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Encyclopedia > Cleopatra (1963 film)
Cleopatra

original movie poster
Directed by Joseph L. Mankiewicz
Produced by Walter Wanger
Written by Carlo Mario Franzero
Sidney Buchman
Ben Hecht
Ranald MacDougall
Joseph L. Mankiewicz
Starring Elizabeth Taylor
Richard Burton
Rex Harrison
Roddy McDowall
Martin Landau
Hume Cronyn
Music by Alex North
Cinematography Leon Shamroy
Jack Hildyard
Editing by Dorothy Spencer
Elmo Williams
Distributed by 20th Century Fox
Release date(s) June 12, 1963
Running time 243 Min
192 Min
General Release Version
320 Min
Director's Cut
Language English
Budget $44 million
All Movie Guide profile
IMDb profile

Cleopatra is a 1963 film directed by Joseph L. Mankiewicz. The screenplay was adapted by Sidney Buchman, Ben Hecht, Ranald MacDougall, and Joseph L. Mankiewicz from a book by Carlo Mario Franzero. The film starred Elizabeth Taylor, Richard Burton, Rex Harrison, Roddy McDowall and Martin Landau. It was photographed in 70 mm Todd-AO by Leon Shamroy and Jack Hildyard. Look up Cleopatra in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Cleopatra_sheet. ... Joseph Leo Mankiewicz (February 11, 1909–February 6, 1993) was an American Hollywood screenwriter, director and producer. ... Walter Wanger (July 11, 1894 - November 18, 1968) was an important American film producer. ... Sidney Robert Buchman (March 27, 1902 – August 23, 1975) was a film writer and producer who worked on 38 films from the late 1920s to the early 1970s. ... Ben Hecht (February 28, 1894 – April 18, 1964) was a prolific Hollywood screenwriter, even though he professed disdain for the motion picture industry. ... -1... For other persons named Elizabeth Taylor, see Elizabeth Taylor (disambiguation). ... This article is about the 20th-century actor. ... Sir Reginald Carey Rex Harrison, KBE (5 March 1908 – 2 June 1990) was an Academy Award- and Tony Award-winning English theatre and film actor. ... Roderick Andrew Anthony Jude McDowall (September 17, 1928 – October 3, 1998) was an English/American actor. ... Martin Landau (born June 20, 1931) is an Academy Award-winning American film and television actor. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Alex North (December 4, 1910 - September 8, 1991) was an American composer responsible for the first jazz based film score (A Streetcar Named Desire) and the first truly modernist film score (Viva Zapata!). Born Isadore Soifer in Chester, Pennsylvania, Alex North was an original composer probably even by the classical... Leon Shamroy (July 16, 1901 – July 7, 1974) was an American film cinematographer. ... Jack Hildyard (1908-1990) was a British cinematographer who worked on more than 80 films during his career. ... Dorothy Spencer (born 2 February 1909) in Covington, Kentucky, United States, was the multiple Academy Award-nominated American film editor most recognized for editing several of director John Fords films such as what film critic Roger Ebert calls, Fords greatest Western,[1]My Darling Clementine, as well as... Twentieth (20th) Century Fox Film Corporation (known from 1935 to 1985 as Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation) is one of the six major American film studios. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A directors cut is a specially edited version of a film, and less often TV series, music video, commercials or video games, that is supposed to represent the directors own approved edit. ... // Events January 28 - Filming begins on Dr. Strangelove. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... Joseph Leo Mankiewicz (February 11, 1909–February 6, 1993) was an American Hollywood screenwriter, director and producer. ... Sidney Robert Buchman (March 27, 1902 – August 23, 1975) was a film writer and producer who worked on 38 films from the late 1920s to the early 1970s. ... Ben Hecht (February 28, 1894 – April 18, 1964) was a prolific Hollywood screenwriter, even though he professed disdain for the motion picture industry. ... -1... Joseph Leo Mankiewicz (February 11, 1909–February 6, 1993) was an American Hollywood screenwriter, director and producer. ... For other persons named Elizabeth Taylor, see Elizabeth Taylor (disambiguation). ... This article is about the 20th-century actor. ... Sir Reginald Carey Rex Harrison, KBE (5 March 1908 – 2 June 1990) was an Academy Award- and Tony Award-winning English theatre and film actor. ... Roderick Andrew Anthony Jude McDowall (September 17, 1928 – October 3, 1998) was an English/American actor. ... Martin Landau (born June 20, 1931) is an Academy Award-winning American film and television actor. ... Todd-AO was a widescreen film format developed in the mid 1950s. ...


Cleopatra chronicles the struggles of Cleopatra, the young Queen of Egypt, to resist the imperialist ambitions of Rome. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5...

Contents

Production

The film is infamous for nearly bankrupting 20th Century Fox. Originally budgeted at $2 million[1], it was made at a cost of $44 million — the equivalent of more than $295 million in 2007 dollars (see list of most expensive films to produce), making the movie still the second-most costly ever produced worldwide and the most expensive in America. This was partly due to the fact that the film's elaborate, complicated sets, costumes and props had to be constructed twice, once during a botched shoot in London and once more when the production relocated to Rome. Twentieth (20th) Century Fox Film Corporation (known from 1935 to 1985 as Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation) is one of the six major American film studios. ... Most expensive films From Forbes Category: ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5...


Filming began in London in 1960. Mankiewicz was brought into the production after the departure of the first director (Rouben Mamoulian). He inherited a film which was already $5 million over budget and had no usable footage to show for it. This was in part because the actors originally hired to play Julius Caesar (Peter Finch) and Marc Antony (Stephen Boyd) left due to other commitments. Mankiewicz was later fired during the editing phase, only to be rehired when no one else could piece the film together. Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Rouben Mamoulian (October 8, 1897 – December 4, 1987) was an American film and theatre director. ... Peter Finch (September 28, 1912 – January 14, 1977) was an English-born actor with strong Australian connections. ... Stephen Boyd (born William Millar, July 4, 1928 – June 2, 1977) - was a Northern Ireland-born actor, born at Doagh Road, Whitehouse, County Antrim, who starred in over fifty films. ...


Elizabeth Taylor was awarded a record setting contract of $1 million. This amount eventually swelled to $7 million due to the delays of the production. Taylor became very ill during the early filming, at one point was even rushed to an emergency room where a tracheotomy had to be performed to save her life. [The resulting scar can be seen in some shots.] All of this resulted in the film being shut down. The production was moved to Rome after six months as the English weather proved detrimental to her recovery, as well as being responsible for constantly deteriorating the costly sets and exotic plants required for the production. During filming Taylor met Richard Burton and the two began a very public affair. The love affair between Taylor and Richard Burton made headlines worldwide. Moral outrage over the scandal brought negative publicity to an already troubled production. Completed tracheotomy: 1 - Vocal cords 2 - Thyroid cartilage 3 - Cricoid cartilage 4 - Tracheal cartilages 5 - Balloon cuff A tracheotomy is a procedure performed by paramedics, emergency physicians and surgeons in order to secure an airway. ... For other persons named Richard Burton, see Richard Burton (disambiguation). ...


The cut of the film which Mankiewicz screened for the studio was six hours long. This was cut to four hours by the time the film opened to allow theaters to increase the number of showings per day. Due to the cuts certain details are left out of the film, such as Rufio's death.[2] Mankiewicz unsuccessfully attempted to convince the studio to split the film in two in order to preserve the original cut of the film.


The arduous process and enormous cost of completing Cleopatra resulted in the end of the sword and sandal epic. D. W. Griffith set out to depict the splendor of ancient Babylon in Intolerance. ...


Synopsis

The film opens with the defeat of Pompey at the Battle of Pharsalus. Caesar pardons the captured officers while the dead are cremated. Pompey, Pompey the Great or Pompey the Triumvir [1] (Classical Latin abbreviation: CN·POMPEIVS·CN·F·SEX·N·MAGNVS[2], Gnaeus or Cnaeus Pompeius Magnus) (September 29, 106 BC–September 29, 48 BC), was a distinguished military and political leader of the late Roman republic. ... Combatants Populares Optimates Commanders Gaius Julius Caesar Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus Strength Approximately 22,000 legionaries, 5,000-10,000 Auxiliaries and Allies, and Allied Cavalry of 1800 Approximately 60,000 legionaries, 4,200 Auxiliaries and Allies, and Allied Cavalry of 5,000-8,000 Casualties 1,200 6,000 The... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ...


Pompey has fled the scene and makes his way by ship to Egypt, where he hopes to enlist the support of the young Pharaoh Ptolemy XIII and his sister Cleopatra. Pompey believes they will come to his aid as he was on good terms with their father. Pharaoh was the ancient Egyptian name for the office of kingship. ... Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator (Greek: Πτολεμαίος Θεός Φιλοπάτωρ, lived 62 BC/61 BC – January 13, 47 BC?, reigned from 51 BC) was one of the last members of the Ptolemaic dynasty (305–30 BC) of Egypt. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Bust of Ptolemy XII Auletes, Louvre Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos Theos Philopator Theos Philadelphos (Greek:Πτολεμαίος Νέος Διόνυσος Θέος Φιλοπάτωρ Θεός Φιλάδελφος,New Dionysus, God Beloved of his Father, God Beloved of his Brother) (117 BC - 51 BC) was son of Ptolemy IX Soter II. His mother is unknown. ...


Caesar follows Pompey to Egypt and arrives in Alexandria in early October, 48 BC. Ptolemy's advisors believe the Romans will fight their way to the palace, thus enraging the Egyptian people against them, but Caesar orders his retinue to put away their swords and instead shop their way through the crowd in the market. Caesar enters the palace and meets the boy Pharaoh, along with his advisors, who seem to do most of the thinking for the Pharaoh. As a gesture of 'goodwill' from the Egyptians, Caesar is presented with the severed head of Pompey, who Ptolemy had ordered killed because his advisors had said it would please Caesar. As Caesar settles in at the palace, Pollodorus arrives disguised as a rug peddler bearing what he says is a gift from Cleopatra. After dismissing his officers, Caesar unrolls the rug and finds Cleopatra concealed within. After a short, hostile but not altogether unenlightening conversation, Cleopatra leaves for her chambers with an escort of Roman soldiers. Later, however, she returns, escorted by Pollodorus, to a spyhole in the head of a Sphinx which is carved into one wall of Caesar's rooms and listens to Caesar's briefing about her from his generals. Nickname: Alexandria on the map of Egypt Map of Alexandria Coordinates: , Country Egypt Founded 334 BC Government  - Governor Adel Labib Population (2001)  - City 3,500,000 Time zone EET (UTC+2)  - Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3) Twin Cities  - Baltimore  United States  - Cleveland  United States  - ConstanÅ£a  Romania  - Durban  South Africa... Consuls: Gaius Julius Caesar, Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ...


She is still spying on Caesar when he dismisses his generals, then suffers from an epileptic seizure. Days later, in her baths, she has a heated audience with Caesar in which she demands access to her throne room and warns Caesar that her brother has surrounded the palace with his soldiers and that he is vastly outnumbered. Caesar demurs her warnings as factors already taken into consideration, and insists that he can hold the wall for the time being. This article is about the neurological disorder as it affects humans. ...


Caesar orders the Egyptian fleet burned so he can gain control of the harbor. The fire spreads to the city burning many buildings, including the famous Library of Alexandria. Cleopatra angrily confronts Caesar about the fire, but he refuses to pull Roman troops away from the fight with Ptolemy's forces. She rages at him, and somewhere in the middle of the fight, Caesar begins kissing her to silence her; it is obvious from their comments that he thinks to make her submissive to his will through sex. She vows he won't like her this way, but before he can respond, Ptolemy's troops attack one of the palace gates. The Romans succeed, and the armies of Mithradates arrives to reinforce the Roman legions. For other uses, see Harbor (disambiguation). ... Inscription regarding Tiberius Claudius Balbilus of Rome (d. ... The name Mithridates (more accurately, Mithradates) is derived from the Persian sun-god Mithra and the Indo-European root da, to give — i. ...


The following day, Caesar passes judgment regarding the conflict between Ptolemy and Cleopatra. He sentences Ptolemy's lord chaimberlain to death for arranging an assassination attempt against Cleopatra, and rules that Ptolemy and his tutor shall be sent out to join Ptolemy's vastly outnumbered troops. Though not to be executed, it is certain that both will die. Cleopatra is crowned sole Queen of Egypt. Soon afterwards, Caesar marvels at the largesse Cleopatra has shown him, at the wealth of Egypt; they discuss their future together, and she tells him of her fertility and promises to bear him sons.


They later continue their discussion at Alexander's tomb. She dreams of ruling the world together with Caesar and informs him that she has become pregnant. Once his son is born, Caesar accepts him publicly, which becomes the talk of Rome and the Senate. For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... A pregnant woman Pregnancy is the process by which a mammalian female carries a live offspring from conception until it develops to the point where the offspring is capable of living outside the womb. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ...

Cleopatra (Elizabeth Taylor) confronts Julius Caesar (Rex Harrison)
Cleopatra (Elizabeth Taylor) confronts Julius Caesar (Rex Harrison)

Caesar now returns to Rome for his triumph, while Cleopatra remains behind in Egypt. Two years pass before the two would see each other again. After he is made dictator for life, Caesar sends for Cleopatra to come to Rome. She arrives in Rome in a lavish procession, and wins the adulation of the Roman people. The Senate is growing discontent amid rumors that Caesar wishes to be made King, which is anathema to the Romans. Image File history File links Image-1963_Cleopatra_trailer_screenshot_(35)2. ... Image File history File links Image-1963_Cleopatra_trailer_screenshot_(35)2. ... For other persons named Elizabeth Taylor, see Elizabeth Taylor (disambiguation). ... Sir Reginald Carey Rex Harrison, KBE (5 March 1908 – 2 June 1990) was an Academy Award- and Tony Award-winning English theatre and film actor. ... A Roman Triumph was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly honour the military commander (dux) of a notably successful foreign war or campaign and to display the glories of Roman victory. ...


On the Ides of March, the Senate is preparing to vote to award Caesar additional powers. Despite warnings from his wife Calpurnia and Cleopatra, he is confident of victory and leaves for the Senate. Caesar is attacked as he makes his way to the Senate. He is stabbed by various senators and dies at the foot of a statue of Pompey. Vincenzo Camuccini, Mort de César, 1798. ... Calpurnia Pisonis (1st century BC), daughter of Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, was a Roman woman, third and last wife of Julius Caesar. ...


After the funeral pyre, Octavian is named as Caesar's heir, not Caesarion, his son by Cleopatra. Realizing she has no future in Rome, Cleopatra returns home to Egypt. Caesar's assassins, among them Cassius and Brutus, are killed at the Battle of Philippi, and Marc Antony establishes a second triumvirate with Octavian and Lepidus, a politician with much power. They decide that the empire will be split between them: Lepidus will receive Africa, Octavian will take Spain and Gaul, while Antony will take control of the eastern provinces. The rivalry between Octavian and Antony is becoming apparent. For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see inheritance (disambiguation). ... A relief of Cleopatra and Caesarion at the temple of Dendera, Egypt Ptolemy XV[1] Philopator Philometor Caesar, nicknamed Caesarion (little Caesar) Greek: Πτολεμαίος ΙΕ Φιλοπάτωρ Φιλομήτωρ Καίσαρ, Καισαρίων (June 23, 47 BC – August, 30 BC) was the last king of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt, who reigned, as a child, jointly with his mother, Cleopatra... Caius Cassius Longinus featured on a denarius (42 BC). ... Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus (died 43 BC) was a Roman politician and general of the 1st century BC and one of Julius Caesars assassins. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... ANT AV · III VIR RPC on this denarius minted by Mark Antony to pay his legions. ... Marcus Aemilius Lepidus was a common name for several successive generations of a family in ancient Rome: Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (187 BC) Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (120-77 BC) Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (triumvir) (49 BC) Lepidus the Younger Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (consul AD 6) This is a disambiguation page — a... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The Roman Empire ca. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given,in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ...


While planning a campaign against Parthia in the east, Antony realizes he needs money and supplies, and cannot get enough from anywhere but Egypt. After refusing several times to leave Egypt, Cleopatra gives in to his requests and meets him in Tarsus. Parthia[1] (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was a civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of the modern countries of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf... In tetrapods, the tarsi are the cluster of bones in the foot between the tibia and fibula and the metatarsus. ...


Cleopatra has prepared a lavish feast and a dance in honor of Bacchus. To this feast, she wears a collar of gold coins cast with Caesar's image. Telling Antony that she will return to Egypt at sunrise and warning him against playing in Tarsis while Octavian consolidates his power in Rome, Cleopatra watches him become drunker and drunker. She then signals a slave who has been costumed to be her double to emerge during the Bacchanalia and sneaks out when Antony pounces on the girl. When Antony realizes this, he goes to her chamber and tears down the curtain, demanding that she hear him, that she take him seriously for himself, rather than treat him forever as a shadow of the mighty Caesar. She softens to him, and they make love. It is later that she admits to having seen him during one of his tours in Egypt when she was a child, and having fallen in love with him then. Antony admits to having fallen in love with her during her procession into Rome for Caesar's coronation.


Octavian takes the opportunity to use their affair in his smear campaign against Antony. When Antony must later return to Rome to address the situation brewing there, Octavian traps Antony into a marriage of state to Octavian's sister, Octavia. Cleopatra flies into a rage when she learns of the marriage, feeling betrayed. A marriage of state in ancient use is a diplomatic marriage or union between two members of different nation-states or internally, between two power blocks, usually in authoritarian societies and is a practice which dates back into pre-history, as far back as early Greecian cultures in western society... Octavia Minor (69 - 11 BC), also known as Octavia the Younger or simply Octavia, was the sister of the first Roman Emperor, Augustus, and half sister of Octavia Thurina Major. ...


When he next sees Cleopatra, he is forced to kneel to her in public, and is humbled. She demands that a third of the Empire be awarded to Egypt in return for her aid. Antony acceeds to her request and divorces Octavia. Octavian clamors for war against Antony and his "Egyptian whore". The Senate votes for war and Octavian murders the Egyptian ambassador, Cleopatra's tutor Sosygines, on the Senate steps.

Richard Burton as Mark Anthony
Richard Burton as Mark Anthony

The war is decided at the Battle of Actium on the west coast of Greece. After pursuing what he believes to be Octavian's ship, he is trapped by Agrippa and his fleet is scuttled to a ship. Seeing Antony's ship burning, Cleopatra assumes him dead and orders the Egyptian forces home. When he realizes that Cleopatra is leaving without him, Antony is enraged and heartbroken. The pair return to Alexandria, where their romance is badly damaged by Antony's perception that Cleopatra abandoned him. Octavian's army is fast approaching, and Cleopatra somehow manages to convince Antony to retake command of his troops and fight Octavian. Antony's soldiers, however, have lost faith in him after Actium and abandon him during the night; Rufio, the last loyal man in Antony's camp, is killed. Antony tries to goad Octavian into single combat, but is finally forced to flee into the city. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Combatants Octavian Mark Antony, Cleopatra VII of Egypt Commanders Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Mark Antony Strength 260 warships, mostly liburnian vessels 220 warships, mostly quinqueremes and 60 egyptian warships Casualties Unknown Almost all of Antonys fleet The Battle of Actium was a naval battle of the Roman Civil War between... Agrippa may refer to: Menenius Agrippa, a Roman consul in 503 BC. Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (63–12 BC), Roman statesman and general, friend of Augustus Caesar. ...


When he returns to the palace, Cleopatra has already gone into hiding at her tomb. Pollodorus, not believing that Antony is worthy of his queen, tells Antony this in such a way that convinces Antony she is dead; he then falls on his own sword, believing he has lost everything. Pollodorus takes the dying Antony to Cleopatra, and he dies in her arms. Before she can even grieve him, however, Octavian's army captures the city and Cleopatra is brought before Octavian as a prisoner.


Octavian makes his intentions clear to Cleopatra: when he returns to Rome in glory, she will be his ultimate prize. He therefore urges her to swear that she will not harm herself. Cleopatra swears the oath, but not before noticing that Octavian wears Pompey's ring strung around his neck. It is the ring Caesar's daughter gave to Pompey, which was given to Caesar after Pompey's death, and he had in turn given it to his son before his return to Rome. Knowing that Caesarion has been killed, she makes the oath contingent on the life of her son. Octavian, not thinking that she would have any idea that her son is dead, agrees to the condition.


In her chambers, she gives her final orders to her handmaidens and makes preparations for her journey. Begging to be allowed to join her, her handmaidens bring her a basket of figs with an asp concealed within. Cleopatra slips her hand inside and is bitten. By the time Agrippa and Octavian come for her, both of her handmaidens have laid their Queen out properly, clothed in the golden costume she had worn during her entrance to Rome, and had been bitten by the asp as well. One is dead, and the other, dying. Octavian turns from the room, thwarted and enraged. “Fig” redirects here. ... Vipera aspis Asp is the modern - supposedly chosen by W. Shakespeare - form of aspis. ...


Agrippa demands: "Was this well done of your lady?" The dying servant replies: "Extremely well, as befitting the last of so many noble rulers."


Cast

For other persons named Elizabeth Taylor, see Elizabeth Taylor (disambiguation). ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other persons named Richard Burton, see Richard Burton (disambiguation). ... Bust of Marcus Antonius Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N¹) (c. ... Sir Reginald Carey Rex Harrison, KBE (5 March 1908 – 2 June 1990) was an Academy Award- and Tony Award-winning English theatre and film actor. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Roderick Andrew Anthony Jude McDowall (September 17, 1928 – October 3, 1998) was an English/American actor. ... Martin Landau (born June 20, 1931) is an Academy Award-winning American film and television actor. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Andrew Keir, born Andrew Buggy on April 3, 1926 in Lanarkshire, Scotland, was a British actor, well-known for his roles in several Hammer Films horror film productions during the 1960s. ... Kenneth Haigh (born March 25, 1930 in Mexborough, Yorkshire) is a British actor. ... George Cole as Arthur Daley in Minder (book cover) George Cole (born April 22, 1925 in Tooting, London, England) is a British actor. ... For other persons named Pamela Brown, see Pamela Brown (disambiguation). ... Cesare Danova (March 1, 1926 - March 19, 1992) Born Cesare Deitinger in Bergamo, Italy, Danova is a television and screen actor. ... Francesca Annis as Lady Macbeth in Roman Polanskis Macbeth (1971). ... Gregoire Aslan is an Armenian actor who starred in The Devil at 4 OClock alongside Frank Sinatra and Spencer Tracy. ...

Reception and Impact

When the end of principal photography was finally in sight, it became clear that in order for Cleopatra merely to break even it would have to be one of the two or three most successful films made up to that time. Cleopatra went on to a $48 million take in North America, making it the highest grossing film of the year. Twentieth Century Fox's share of the receipts ($26 million) returned just over half of the film's total cost. As a result of the continual pouring of money into the long-delayed production, the studio was forced to undertake drastic retrenchments. Worldwide boxoffice receipts and television sales eventually recouped most of the film's cost. Meanwhile, Twentieth Century Fox's fortunes were restored with the release of The Sound of Music in 1965, which became one of the most popular films in cinema history. Rodgers and Hammersteins The Sound of Music is a 1965 film directed by Robert Wise and starring Julie Andrews in the lead role. ...


A contributing factor to the film's problems was the hype, both internal and public, which surrounded Cleopatra. Billed as the next great cinematic masterpiece, Fox continued to invest more and more money into the project, confident that audiences would adore it. Yet as production continued to falter, the top studio executives took much more direct and personal control of the project, further complicating the project. Films that were to be funded from the profits of Cleopatra were delayed or cancelled, further tying the fate of the studio to the one film. The extensive marketing campaign reflected how optimistic — or desperate — Fox was about the movie, releasing posters with new release dates every few months as production ground on.


When the film was finally released, the problems that had plagued production were finally fully evident. Historians criticized the inaccurate depictions of Octavian as a weak-stomached yet power mad teenager and disliked the rewrite of how and why Julius Caesar was killed. Stage actors cited the disjointed script and directing styles as the root of the movie's problems (what they were basically seeing is the actors and director improvising for over four hours, since no actual shooting script had ever existed.) Critics found the acting to be over the top in many scenes, scoffing that it took a special class of film maker to get such great actors to act so badly. And as talented as the actors may have been, the extreme length and breadth of Cleopatra made it difficult for audiences to grasp the general plot and theme; the two halves tending to focus more on Julius Caesar and Mark Anthony, respectively, than on Cleopatra herself.


Part of the fallout of chaotic production was a shifting away from the traditional "studio-system" prevalent in Hollywood up to that time. While studios would continue to finance major films, financial burdens would increasingly be shifted onto independent production companies as a way to buffer the "parent" studio from a loss. Indeed the financial situation at Fox was so dire in the wake of Cleopatra that the studio executives were forced to sell most of the studio's large backlot in Los Angeles to developers. This area today forms the core of the Century City area in Los Angeles. Century City is the name of: A neighborhood in Los Angeles, California, USA. See: Century City, Los Angeles, California. ...


Trivia

  • The World Premiere was held at the Rivoli Theatre (Broadway & 49th in NYC). The entrance to the theatre was on Broadway. The rear wall of the theatre faced 7th Avenue and there was a huge billboard affixed to same which initially depicted Taylor and Burton only. Rex Harrison was not included. He made his displeasure well known. Shortly afterwards, a small "thumbnail" rendering of Harrison appeared in the lower left of the billboard. Harrison was still not satisfied. Finally, Harrison was painted in to match the dimensions of Taylor and Burton.
  • Keith Baxter originally was signed to play Marc Anthony. Taylor's bout with pneumonia soon after filming began shut down the set, and by the time she fully recovered Baxter had to meet other acting obligations, forcing the producer to hire Burton as his replacement.
  • The costume worn by Taylor during the famous "entry into Rome" procession was made of real gold at a cost of about $1 million. It was so heavy that she could only wear it for short periods of time.
  • In 1958 Joan Collins was cast in the title role, but after several delays she became unavailable. Collins had previously starred in a similar role in Land of the Pharaohs (1955). After Collins' departure, Audrey Hepburn was considered as a replacement by producer Walter Wanger. Wanger then offered the role to Elizabeth Taylor. He called her on the set of her latest film, Suddenly, Last Summer (1959) and related the offer through Taylor's then husband Eddie Fisher, who had answered the phone. As a joke, Taylor replied "Sure, tell him I'll do it for a million dollars." This then unheard-of sum was accepted and in October 1959 Taylor became the first Hollywood star to receive $1 million for a single picture.
  • Dorothy Dandridge was considered for the role in the early stages of the production by director Rouben Mamoulian, which would have made her the first African-American woman to portray the historical figure.
  • A group of female extras who played Cleopatra's various servants and slave girls went on strike to demand protection from amorous Italian extras and their bottom-pinching fingers. The studio eventually hired a special guard to protect the extras.
  • Susan Hayward and Marilyn Monroe were considered as replacements after Joan Collins dropped out of the film.
  • Marlon Brando, Peter O'Toole, and Laurence Harvey were considered for the role of Marc Antony.
  • Adjusting for inflation, this is the second most expensive film ever made, topped only by 1968's War and Peace.
  • The 1964 comedy film Carry on Cleo, which spoofed the film, was made on the sets left by the production.
  • Comedian Sacha Baron Cohen's character Borat sometimes refers to the film as "new", and Elizabeth Taylor as a "new, sexy, young starlet" whom he would like to meet.
  • Actor Roddy McDowall was denied a likely Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor when an error in submission by the studio classified the role of Octavian as Leading rather than Supporting. By the time the error was discovered, it was too late to make a change. A letter of public apology to Mr. McDowall was subsequently printed in movie trade publications. In keeping with his characteristic professionalism, Mr. McDowall never voiced public criticism for the oversight.

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... With Orson Welles (left) in the film Chimes at Midnight Keith Baxter (born April 29, 1933) is a Welsh theatre, film, and television actor. ... Joan Henrietta Collins OBE (born May 23, 1933) is a Golden Globe Award winning English actress and bestselling author. ... 1955 epic film directed by Howard Hawks and starring Joan Collins and Jack Hawkins. ... Audrey Hepburn (4 May 1929 - 20 January 1993) was an Academy Award and Tony Award winning Anglo-Dutch actress of film and theatre, Broadway stage performer, ballerina, fashion model, and humanitarian. ... Suddenly, Last Summer is a play by Tennessee Williams. ... Eddie Fisher (born August 10, 1928) is an American singer and entertainer. ... Dorothy Jean Dandridge (November 9, 1922–September 8, 1965) was an American actress. ... Rouben Mamoulian (October 8, 1897 – December 4, 1987) was an American film and theatre director. ... For other persons named Hayward, see Hayward (disambiguation). ... Marilyn Monroe (born Norma Jeane Mortenson on June 1, 1926 – August 5, 1962), was a Golden Globe Award-winning American actress, singer, model and pop icon. ... Marlon Brando, Jr. ... Peter Seamus OToole (born August 2, 1932, uncertain but presumed correct date[1]) is an eight-time Academy Award-nominated Irish actor. ... Laurence Harvey (October 1, 1928 – November 25, 1973) was an Academy Award-nominated Lithuanian-born actor who achieved fame in British and American films. ... War and Peace (Russian: Война и мир; Vojna i mir) is a Soviet-produced film adaptation of the Leo Tolstoys novel War and Peace. ... Carry On Cleo is the tenth film in the Carry On film series. ... This article is about the British comedian. ...

Awards and nominations

1963 Academy Awards

  • Won, Best Cinematography
  • Won, Best Art Direction
  • Won, Best Costume Design
  • Won, Best Visual Effects
  • Nominated, Best Picture
  • Nominated, Best Actor
  • Nominated, Best Film Editing
  • Nominated, Best Original Score
  • Nominated, Best Sound Mixing

1963 Golden Globes, USA

  • Nominated, Best Motion Picture - Drama
  • Nominated, Best Motion Picture Actor - Drama
  • Nominated, Best Motion Picture Director
  • Nominated, Best Supporting Actor

References

  1. ^ Null, Christopher. Cleopatra Review
  2. ^ Cleopatra from Johnny Web

Also, Cleopatra: The Film That Changed Hollywood, a 2001 television documentary A television documentary is a documentary or a series of documentaries that are meant to be broadcasted on television. ...


See also

This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... cleopatra ruled seneca for 10 years before she ruled Egypt. ... D. W. Griffith set out to depict the splendor of ancient Babylon in Intolerance. ... Caligula is a 1979 film directed by Tinto Brass, with additional scenes filmed by Bob Guccione and Giancarlo Lui, about the Roman Emperor Gaius Caesar Germanicus also known as Caligula. Caligula was written by Gore Vidal and co-financed by Penthouse magazine, though the script underwent several re-writes after... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

External links

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Cleopatra (film 1963)

 
 

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