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Encyclopedia > Clergy

Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. The term comes from Greek κληρος (a lot, that which is assigned by lot (allotment) or metaphorically, heritage). Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Athenian democracy (sometimes called Direct democracy) developed in the Greek city-state of Athens. ...


Depending on the religion, clergy usually take care of the ritual aspects of the religious life, teach or otherwise help in spreading the religion's doctrine and practices. They often deal with life-cycle events such as childbirth, baptism, circumcision, coming of age ceremonies, marriage, and death. Clergy of most faiths work both inside and outside formal houses of worship, and can be found working in hospitals, nursing homes, missions, armies, etc. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Parturition redirects here. ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... This article is about male circumcision. ... For other uses, see Coming of Age (disambiguation). ... Matrimony redirects here. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation), Dead (disambiguation), or Death (band). ... A Mission station is a location for missionary work. ...


There is a significant difference between clergy and theologians; clergy have the above-mentioned duties while theologians are scholars of religion and theology, and are not necessarily clergy. A lay-person can be a theologian. The two fields, of course, often overlap. In some denominations clergy status is reserved for males. In other denominations both men and women serve as clergy. Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ...


Clergy are protected by special laws in many countries. In some cases clergy are financed (or co-financed) by the state, but usually they are financially supported by the donations of individual members of their religion. For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ...


In Christianity there is a wide range of formal and informal clergy positions, including deacons, priests, bishops, and ministers. In Islam, religious leaders are usually known as imams or ayatollahs. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For other uses, see Deacon (disambiguation). ... This article is about religious workers. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... In most Protestant churches, a minister is a member of the ordained clergy who leads a congregation or participates in a role in a parachurch ministry; such a person may also be called a Pastor, Preacher, Bishop, Chaplain or Elder. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Ayatollah (disambiguation). ...

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Christian clergy

In general, Christian clergy are ordained; that is, they are set apart for specific ministry in religious rites. Others who have definite roles in worship but who are not ordained (e.g. laypeople acting as acolytes) are generally not considered clergy, even though they may require some sort of official approval to exercise these ministries. This article is about the sacrament. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... In religious organizations , the laity comprises all lay persons, i. ... In some Christian churches, an acolyte is one who wishes to attain clergyhood. ...


Types of clerics are distinguished from offices, even when the latter are commonly or exclusively occupied by clerics. A Roman Catholic cardinal, for instance, is almost without exception a cleric, but a cardinal is not a type of cleric. An archbishop is not a distinct type of cleric, but is simply a bishop who occupies a particular position with special authority. Conversely, a youth minister at a parish may or may not be a cleric. A parish is a type of administrative subdivision. ...


Different churches have different systems of clergy, though churches with similar polity have similar systems. Ecclesiastical polity is the operational and governance structure of a church or Christian denomination. ...


Catholic clergy

Mgr Rauber, Cardinal Danneels, Mgr Vangheluwe and Mgr De Kesel
Mgr Rauber, Cardinal Danneels, Mgr Vangheluwe and Mgr De Kesel
See also: Bishop (Catholic Church), Priesthood (Catholic Church), Deacon, and Lay Ecclesial Ministry

Ordained Catholic clergymen are deacons, priests, or bishops, i.e., they belong to the diaconate, the presbyterate, or the episcopate. Among bishops, some are metropolitans, archbishops, or patriarchs, and the Pope is the Bishop of Rome. With rare exceptions, cardinals are bishops, although it was not always so; formerly, some cardinals were unordained laymen and not clergymen. The Holy See supports the activity of its clergy by the Congregation for the Clergy ([1]), a dicastery of Roman curia. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... A bishop in the Catholic Church is a member of the College of Bishops, is an ordained minister, and holds the fullness of the priesthood. ... The Ministerial Priesthood in the Catholic Church includes both the orders of bishops and presbyters, which in Latin is sacerdos. ... For other uses, see Deacon (disambiguation). ... Lay Ecclesial Ministry is the relatively new category of pastoral ministers in the Catholic Church who serve the Church but are not ordained. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Catholic deacon... The diaconate is one of three ordained offices in the Roman Catholic, Anglican, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox churches. ... Roman Catholic priest A priest or priestess is a holy man or woman who takes an officiating role in worship of any religion, with the distinguishing characteristic of offering sacrifices. ... In hierarchical Christian churches, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop (then more precisely called Metropolitan archbishop) of a metropolis; that is, the chief city of an old Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... For other senses, see Patriarch (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Pope. ... For other uses, see Cardinal (disambiguation). ... Prefect Cardinal Hummes The Congregation for the Clergy (Congregatio pro Clericis) is the congregation of the Roman Curia responsible for overseeing matters regarding priests and deacons not belonging to religious orders. ... Dicastery (from Greek δικαστήριον, law-court, from δικάστης, judge/juror) is an Italicism sometimes used in English to refer to the Departments of the Roman Curia. ... The Roman Curia — usually called the Vatican — is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See, coordinating and providing the necessary organisation for the correct functioning of the Catholic Church and the achievement of its goals. ...


Canon Law indicates (canon 107) that "by divine institution, there are in the Church [Latin: Ecclesia] clergy [Latin: clerices] distinguished from laics". This distinction of a separate class was formed in the early times of Christianity; one early source reflecting this distinction is the writings of St. Ignatius of Antioch. The original clerics were the bishops (the Twelve Apostles) and the deacons (their seventy appointed assistants); the presbyterate actually developed as a sort of semi-bishop (cf. the disused chorepiskopos, "rural bishop"). In the Catholic Church, only men can be members of the clergy. Canon Law is the ecclesiastical law of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Saint Ignatius of Antioch (also known as Theophorus)(c. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For...


Catholic clerical organization is hierarchical in nature: before the reforms after the Second Vatican Council, the tonsure admitted a man to the clerical state, after which he could receive the four minor orders (ostiary, lectorate, order of exorcists, order of acolytes) and then the major orders of subdiaconate, diaconate, presbyterate, and finally the episcopate, which is defined in Catholic doctrine as "the fullness of Holy Orders". Today the minor orders and the subdiaconate have been replaced by lay ministries and the tonsure no longer takes place, the clerical state being tied to reception of Holy Orders rather than being symbolically part of a bishop's household. The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twenty-first Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Tonsure is the practice of some Christian churches of cutting the hair from the scalp of clerics as a symbol of their renunciation of worldly fashion and esteem. ... The minor orders are the lowest ranks in the Christian clergy. ... The term major orders was a part of the clerical terminology of the Roman Catholic Church before the Second Vatican Council. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Catholic deacon... Subdeacon is a title used in various branches of Christianity. ... Unlike in several Protestant churches, in the Roman Catholic Church the term minister is not commonly used to refer to a member of the clergy nor as a common term of address. ...


The exceptions are certain papally-approved Indult Catholic societies[citation needed] as well as Eastern Catholic churches. In the Eastern Churches, clergy status is extended to all holders of minor orders[citation needed] (which are retained in these traditions) and seminarians. Thus, in eastern Churches, deacons, priests, bishops, etc... are all called "Father," while those not in Holy Orders are addressed most often as "Brother," despite the monastic implications of the title (in the Western or Latin Church, only priests are addressed as "Father," deacons usually being addressed as "deacon" or "mister," and bishops bay various titles such as "your excellency," "bishop," or "most reverend father in God"). This distinction can lead to some inter-Ritual issues, such as the wearing of clerical apparel and the signing of one's name, especially if attending, living, or working in a mostly Roman Rite institution. Indult Catholics is a term used to denote Roman Catholics who prefer to attend the Latin-language Tridentine rite of Mass as used prior to 1969 rather than the standard present-day form of the liturgy. ...


Monks and other religious are not necessarily part of the clergy, unless they have received Holy Orders. Thus, The unordained monks, nuns, friars, and religious brothers and sisters should not be considered part of the clergy. Holy Orders is one of the Seven Sacraments considered to be of Divine institution in Catholic doctrine. For other uses, see Monk (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nun (disambiguation). ... A friar is a member of a religious mendicant order of men. ... The practice of the Roman Catholic Church includes seven sacraments. ...


As many colleges at Medieval universities were restricted to members of the clergy, the term also survives in students' organizations at some ancient universities, such as Goliardia. These are echoes of the Medieval Goliards, the clerici vagantes. The term clerici vagantes , or "wandering clerics," comes from the Medieval phenomenon of clergy who had either abandoned their diocese or otherwise lost their incardination, and so sometimes took to wandering as bands of entertainers particularly through university towns. The Council of Trent tried to abolish this use, and only in recent times the rule was restored that a clericus has a perpetual and absolute obligation to serve the diocese or the Order to which he is assigned; only with a special authorization he can be accepted in the jurisdiction of another diocese or of another Order. ... The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ... Catholic religious orders are organizations of laity and/orclergy in the Roman Catholic Church who live under a common rule. ...


Current canon law prescribes that to be ordained a priest, an education is required of two years of scholastic philosophy study, and 4 years of theology; dogmatic and moral theology, the Holy Scriptures, and canon law have to be studied within a seminary or an ecclesiastical faculty at a university. This reflects the scholastic and intellectual traditions of the Latin Church. Scholastic redirects here. ... For the Ecuadorian artist, see Manuel Rendón Seminario. ...


Promises of celibacy and obedience are required as a condition for ordination to the diaconate and priesthood in the Latin Rite (celibacy is not required, however, for permanent deacons who are already married, but they are forbidden from marrying should their wife die); this is a disciplinary and administrative rule rather than a dogmatic and doctrinal one. Celibacy has taken many forms in different times and places. The Council in Trullo (Quinisextum Concilium) in 692 barred bishops from marrying, but did not prevent married men from becoming priests and excommunicated those deacons who divorced their spouses in order to become ordained. This rule is still followed for ordained deacons in the Latin Rite, as well as for priests in the Eastern Catholic Churches. Married men are not ordained priests in the Latin Rite, although some married priests do exist who were ordained in the Anglican church and later received into the Roman Catholic Church and re-ordained (as the Catholic Church does not recognize the validity of Holy Orders in the Anglican communion). See also Presbyterorum Ordinis for a modern statement of the nature of the Catholic priesthood. Clerical celibacy is the discipline by which, in some of the particular Churches that constitute the Catholic Church, only unmarried men are, as a rule, to be ordained to the priesthood. ... The Latin Rite is one of the 23 sui iuris particular Churches within the Catholic Church. ... Both the Fifth Ecumenical Council and the Sixth Ecumenical Council failed to produce disciplinary norms, for which reason the emperor Justinian II convoked an assembly in 692 to meet in Constantinople in the same hall where the Sixth Council had been held, called Trullo. As it sought to complete the... Events The Quinisext Council (also said in Trullo), held in Constantinople, laid the foundation for the Orthodox Canon Law The Arabs conquer Armenia. ... The Eastern Catholic Churches are autonomous particular Churches in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... The Latin Rite is one of the 23 sui iuris particular Churches within the Catholic Church. ... Presbyterorum Ordinis, the Decree on the Ministry and Life of Priests, is one of the documents produced by the Second Vatican Council. ...


Clergy have four classical rights:

  1. Right of Canon: whoever commits real violence on the person of a clergyman, commits a sacrilege. This decree was issued in a Lateran Council of 1097 (requested by Pope Urban II), then renewed in the Lateran Council II (1139).
  2. Right of Forum: by this right clergy may be judged by ecclesiastical tribunals only. Emperor Constantine I granted this right for bishops, which was subsequently extended to the rest of the clergy by Imperial Decree.
  3. Right of Immunity: clergy cannot be called for military service or for duties or charges not compatible with his role.
  4. Right of Competence: a certain part of the income of clergy, necessary for sustenance, cannot be sequestered by any action of creditors.

The extent to which these rights are recognized under civil law varies dramatically from country to country, with traditionally Catholic countries being more inclined to respect these rights. Sacrilege is in general the violation or injurious treatment of a sacred object. ... Events Edgar I deposes Donald III to become king of Scotland. ... Pope Urban II (1042 – July 29, 1099), born Otho of Lagery (alternatively: Otto or Odo), was a Pope from 1088 to July 29, 1099. ... The Second Lateran, and tenth ecumenical council was held by Pope Innocent II in April 1139, and was attended by close to a thousand clerics. ... July 26, Independence of Portugal from the Kingdom of León and Castile declared after the Battle of Ourique against the Almoravids lead by Ali ibn Yusuf: Prince Afonso Henriques becomes Afonso I, King of Portugal, after assembling the first assembly of the estates-general of Portugal at Lamego, where... A tribunal is a generic term for any body acting judicially, whether or not it is called a tribunal in its title. ... Constantine. ...


Orthodox clergy

The clergy of the Orthodox Church are the bishops, priests, and deacons, the same offices identified in the New Testament and found in the early church. Bishops include archbishops, metropolitans, and patriarchs. Priests (also called presbyters or elders) include archpriests, protopresbyters, hieromonks (priest-monks) and archimandrites (senior hieromonks). Deacons also include hierodeacons (deacon-monks) archdeacons and protodeacons; subdeacons, however, are not deacons, and comprise a separate office that is not to be major clergy, as do readers, acolytes and others. Bishops are usually drawn from the ranks of the monks, and are required to be celibate; however, a non-monastic priest may be ordained to the episcopate if he no longer lives with his wife (following Canon XII of the Quinisext Council)[2]. In contemporary usage such a non-monastic priest is usually tonsured to the monastic state at some point prior to his consecration to the episcopacy. Priests and deacons may be married, provided that they are married prior to their ordination to the diaconate. If they are later divorced or remarried, they are not permitted to remarry unless they first leave the clergy and return to lay status. All Orthodox clergy must be male. There are records of deaconesses in the New Testament and in the early church; the consensus today is that this office was never equivalent to that of deacon, but had separate responsibilities. The ancient office of deaconess was subsumed by the office of abbess. Subdeacon is a title used in various branches of Christianity. ... Both the Fifth Ecumenical Council and the Sixth Ecumenical Council failed to produce disciplinary norms, for which reason the emperor Justinian II convoked an assembly in 692 to meet in Constantinople in the same domed hall where the Sixth Council had been held, called in Trullo (= under the dome). ...


The typical progression of ordination is: reader, subdeacon, deacon, priest, bishop. Each ordination must take place in order, although it is possible to ordain a layman to all five offices in the course of three days. The organization of the Orthodox Church is both hierarchical and conciliar (or synodal). It is hierarchical in that priests, deacons, and laymen are expected to follow their bishop and to do nothing without their bishop, and in that Jesus Christ is the head of every bishop. It is conciliar or synodal in that there is no single Pope whom all the bishops follow (the Pope of Alexandria functions as a patriarch), but rather the bishops meet together in synods or councils and reach binding agreements through consensus. A bishop, even the patriarch, is bound to obey the decisions of his synod. A council with representatives from all the churches is an ecumenical council. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... It has been suggested that Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church be merged into this article or section. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      An...


Although Orthodox clergy are given considerable honor by the Orthodox Church, each ordination is also viewed as a kind of martyrdom. The Orthodox cleric agrees to be a servant of both Jesus Christ and of the people of the church; many of the vestments are intended to remind him of this. Much is expected of the clergy, both practically and spiritually; consequently, they also have a special place in the litanies that are prayed, asking God to have mercy on them.


There is no set universal rule for the training of clergy, and there is some variation among the local churches. Traditionally, candidates for the priesthood either reside with their bishops for a certain period and are given personal instruction by him, or, if they are monks, receive instruction by obedience to their monastic superiors. Modern practice in most places is for them to be trained at a seminary, which may or may not be associated with a monastery. The course of study generally runs for about three years,[3] and an undergraduate degree is often a requirement for admission. Instruction is given in dogmatics, theology, ecclesiastical history, canon law, liturgics, Biblical studies, and other subjects, although emphasis varies from institution to institution. Graduation from a seminary is no guarantee of ordination however, which is solely at the discretion of the diocesan bishop. Requirements for the training of those who intend to remain in the diaconate are often less rigorous than for priests.


Anglican clergy

Main article: Anglican ministry

In the Anglican churches clergy is comprised of deacons, priests (presbyters) and bishops, in ascending order of seniority. Canon, Archdeacon, Archbishop, and the like are specific titles within these divisions. Bishops are typically overseers, presiding over a diocese composed of many parishes, with Archbishops presiding over a province, which is a group of dioceses. A parish (generally a single church) is looked after by one or more priests, although one priest may be responsible for several small parishes. New clergy are ordained deacons. Those seeking to become priests are usually ordained priest after a year of satisfactory service. During the 1960s, some Anglican churches reinstituted the diaconate as a permanent, rather than transitional, order of ministry focused on ministry that bridges the church and the world, especially ministry to those on the margins of society. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... For other uses, see Deacon (disambiguation). ... This article is about religious workers. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... For the Major League Baseball player, see Maurice Archdeacon. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ... A parish is a type of administrative subdivision. ... A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ... A parish is a type of administrative subdivision. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ...


For the forms of address to be used with Anglican clergy, see Forms of Address in the United Kingdom. Forms of address used in the United Kingdom are given below. ...


During the 1980s, before the acceptance of women as equal members of the clergy, women could be ordained as 'deaconesses', who were technically distinct from deacons but carried approximately the same privileges and responsibilities. This title has now been abolished. The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ...


In the Anglican church all clergy are permitted to marry. In most branches women may become deacons or priests, but while fifteen out of 38 member churches allow for women bishops, only three have ordained any. Celebration of the Eucharist is reserved for priests and bishops. For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ...


Each branch of the Anglican church is presided over by one or more primates or metropolitans (archbishops or presiding bishops). The senior archbishop of the Anglican Communion is the Archbishop of Canterbury, who acts as leader of the Church of England and 'first among equals' of the primates of all Anglican churches. Primate (from the Latin Primus, first) is a title or rank bestowed on some bishops in certain Christian churches. ... In hierarchical Christian churches, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop (then more precisely called Metropolitan archbishop) of a metropolis; that is, the chief city of an old Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital. ... Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... The Church of England logo since 1996. ...


The status of deacon, priest or bishop is a function of the person and not the job. A priest who retires is still a priest, even if they no longer have any role of religious leadership.


Protestant clergy

Clergy in Protestantism fill a wide variety of roles and functions. In many denominations, such as Methodism, Presbyterianism, and Lutheranism, the roles of clergy are similar to Roman Catholic or Anglican clergy, in that they hold an ordained pastoral or priestly office, administer the sacraments, proclaim the word, lead a local church or parish, and so forth. The Baptist tradition only recognizes only two ordained positions in the church as being the Elders (Pastors) and Deacons as outlined in the third chapter of I Timothy in the Bible. Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Note that this kind of denomination is not that of a coin or banknote. ... For other uses, see Methodism (disambiguation). ... Presbyterianism is a Christian denomination following Jesus which is most prevalent within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ... This article is about the sacrament. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is...


The process of being designated as a member of the Protestant clergy, as well as that of being assigned to a particular office, varies with the denomination or faith group. Some Protestant denominations, such as Methodism, Presbyterianism, and Lutheranism, are hierarchical in nature; and ordination and assignment to individual pastorates or other ministries are made by the parent denominations. In other traditions, such as the Baptist and other Congregational groups, local churches are free to hire (and often ordain) their own clergy, although the parent denominations typically maintain lists of suitable candidates seeking appointment to local church ministries and encourage local churches to consider these individuals when filling available positions. For other uses, see Methodism (disambiguation). ... Presbyterianism is a Christian denomination following Jesus which is most prevalent within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation indepedently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ...


Some Protestant denominations require that candidates for ordination be "licensed" to the ministry for a period of time (typically one to three years) prior to being ordained. This period typically is spent performing the duties of ministry under the guidance, supervision, and evaluation of a more senior, ordained minister. In some denominations, however, licensure is a permanent, rather than a transitional state for ministers assigned to certain specialized ministries, such as music ministry or youth ministry.


All Protestant denominations reject the idea (following Luther) that the clergy are a separate category of people, but rather stress the priesthood of all believers. Based on this theological approach, Protestants do not have a sacrament of Ordination like the pre-Reformation Churches. Protestant ordination, therefore, can be viewed more as a public statement by the ordaining body that an individual possesses the theological knowledge, moral fitness, and practical skills required for service in that faith group's ministry. Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite that mediates divine grace, constituting a sacred mystery. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Catholic deacon... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ...


Some Protestant denominations dislike the word clergy and do not use it of their own leaders. Often they refer to their leaders as pastors or ministers, titles that, if used, sometimes apply to the person only as long as he or she holds a particular office. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A pastor is an... In most Protestant churches, a minister is a member of the ordained clergy who leads a congregation or participates in a role in a parachurch ministry; such a person may also be called a Pastor, Preacher, Bishop, Chaplain or Elder. ...


Latter-day Saints

In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the term "clergy" does not apply. The Latter-day Saints do not use this term within their Church. The term "clergy", according to the Latter-day Saints, was never used in the early Christian Church of Jesus Christ and his apostles. The Latter-day Saints refer to the "priesthood", specifically the Melchizedek and Aaronic Priesthoods. The term "clergy" is inappropriate to use for any of the membership positions or callings within The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. For other uses, see Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (disambiguation). ...


The positions within The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints are volunteer, where the person holds a regular job within the world and devotes his/her time, for free, to the duties assigned to him/her within the church called "callings". Callings as missionary work are also volunteer, but can temporarily require full-time service. A full-time missionary is usually sent by the Church, usually for a 2 year period, to another part of the world to perform the assigned missionary duties. Such missionaries giving this full-time service live off their personal savings. Missionaries are usually young, from the age of 19 years, but some missionary duties require a retired person or couple.


Traditional functions such as leading meetings, giving sermons, teaching classes, and ministering in the home and at hospitals are done by ordinary church members appointed, or called, to those responsibilities. These roles are generally open to all regardless of theological training or sex. Boys and girls usually begin giving short sermons to the entire congregation and may assume certain leadership roles starting at age 12, but in most cases do not start regular teaching assignments or taking primary responsibility for other tasks until age 18.


The Church does not require formal training in theology. In practice, however, most Latter-day Saint men and women have significant theological training. Every member of the church is encouraged, but not forced to:

  1. Attend several different levels of Sunday school: Nursery starting at eighteen months, and then move up to primary (age 3), young men/young women (age 12-18), and then Priesthood Quorum (for men) Relief Society (women only).
  2. Attend four years of Seminary during high school years and attend Institute classes at college
  3. Study the scriptures and doctrines of the gospel on their own at least 30 minutes per day throughout their life
  4. Study scriptures with family on a daily basis.
  5. Serve a two-year full-time mission as a young man (for women, a mission is only 1½ years and is optional), or as an elder (retired) couple.

Performance of certain ordinances (rituals) and many leadership roles are restricted to the priesthood. Priesthood offices are deacon, teacher, priest, bishop, elder, high priest, seventy, apostle, and patriarch. For the Ecuadorian artist, see Manuel Rendón Seminario. ... It has been suggested that Senior Missionaries be merged into this article or section. ... In Mormonism, an ordinance is a religious ritual of special significance, often involving a covenant with God. ...


Admission to the Latter-day Saint priesthood requires no training; to be a member of the Latter-day Saint priesthood, one must be male, be at least 12 years old, and be morally worthy, as determined in a confidential interview with a local ecclesiastical leader, that being the Bishop. Anyone who meets these requirements are ordained to the priesthood as a matter of course. Whether for a young man or a new adult male (convert) member, the first priesthood assignment is in the Aaronic Priesthood. See Priesthood (Latter-day Saint). Over time, if found worthy, the member rises to elder which is the Melchizedek Priesthood. A Latter-day Saint is a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). ... In Mormonism, priesthood is considered to be the power or authority to act in the name of God. ... In Mormonism, priesthood is considered to be the power or authority to act in the name of God. ...


Leadership in the church is organized in several levels:

Some of the key leadership positions at each level are: In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, a ward is the larger of two types of local congregations (the smaller being a branch). ... A stake is an administrative unit composed of multiple congregrations in sects of the Latter Day Saint movement. ... An area is an administrative unit of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, which typically is composed of multiple stakes and missions. ... In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, a general authority is a member of a select body of approximately 100 men with administrative and ecclesiastical authority in the church. ...

W Elders Quorum president Presides over all Elders
W,S,G     Primary president Presides over leaders and teachers in the children’s organization
W,S,G Relief Society president Presides over leaders and teachers in the women’s organization
W,S,G Young Men president Presides over leaders and teachers in the youth organization
W,S,G Young Women president Presides over leaders and teachers in the youth organization
W,S Activities chairperson Chairs activity committee
W,S,G Music chairperson Chairs music committee, runs music program
W Bishop Presides over a congregation, administers in physical and spiritual matters
S Stake president Presides over the entire stake
S Stake high council Twelve men assigned to speak and perform administrative functions within a stake
A,G Seventy Travels around the area/world teaching the Gospel
G Apostle Member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, special witness for Christ
G First Presidency of the church Leads the church as directed by revelation from God.

Positions marked with ‡ do not require the priesthood and are traditionally filled by women at all levels. Other leadership positions require priesthood ordination, for example a Stake President must be ordained a High Priest. Most church leaders select two “counselors” who are called to assist them in their duties and to take charge when they are at work or otherwise unable to preside. Elder is a priesthood office in the Melchizedek Priesthood of denominations within the Latter Day Saint movement, including The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. ... The Primary (formerly the Primary Association) is a childrens organization and an official auxiliary within The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. ... The Relief Society is the womens organization of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. ... The Young Men Organization (often referred to incorrectly as Young Mens) is a youth organization and an official auxiliary of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. ... The Young Women Organization (often referred to incorrectly as Young Womens or Young Womans) is a youth organization and an official auxiliary of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. ... In Mormonism, the Bishop is the leader of a local congregation and an office of the Aaronic Priesthood. ... A stake president is a title held by a Mormon religious leader who oversees a unit of the church called a stake. ... In Mormonism, a high council is one of several different governing bodies that have existed in the church hierarchy on many Latter Day Saint denominations. ... Seventy is a priesthood office in the Melchizedek Priesthood of several denominations within the Latter Day Saint movement, including The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. ... In Mormonism, an Apostle is a special witness of the name of Christ who is sent to teach the principles of salvation to others. ... The current Quorum of the Twelve Apostles in the LDS Church. ... Thomas S. Monson, Gordon B. Hinckley, and James E. Faust, the recent members of the First Presidency of the LDS Church. ...


Common ordinances (rituals) which require the priesthood are: Passing the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper (Deacon), blessing the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper (Priest), Baptizing (Priest), and giving priesthood blessings (Elder). All are eligible to receive these ordinances on condition of worthiness. In Mormonism, an ordinance is a religious ritual of special significance, often involving the formation of a covenant with God. ... In Mormonism, the Sacrament is the Lords Supper, in which participants eat bread and drink wine (or water, in the case of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints since the late 1800s). ... Deacon is a priesthood office in the Aaronic Priesthood of denominations within the Latter Day Saint movement, including The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. ... Priest is a priesthood office in the Aaronic Priesthood of denominations within the Latter Day Saint movement, including The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ...


Judaism

Main article: Rabbi

In ancient Judaism there was a formal priestly tribe known as the Kohanim; each member of the tribe, a Kohen had priestly duties, many of which centered around the Temple in Jerusalem. Since the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem by the Romans in 70 CE, their role has been significantly reduced. Today, Kohanim know their status only by family tradition, and they still offer the priestly blessing during certain services in the synagogue and perform the Pidyon Ha-ben (redemption of the first-born son) ceremony. Otherwise, they exercise no particular leadership role. For the town in Italy, see Rabbi, Italy. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Cohen (disambiguation) Position of the kohens hands and fingers during the Priestly Blessing A kohen (or cohen, Hebrew כּהן, priest, pl. ... Cohen (disambiguation) Position of the kohens hands and fingers during the Priestly Blessing A kohen (or cohen, Hebrew כּהן, priest, pl. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ...


Since the time of the destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem, the religious leaders and clergy of Judaism have been the rabbis, who are technically scholars in Jewish law empowered to act as judges in a rabbinical court. The leadership of a Jewish congregation is, in fact, in the hands of the laity: the president of a synagogue is its actual leader and any adult Jew (or at least any male in Orthodox congregations) can lead prayer services. Rabbis are not intermediaries between God and man: the word "rabbi" means "teacher", and the rabbi functions as advisor to the congregation and counselor. The rabbi is not an occupation found in the Torah (Five books of Moses); the first time this word is mentioned is in the Mishnah. The modern form of the rabbi developed in the Talmudic era. Rabbis are given authority to make interpretations of Jewish law and custom. Traditionally, a man obtains one of three levels of Semicha (rabbinic ordination) after the completion of an arduous learning program in Torah, Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), Mishnah and Talmud, Midrash, Jewish ethics and lore, the codes of Jewish law and responsa, theology and philosophy. For the town in Italy, see Rabbi, Italy. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ... The Talmud (Hebrew: ) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs, and history. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה ; alternate transliterations include Halocho and Halacha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions. ... Semicha (Hebrew: ‎, leaning [of the hands]), also semichut (Hebrew: ‎, ordination), or semicha lerabbanut (Hebrew: ‎, rabbinical ordination) is derived from a Hebrew word which means to rely on or to be authorized. It generally refers to the ordination of a rabbi within Judaism. ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... The Talmud (Hebrew: ) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs, and history. ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה ; alternate transliterations include Halocho and Halacha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions. ... Note: This is based on an entry from the 1906 public domain Jewish Encyclopedia The responsa literature, known in Hebrew as Sheelot U-teshuvot (questions and answers), is the body of written decisions and rulings given by rabbis to questions addressed to them. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ...


Since the early medieval era an additional form of clergy, the Hazzan (cantor) has existed as well. Cantors have sometimes been the only "clergy" of a synagogue, empowered to undertake religio-civil functions like witnessing marriages. Cantors do provide leadership of actual services, primarily because of their training and expertise in the music and prayer rituals pertaining to them, rather than because of any spiritual or "sacramental" distinction between them and the laity. Cantors as much as rabbis have been recognized by civil authorities in the United States as clergy. A hazzan or chazzan (Hebrew for cantor) is a Jewish musician trained in the vocal arts who helps lead the synagogue in songful prayer. ...


Additionally, Jewish authorities license mohels, men specially trained by experts in Jewish law and usually also by medical professionals to perform the ritual of circumcision. In many places, mohels are also licensed by civil authorities, as circumcision is technically a surgical procedure. Kohanim, who must avoid contact with blood for ritual purity, cannot act as mohels, but most mohels are also either rabbis or cantors[citation needed].


Orthodox Judaism maintains all of these traditional, fundamental requirements. Women are forbidden from becoming rabbis or cantors in the Orthodox world primarly because this would cause a uproar if a female rabbi started getting ready to have her child during a major Jewish holiday. Most Orthodox rabbinical seminaries or Yeshiva's require much past education but few do not require a bachelor's degree. The training in Jewish Law can be rigorous and extensive depending on the Teacher/School quality which varies widely, but critical thinking is discouraged. A few though rarely of Orthodox Yeshiva's will forbid secular education. However, there are many schools (yeshivas) that call themselves "modern" that function as colleges or universities and which do offer formal, accredited degrees, including master's degrees in Music, Math, Science, History in Religious Education, in Hebrew Letters and similar studies for cantors and rabbis. An example of this would be Yeshiva University Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonised in the Talmudic texts (Oral Torah) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... Yeshiva University is a private Jewish university in New York City whose first component was founded in 1886. ...


Conservative Judaism maintains all of these traditional requirements. Yet, Women are allowed to become rabbis and cantors in the Conservative movement, and, as of late, homosexuals if they are celibate. Conservative Judaism differs with Orthodoxy in that it believes in Halakha Jewish Law as evolving with History and binding. However, the academic requirements are rigorous, as Conservative Judaism adds the following subjects as requirements for rabbinic ordination: one must first earn a bachelor's degree before entering the rabbinate. In addition studies are mandated in pastoral care and psychology, the historical development of Judaism and most importantly academic biblical and Talmudic criticism. This article is about Conservative (Masorti) Judaism in the United States. ...


Reconstructionist Judaism and Reform Judaism do not maintain the traditional requirements for study as rooted in Jewish Law and traditionalist text. Both men and women may be rabbis or cantors. The level of Jewish law, Talmud and responsa studied in five years of these denominations is similar to that learned in the first year of the more traditional Jewish seminaries. The rabbinical seminaries of these movements hold that one must first earn a bachelor's degree before entering the rabbinate. In addition studies are mandated in pastoral care and psychology, the historical development of Judaism; and academic biblical criticism. Emphasis is placed not on Jewish law, but rather on sociology, modern Jewish philosophy, Theology and Pastoral Care. Reconstructionist Judaism is a modern American-based Jewish movement, based on the ideas of the late Mordecai Kaplan, that views Judaism as a progressively evolving civilization. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ...


Buddhism

see also Bhikkhu

The Buddhist clergy is often referred to as the Sangha, and consists of the order of monks and nuns founded by Gautama Buddha during the 5th century BCE. According to scriptural records, these monks and nuns lived an austere life of meditation, living as wandering beggars for nine months out of the year. In modern times, however, the role of Buddhist clergy can vary greatly across different countries. For instance, in Korea, Japan, and one of the four Tibetan schools, Buddhist monks may marry, which is forbidden under the traditional Buddhist monastic codes. On the other hand, countries practicing Theravada Buddhism, such as Thailand, Burma, and Sri Lanka, tend to take a much more conservative view of monastic life, and continue to observe precepts that forbid monks from touching women or working in certain secular roles. A Buddhist Monk in Sri Lanka In Pāli, a bhikkhu (male) or bhikkhuni (female) is a fully ordained Buddhist monk. ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... Sangha (संघ saṃgha) is a word in Pali or Sanskrit that can be translated roughly as association or assembly or community. It is commonly used in several senses to refer to Buddhist or Jain groups. ... Siddhartha and Gautama redirect here. ... (6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Demotic becomes the dominant script of ancient Egypt Persians invade Greece twice (Persian Wars) Battle of Marathon (490) Battle of Salamis (480) Athenian empire formed and falls Peloponnesian War... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... Theravada (Pāli: theravāda; Sanskrit: स्थविरवाद sthaviravāda; literally, the Way of the Elders) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and most of continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand). ...


While female monastic (bhikkhuni) lineages existed in most Buddhist countries at one time, the Theravada lineages of Southeast Asia and Sri Lanka died out during the 14th-15th Century CE. The status and future of female Buddhist clergy in these countries continues to be a subject of debate. In countries without a formal female monastic lineage, women may take other religious roles, but they are generally not granted the same rights and privileges as recognized male monastics. High-ranking Chinese bhikkunis in an alms round. ... Theravada (Pāli: theravāda; Sanskrit: स्थविरवाद sthaviravāda; literally, the Way of the Elders) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and most of continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand). ...


The diversity of Buddhist traditions makes it difficult to generalize about Buddhist clergy. In the United States, Pure Land priests of the Japanese diaspora serve a role very similar to Protestant ministers of the Christian tradition. Meanwhile, reclusive Theravada forest monks in Thailand live a life devoted to meditation and the practice of austerities in small communities in rural Thailand- a very different life from even their city-dwelling counterparts, who may be involved primarily in teaching, the study of scripture, and the administration of the nationally organized (and government sponsored) Sangha. In the Zen tradition, manual labor is an important part of religious discipline; meanwhile, in the Theravada tradition, prohibitions against monks working as laborers and farmers continue to be generally observed. The Buddha Amitabha, 13th century, Kamakura, Japan. ...


Islam

Main article: Imam

Sunni Islam is non-clerical. The term "imam" is generically used to refer to various forms of religious leadership, ranging from the leader of a small group prayer to a scholar of religion, none of which involve any sort of religious ordination. In Shia Islam, the term "imam" has more specific meanings. The word literally means "in front of" in Arabic and harkens to the Imam's role of leading prayer by standing in front of the congregation. The Ulema are the class of Muslim scholars primarily devoted to the study of and, in some governments, the implementation of the Shari'a, or Islamic Law. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ulema (, transliteration: , singular: , transliteration: , scholar) (The people of Islamic Knowledge) refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ... Sharia ( Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ...


Paganism

The subject of clergy within the various Pagan religions remains very controversial to many Pagans. The very nature of Paganism means that each individual is his or her own priest or priestess, and there is no need for any earthly leaders within the religions, however many do choose to organize themselves into small groups which are usually led by either a priest or priestess, or both. In Wicca a coven is usually led by a High Priest and a High Priestess who will be senior members of the coven with many years of experience. Pagan may refer to: A believer in Paganism or Neopaganism Bagan, a city in Myanmar also known as Pagan Pagan (album), the 6th album by Celtic metal band Cruachan Pagan Island, of the Northern Mariana Islands Pagan Lorn, a metal band from Luxembourg, Europe (1994-1998) Pagans Mind, is... For other uses, see Wicca (disambiguation). ...


The lack of any central Pagan religious body has meant that in general Pagan clergy are appointed by the group they lead and have no power or authority outside of that group. A few organizations are now taking a stand however to try and bring Pagan clergy in line with the clergy of other religions so that Pagans can enjoy many of the services that other religions have enjoyed for many years, such as hospital and prison visits, marriage celebrants, etc. In the USA some Pagan leaders choose to be ordained by one of the multi-faith organizations such as the Universal Life Church especially as marriage laws in parts of the USA allow for these leaders to conduct legal marriages once they hold such an ordination, however some controversy still surrounds these ordinations in some places, and outside of the USA marriage laws differ and this may not be sufficient to allow the leader to conduct marriages in some countries (in Australia the actual organization has to be endorsed in order for a leader to be registered as a celebrant). This article is about the sacrament. ... Logo The Universal Life Church (or ULC) is a religious organization that offers anyone semi-immediate ordination as a ULC minister free of charge. ...


See also

For the town in Italy, see Rabbi, Italy. ... A hazzan or chazzan (Hebrew for cantor) is a Jewish musician trained in the vocal arts who helps lead the synagogue in songful prayer. ... Cohen (disambiguation) Position of the kohens hands and fingers during the Priestly Blessing A kohen (or cohen, Hebrew כּהן, priest, pl. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... This article is about religious workers. ... For other uses, see Deacon (disambiguation). ... A religious elder (in Greek, πρεσβυτερος [presbyteros]) is valued for his or her wisdom, in part for their age, on the grounds that the older one is then the more one is likely to know. ... For other types of minister, see Minister In Christian churches, a minister is a man or woman who serves a congregation or participates in a role in a parachurch ministry; such persons can minister as a Pastor, Preacher, Bishop, Chaplain, Deacon or Elder. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The title of Grand Mufti (Arabic: ‎) refers to the highest official of religious law in a Sunni Muslim country. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Granthi (literal meaning: the keeper and the reader of the Sikh scripture). The Granthi performs the reading of the Guru Granth Sahib at religious occasions, it may be a man or women. ... The clerk of a Quaker meeting is a critical role for the conduct of Quaker affairs. ... Ordination is the process in which clergy become authorized by their religious denomination and/or seminary to perform religious rituals and ceremonies. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Catholic deacon...

External links

  • Forms of Address for Orthodox Clergy
  • Scholarly articles on Christian Clergy from the Wisconsin Lutheran Seminary Library

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