one of the two routes connecting Washington, DC to Chicago, running via Cleveland, Ohio (the other is the Cardinal via Cincinnati). ... The Lake Shore Limited is a train route operated by Amtrak in the Midwestern and Northeastern United States on routes formally traveled by the famed 20th Century Limited. ... Cleveland Lakefront Station is Amtraks station in Cleveland, Ohio. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... French-designed Eurostar and Thalys TGVs side-by-side in the Paris-Gare du Nord. ...


Cleveland currently has a bus and rail mass transit system operated by the Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, also known as "RTA". The rail portion is officially called the RTA Rapid Transit, but is referred to by local residents as The Rapid. It consists of two light rail lines, known as the Green and Blue Lines, and a heavy rail line, the Red Line. RTA is currently installing a bus rapid transit line, coined the "Silver Line", which will run along Euclid Avenue from downtown to University Circle.[91] National bus service is provided at a Greyhound station, located just behind Playhouse Square theater district. For other uses, see Bus (disambiguation). ... Urban rail transit is an all-encompassing term for various types of local rail systems serving urban or older suburban areas. ... Bangkok Skytrain. ... The Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority (officially the GCRTA, but usually referred to as the RTA) is the metropolitan transportation agency in Cleveland, Ohio and its surrounding suburbs. ... RTA Rapid Transit (generally known as The Rapid) is a rapid transit and light rail system in Cleveland, Ohio, owned by the Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority (known as RTA). The system is made of three lines - the Red Line (heavy rail) and Blue and Green Lines (light rail). ... “Mass Transit” redirects here. ... The term heavy rail is often used for regular railways, to distinguish from systems such as trams/light rail and metro. ... Busways redirects here. ... Euclid Avenue is a commonly found name applied to streets in American cities; however Cleveland, Ohio’s Euclid Avenue set the standard for the nation from the 1860s to the 1920s for beauty and sheer wealth. ... Greyhound Lines is the largest inter-city common carrier of passengers by bus in North America, serving 2,200 destinations in the United States. ... The Playhouse Square Center, founded in 1921 in downtown Cleveland, Ohio, is the second largest theater complex in the United States (second only to New York Citys Lincoln Center). ...


Three two-digit Interstate highways serve Cleveland directly. Interstate 71 begins just southwest of downtown and is the major route from downtown Cleveland to the airport. I-71 runs through the southwestern suburbs and eventually connects Cleveland with Columbus. Interstate 77 begins in downtown Cleveland and runs almost due south through the southern suburbs. I-77 sees the least traffic of the three interstates, although it does connect Cleveland to Akron. Interstate 90 connects the two sides of Cleveland, and is the northern terminus for both I-71 and I-77. Running due east–west through the west side suburbs, I-90 turns northeast at the junction with I-71 and I-490, and is known as the Innerbelt through downtown. At the junction with the Shoreway, I-90 makes a 90-degree turn known in the area as Dead Man's Curve, then continues northeast, entering Lake County near the eastern split with State Route 2. Cleveland is also served by two three-digit interstates, Interstate 480, which enters Cleveland briefly at a few points and Interstate 490, which connects I-77 with the junction of I-90 and I-71 just south of downtown.[92] Interstate Highways in the lower 48 states. ... INTERSTATE JUNCTIONS JUNCTION EXIT # I-64 KY 1 I-75 KY 77 OH 1 I-70 OH 106 OH 107 I-76 OH 209 I-80 OH 233 I-90 OH 247 Legend BROWSE STATE HWYS Prev Next {{{browse}}} Interstate 71 is an Interstate Highway in the Southeastern and Midwestern... Nickname: Location in the state of Ohio, USA Coordinates: , Country State Counties Franklin, Delaware, and Fairfield Government  - Mayor Michael B. Coleman (D) Area  - City  212. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Interstate 77 Interstate 77 (abbreviated I-77) is an interstate highway in the eastern United States. ... Nickname: The Rubber Capital of the World Location within the state of Ohio Country United States State Ohio County Summit Founded 1825 Incorporated 1835 (village) - 1865 (city) Government  - Mayor Don Plusquellic (D) Area  - City  62. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Interstate 90 Interstate 90 (abbreviated I-90) is the longest interstate highway in the United States at nearly 3,100 miles (5,000 kilometers). ... Dead Mans Curve is the unofficial but commonly used name given to hazardous curves on Interstate and other highways in the United States that have claimed lives due to accidents. ... Lake County is a county located in the state of Ohio. ... Interstate 480 is a busy loop highway that connects the Ohio Turnpike (I-80) with suburban Cleveland, Ohio. ... The 2. ...


Two other limited-access highways serve Cleveland. The Cleveland Memorial Shoreway carries State Route 2 along its length, and at varying points also carries US 6, US 20 and I-90. The Jennings Freeway (State Route 176) connects I-71 just south of I-90 to I-480 near the suburbs of Parma and Brooklyn Heights. A third highway, the Berea Freeway (State Route 237 in part), connects I-71 to the airport, and forms part of the boundary between Cleveland and Brook Park.[93] The Cleveland Memorial Shoreway (often shortened to simply The Shoreway) is a controlled-access freeway in Cleveland, Ohio. ... State Route 2 is an east-west highway crossing most of northern Ohio. ... U.S. Route 6 is a main route of the U.S. Highway system, running east-northeast from Bishop, California to Provincetown, Massachusetts. ... U.S. Highway 20 is an east-west United States highway. ... State Route 176 (SR 176) is partially a limited-access highway also known as the Jennings Freeway. ... Parma is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio in Cuyahoga County and is the largest suburb of Cleveland. ... Brooklyn Heights is a village in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, United States. ... State Route 237 (SR 237) is a nearly 14-mile north-south signed route in Cuyahoga County, Ohio. ... Brook Park is a suburb of Cleveland in Cuyahoga County, Ohio. ...


Sister cities

Cleveland has twenty sister cities:[94] Sign denoting twin towns of Neckarsulm, Germany Town twinning is a concept whereby towns or cities in geographically and politically distinct areas are paired with the goal of fostering human contact and cultural links. ...

Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... Nickname: Alexandria on the map of Egypt Map of Alexandria Coordinates: , Country Egypt Founded 334 BC Government  - Governor Adel Labib Population (2001)  - City 3,500,000 Time zone EET (UTC+2)  - Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3) Twin Cities  - Baltimore  United States  - Cleveland  United States  - ConstanÅ£a  Romania  - Durban  South Africa... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ethiopia. ... Bahir Dar is a city in north western Ethiopia and the capital of the Amhara Administrative Region (kilil). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... For other uses, see Bangalore (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... County BraÅŸov County Status County capital Mayor George Scripcaru, Democratic Party, since 2004 Area 267. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovakia. ... Nickname: Location of Bratislava within Slovakia Coordinates: , Country Region Districts Bratislava I-V City subdivisions 17 city boroughs Cadastral areas 20 cadastral areas First mentioned 907 Government  - Type City council  - Mayor (Primátor) Andrej ÄŽurkovský  - Headquarters Primates Palace Area [1]  - City 367. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Status: Non-metropolitan county Admin. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guinea. ... Conakry or Konakry (Malinké: KÉ”nakiri), population 2,000,000 (2002), is the capital of Guinea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Albania. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Motto: Nec temere, nec timide (No rashness, no timidness) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Pomeranian Powiat city county Gmina GdaÅ„sk Established 10th century City Rights 1263 Government  - Mayor PaweÅ‚ Adamowicz Area  - City 262 km²  (101. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Heidenheim an der Brenz (short: Heidenheim) is a city in eastern Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... The Yanshul, half-cat half-owl, the symbol of Holons Childrens Museum. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nigeria. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lithuania. ... Location Ethnographic region Lithuania minor County KlaipÄ—da County Municipality Geographic coordinate system Number of elderates 1 General Information Capital of KlaipÄ—da County KlaipÄ—da city municipality Population 187,316 in 2006 (3rd) First mentioned 1252 Granted city rights 1254 or 1258 (Lübeck); 1475 (Kulm) KlaipÄ—da ( (help... Image File history File links Flag_of_Peru. ... Nickname: Motto: Hoc signum vere regum est Lima Province and Lima within Peru Coordinates: , Country  Peru Region Lima Region Province Lima Province Settled January 18, 1535 Government  - Mayor Luis Castañeda Lossio Area  - City 804. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovenia. ...   (IPA: ) is the capital and largest city of Slovenia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary. ... Nickname: Location of Miskolc in Hungary Coordinates: , Country Hungary Region Northern Hungary County Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Town since 1365 City since 1909 Urban county since 1970 Government  - Mayor Sándor Káli (MSZP) Area  - City 236. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_El_Salvador. ... Meanguera is a municipality in the Morazán department of El Salvador. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country Republic of China Region Northern Taiwan City seat Xinyi District (信義區) Government  - Mayor Hau Lung-bin (KMT)1 E9 Area  - City 271. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Volgograd (Russian: ), formerly called Tsaritsyn (Russian: ) (1598–1925) and Stalingrad (Russian: ) (1925–1961) is a city and the administrative center of Volgograd Oblast, Russia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ... Statistics Province: Connacht County Town: Castlebar Code: MO Area: 5,397 km² Population (2006) 123,648 Website: www. ...

See also

Cleveland, Ohio Portal

Image File history File links Cleveland_Municipal_Flag. ... Cleveland East Ohio Gas Explosion occurred on the afternoon of Friday, October 20th, 1944. ... Map of Cleveland, Ohio The Cleveland Torso Murderer (also known as the Mad Butcher of Kingsbury Run) was an unidentified serial killer active in the Cleveland, Ohio, area in the early 20th century. ... The following list are countries that currently have Consulate offices in Cleveland, Ohio:[1] In the United States, the consular network (rank in descending order: Consul-General, Consul, Vice-Consul, Honorary Consul) (Consul General) - A consul general heads a consulate general and is a consul of the highest rank serving...

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  57. ^ Travel Cleveland: Sports + Recreation. Convention and Visitors Bureau of Greater Cleveland. Retrieved on 2007-05-22.
  58. ^ Cleveland IndiansHistory. Major League Baseball. Retrieved on 2007-08-09.
  59. ^ Darcy, Kieran. Mistakes by the Lake. ESPN.com: Page 2. (2004-07-13). Retrieved on 2005-10-11.
  60. ^ Nierman, Jonathan (October 11, 2005). Commissioner sets Toronto deadline. Major League Soccer. Retrieved on 2007-08-10.
  61. ^ Cleveland Barons (1976–1978). Sports E-cyclopedia. Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
  62. ^ Lake Erie Monsters coming ashore. American Hockey League (2007-01-25). Retrieved on 2007-01-25.
  63. ^ "Rockers divvied up in dispersal draft", USA Today, January 6, 2004. Retrieved on 2007-08-10. 
  64. ^ Sampling the Population. Nielsen Media Research (2006-09-23). Retrieved on 2007-08-02.
  65. ^ NewsChannel5's First 50 Years. WEWS-TV (2005). Retrieved on 2007-08-02.
  66. ^ Cleveland OH, RadioStationWorld. Retrieved on 2007-08-02.
  67. ^ Stapleton, Darwin H. Industry. The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. 1997-07-17. Retrieved on 2007-07-22.
  68. ^ Cho, Janet H. "A global venue; Cleveland's Jones Day law firm makes motions all over the world, but its culture is rooted in the town where it began", The Plain Dealer. 2006-06-19.
  69. ^ State Profile: Largest Employers, Ohio. America's Career InfoNet (2007). Retrieved on 2007-08-10.
  70. ^ Best Hospitals 2006: Cleveland Clinic. U.S. News & World Report (2006). Retrieved on 2006-09-17.
  71. ^ Best Hospitals 2006: Cancer. U.S. News & World Report. (2006-07-13) Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
  72. ^ BioEnterprise (April 24, 2007). Midwest Health Care Startups Raise $324 Million in Q1 2007 (PDF). Press release. Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
  73. ^ Case Western Reserve University: West Quad. Case Western Reserve University: School of Medicine. Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
  74. ^ Fiber Optic Network Connecting Cleveland and Northeast Ohio. OneCommunity project. Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
  75. ^ Gomez, Henry J. "Top U.S. Broadband town: Cleveland". The Plain Dealer. (2006-01-20).
  76. ^ Vanac, Mary. "Ohio hot to invest in Wi-Fi technology", The Plain Dealer. 2006-10-05.
  77. ^ Gibson, Campbell. Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990. US Census Bureau. Retrieved on 2005-10-11.
  78. ^ Baranick, Alana. "Cleveland's Hungarian story expands beyond Buckeye Rd. where immigrants paved the way for new arrivals", The Plain Dealer. Retrieved 2007-07-08.
  79. ^ The Associated Press. "Cleveland rated poorest big city in U.S." September 23, 2004. Retrieved from MSNBC on 2007-08-01.
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  82. ^ Leip, David. 2004 Presidential General Election Results. Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved on 2007-05-09.
  83. ^ Richardson, James F. Politics. The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. 1998-05-13. Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
  84. ^ "Carl B. Stokes, 68, first Black Mayor of a major U.S. city, dies - Obituary". Jet, April 22, 1996. Available at findarticles.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-10.
  85. ^ "America's Best Colleges 2007". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved on 2007-07-22.
  86. ^ Wertheim, Sally H. Higher Education. The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. 1998-05-12. Retrieved on 2007-07-22.
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  88. ^ Reform History. Catalyst Cleveland. Retrieved on 2007-05-09.
  89. ^ Tinsley, Jesse. "Burke to host air service again; Startup offers no-hassle hop to Detroit, more", The Plain Dealer. 2006-07-18.
  90. ^ The Ohio Hub. Ohio Rail Development Commission. Retrieved on 2006-11-04.
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The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... InsertSLUTTY WHORES≤ non-formatted text here{| class=toccolours border=1 cellpadding=4 style=float: right; margin: 0 0 1em 1em; width: 20em; border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 95%; clear: right; |+ United States Geological Survey |- |style= align=center colspan=2| [[Image:USGS logo. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... 2000 US Census logo The Twenty-Second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... 2000 US Census logo The Twenty-Second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Economist is a weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London, UK. It has been in continuous publication since September 1843. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Urban Dictionary is an online dictionary whose definitions are written by users. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Find A Grave is an online database of seventeen million cemeteries and burial records. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Civic League is an organization founded in 1894 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania at a meeting of civic leaders, policy-makers, journalists, and educators (including Theodore Roosevelt, Louis Brandeis, Marshall Field, and Frederick Law Olmsted) to discuss the future of American cities. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Project for Public Spaces (PPS) is a nonprofit organization dedicated to creating and sustaining public places that build communities. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Frank George Jackson (born October 4, 1946) is an American politician of the Democratic Party. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Australian Weather Channel with the same name, see The Weather Channel, Australia The Weather Channel (TWC) is a cable and satellite television network that broadcasts weather and weather-related news 24 hours a day. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Weather Service (NWS) is one of the six scientific agencies that make up the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the United States government. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Western Reserve Historical Society (WRHS) is located in Cleveland, Ohio, USA. Its mission is to promote and preserve the history of the Western Reserve region of northeast Ohio. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Brookings Institution is a United States nonprofit public policy think tank based in Washington, D.C.. Described in 1977, by TIME magazine as as the nations pre-eminent liberal think tank,[1] the institution is devoted to public service through research and education in the social sciences, particularly... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Free Times is an alternative weekly newspaper from Cleveland, Ohio. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame at sunset. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Time (whose trademark is capitalized TIME) is a weekly American newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and U.S. News & World Report. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cleveland Orchestra is one of the major symphony orchestras in the United States. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Museum of Contemporary Art Cleveland, better known by its acronym, MOCA, is a contemporary art museum located in Cleveland, Ohio. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Plain Dealer is the major daily newspaper of Cleveland, Ohio. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Plain Dealer is the major daily newspaper of Cleveland, Ohio. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nielsen Media Research (NMR) is a U.S. firm, headquartered in New York City, and operating primarily from Oldsmar, FL, which measures media audiences, including television, radio and newspapers. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... WEWS-TV, channel 5, is the local ABC network affiliate in Cleveland, Ohio. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... U.S. News & World Report is a weekly newsmagazine. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Plain Dealer is the major daily newspaper of Cleveland, Ohio. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 278th day of the year (279th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... MSNBC, a combination of MSN and NBC, is a 24-hour cable news channel in the United States and Canada, and a news website. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Plain Dealer is the major daily newspaper of Cleveland, Ohio. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The University of Akron is an institution of higher learning located in Akron, Ohio. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... U.S. News & World Report is a weekly newsmagazine. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Microsoft Word is a word processing application from Microsoft. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Cleveland State University (abbr. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...

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City of Cleveland (0 words)
At its simplest, a connection can be a bike path that connects a neighborhood to the waterfront or a bus line that connects people to jobs.
Cleveland is a great city, a place of connections - an evolving community, vibrant and viable, where we can all belong.
Mayor Jackson administers the oath of office to Cleveland's recent EMT graduates.
Biography of Grover Cleveland (595 words)
One of nine children of a Presbyterian minister, Cleveland was born in New Jersey in 1837.
Cleveland won the Presidency with the combined support of Democrats and reform Republicans, the "Mugwumps," who disliked the record of his opponent James G. Blaine of Maine.
A bachelor, Cleveland was ill at ease at first with all the comforts of the White House.
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COMMENTARY     

Phil
25th July 2010
"The Flats has been bulldozed! There are no bars or restaurants there now. Google Satellite map it and see for yourself!

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