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Encyclopedia > Cleon

Cleon (d. 422 BC), Athenian politician during the Peloponnesian War, was the son of Cleaenetus, from whom he inherited a lucrative tanning business. He was the first prominent representative of the commercial class in Athenian politics. Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 427 BC 426 BC 425 BC 424 BC 423 BC - 422 BC - 421 BC 420 BC... Athens (Greek: Αθήνα, Athína IPA: ) is the capital and largest city of Greece and the birthplace of democracy. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Combatants Delian League led by Athens Peloponnesian League led by Sparta Commanders Pericles Cleon Nicias Alcibiades Archidamus II Brasidas Lysander The Peloponnesian War (431 BC–404 BC) was an Ancient Greek military conflict fought by Athens and its empire and the Peloponnesian League, led by Sparta. ... This page is about making leather. ...


He came into notice first as an opponent of Pericles, to whom his advanced ideas were naturally unacceptable, and in his opposition somewhat curiously found himself acting in concert with the aristocrats, who equally hated and feared Pericles. During the dark days of 430, after the unsuccessful expedition of Pericles to Peloponnesus, and when the city was devastated by the plague, Cleon headed the opposition to the Periclean régime. Pericles was accused by Cleon of maladministration of public money, with the result that he was actually found guilty (see Grote's History of Greece, abridged ed., 1907, p. 406, note 1). Pericles or Perikles (c. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC - 430s BC - 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC Years: 435 BC 434 BC 433 BC 432 BC 431 BC - 430 BC - 429 BC 428 BC... Peloponnesos (Greek: Πελοπόννησος, sometime Latinized as Peloponnesus or Anglicized as The Peloponnese) is a large peninsula in Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Isthmus of Corinth. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... George Grote George Grote (November 17, 1794 - June 18, 1871) was an English classical historian. ...


A revulsion of feeling, however, soon took place. Pericles was reinstated, and Cleon now for a time fell into the background. The death of Pericles (429) left the field clear for him. Hitherto he had only been a vigorous opposition speaker, a trenchant critic and accuser of state officials. He now came forward as the professed champion and leader of the democracy, and, owing to the moderate abilities of his rivals and opponents, he was for some years undoubtedly the foremost man in Athens. Although rough and unpolished, he was gifted with natural eloquence and a powerful voice, and knew exactly how to work upon the feelings of the people. He strengthened his hold on the poorer classes by his measure for trebling the pay of the jurymen, which provided the poorer Athenians with an easy means of livelihood. Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 434 BC 433 BC 432 BC 431 BC 430 BC - 429 BC - 428 BC 427 BC...


The notorious fondness of the Athenians for litigation increased his power; and the practice of "sycophancy" (raking up material for false charges), enabled him to remove those who were likely to endanger his ascendancy. Having no further use for his former aristocratic associates, he broke off all connection with them, and thus felt at liberty to attack the secret combinations for political purposes, the oligarchical clubs to which they mostly belonged. Whether he also introduced a property-tax for military purposes, and even held a high position in connexion with the treasury, is uncertain. His ruling principles were an inveterate hatred of the nobility, and an equal hatred of Sparta. It was mainly through him that the opportunity of concluding an honourable peace (in 425) was lost, and in his determination to see Sparta humbled he misled the people as to the extent of the resources of the state, and dazzled them by promises of future benefits. Look up sycophant in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sparta (Doric: , Attic: ) is a city in southern Greece. ...


In 427 Cleon gained an evil notoriety by his proposal to put to death the whole male population of Mytilene, which had put itself at the head of a revolt. His proposal, though at first accepted, was soon rescinded, though about 1000 chief leaders and prominent men of Mytilene were executed. In 425, he reached the summit of his fame by capturing and transporting to Athens the Spartans who had been blockaded at the Battle of Sphacteria. Much of the credit was probably due to the military skill of his colleague Demosthenes (not the orator); but it must be admitted that it was due to Cleon's determination that the Ecclesia sent out the additional force which was needed. Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 432 BC 431 BC 430 BC 429 BC 428 BC - 427 BC - 426 BC 425 BC... This city is not ot be confused with a village in the island of Samos named Mytilinii Mytilene (Μυτιλήνη in Greek) is the capital city of Lesbos, a Greek island in the Aegean Sea. ... Combatants Athens Sparta Commanders Demosthenes Cleon Epitadas† Styphon Strength About 3000 440 Casualties Very few (about 230) 148 The Battle of Sphacteria was a battle of the Peloponnesian War in 425 BC, between Athens and Sparta. ... The ecclesia or ekklesia (Greek έκκλησία) was the principal assembly of the democracy of ancient Athens. ...


In 426 Cleon brought an unsuccessful prosecution against Laches based on the generalship in the unsuccessful first Sicily expedition. This is one of the very few times that an Athenian general escaped civil punishment for a defeat. Laches (Gr. ... The term strategos (plural strategoi; Greek στρατηγός) is used in Greek to mean general. In the hellenistic and Byzantine Empires the term was also used to describe a military governor. ...


It was almost certainly due to Cleon that the tribute of the "allies" was doubled in 425. In 422 he was sent to recapture Amphipolis, but was out-generalled by the Spartan Brasidas. However, both Brasidas and Cleon were killed at Amphipolis and their deaths removed the chief obstacle to peace. Thus, in 421 the peace of Nicias was concluded. Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 430 BC 429 BC 428 BC 427 BC 426 BC - 425 BC - 424 BC 423 BC... Localization of Amphipolis Amphipolis (in greek Ἀμφίπολις / Amphípolis) was an Ancient Greek city in the region once inhabited by the Edoni people in the present-day periphery of East Macedonia and Thrace. ... Brasidas (d. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 426 BC 425 BC 424 BC 423 BC 422 BC - 421 BC - 420 BC 419 BC... The Peace of Nicias was a peace treaty that was signed between the Greek city-states of Athens and Sparta in 421 BC, ending the first half of the Peloponnesian War. ...


Aristophanes and Thucydides on Cleon

The character of Cleon is represented by Aristophanes and Thucydides in a very unfavourable light. But neither can be considered an unprejudiced witness. The poet had a grudge against Cleon, who had accused him before the senate of having ridiculed (in his lost play Babylonians) the policy and institutions of his country in the presence of foreigners and at the time of a great national war. Thucydides, a man of strong oligarchical prejudices, had also been prosecuted for military incapacity and exiled by a decree proposed by Cleon. It is therefore likely that Cleon has had less than justice done to him in the portraits handed down by these two writers[1]. Sketch of Aristophanes Aristophanes (Greek: , c. ... Bust of Thucydides residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. ... Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small, elite segment of society (typically the most powerful, whether by wealth, family, military strength, or political influence). ...


Authorities

For the literature on Cleon see CF Hermann, Lehrbuch der griechischen Antiquilaten, i. pt. 2 (6th ed. by V Thumser, 1892), p. 709, and Georg Busolt, Griechische Geschichte, iii. pt. 2 (1904), p. 988, note 3. Karl Friedrich Hermann (August 4, 1804 - December 31, 1855), was a German classical scholar and antiquary. ...


The following are the chief authorities:

  • Favourable to Cleon
    • C. F Ranke, Commentatio de Vita Aristoprianis (Leipzig, 1845)
    • JG Droysen, Aristophanes, ii., Introd. to the Knights (Berlin, 1837)
    • G. Grote, History of Greece. chs. 50, 54
    • W. Oncken, Athen und Hellas, ii. p. 204 (Leipzig, 1866)
    • H. Muller Strubing, Aristophanes und die historisehe Kritik (Leipzig, 1873)
    • J. B. Bury, Hist, of Greece, i. (1902)
  • Unfavourable
    • J. F. Kortüm, Geschichtliche Forschungen (Leipzig, 1863), and Zur Geschichte hellenichen Statsverfassungen (Heidelberg, 1821)
    • F. Passow, Vermischte Schriften (Leipzig, 1843)
    • C Thirlwall, History of Greece, ch. 21
    • E Curtius, History of Greece (Eng. tr. iii. p. 112)
    • J. Schwartz, Die Demokratie (Leipzig, 1882)
    • H Delbrück, Die Strategie des Perikles (Berlin, 1890)
    • E. Meyer, Forschungen zur alten Geschichte, ii. p. 333 (Halle, 1899)
  • Balance between the two extreme views:
    • Karl Julius Beloch, Die attische Politik seit Perikles (Leipzig, 1884), and Griechische Geschichte, i. p. 537
    • A. Holm, History of Greece, ii. (Eng. tr.), ch. 23, with the notes.
    • H. Bengston, History of Greece: From the Beginnings to the Byzantine Era, Cleon p. 140

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Johann Gustav Droysen (July 6, 1808 - June 10, 1884), was a German historian. ... An early portrait of George Grote George Grote George Grote (November 17, 1794–June 18, 1871) was an English classical historian. ... John Bagnell Bury (16 October 1861 – 1 June 1927) was an eminent British historian, classical scholar, and philologist. ... Franz Ludwig Carl Friedrich Passow (September 20, 1786 – March 11, 1833) was a German classical scholar and lexicographer. ... Connop Thirlwall (January 11, 1797 - July 27, 1875) was an English bishop and historian. ... You may be looking for Ernst Robert Curtius (1886–1956). ... Hans Delbrück, 1848-1929 Hans Delbrück (November 11, 1848 - July 14, 1929), German historian, was born at Bergen on the island of Rügen, and studied at the universities of Heidelberg and Bonn. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


External links

  • Cleon


Athenian statesmen | Ancient Greece
Aeschines - Agyrrhius - Alcibiades - Andocides - Archinus - Aristides - Aristogeiton - Aristophon - Autocles
Callistratus - Chremonides - Cleisthenes - Cleon - Critias - Demades - Demetrius Phalereus - Demochares - Democles - Demosthenes
Ephialtes - Eubulus - Hyperbolus - Hypereides - Cimon - Cleophon - Laches- Lycurgus - Lysicles
Miltiades - Moerocles - Nicias - Peisistratus - Pericles - Philinus - Phocion - Themistocles
Theramenes - Thrasybulus - Thucydides - Xanthippus

  Results from FactBites:
 
Cleon I - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (464 words)
Arguably, the most significant event of Cleon's rule occurred in 12,020 GE, when the young mathematician Hari Seldon came to Trantor and revealed that psychohistory was a theoretical possibility.
Cleon would never have learned of this development by his own efforts; insulated from the Galaxy and confined to the Imperial Palace's grounds, he relied upon his able Chief of Staff, Eto Demerzel, to conduct the Machiavellian maneuvers required to keep the Empire functioning.
While Cleon was content to use Seldon as a source of self-fulfilling prophecies—a tool to prevent unrest—Demerzel had come to believe that the Empire itself was dying, and that only an honest investigation could prevent its fall or at least minimize that fall's effects.
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