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Encyclopedia > Cleomenes I

Cleomenes (Eng. /kli:'ɑməni:z/ Greek Κλεομένης, d. ca. 490 BC) was one of the Kings of Sparta in the 6th and 5th centuries BC. Cleomenes is notable for an unusual interest in foreign conquests (unusual for a Spartan king), for his controversial accession to the throne, and his even more controversial deposition, exile and mysterious death (allegedly suicide by self-mutilation). He was also the half-brother and father-in-law of his successor Leonidas I, the King of Sparta who died at Thermopylae and husband of Queen Gorgo. Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC Years: 495 BC 494 BC 493 BC 492 BC 491 BC - 490 BC - 489 BC 488 BC... Sparta was an important Greek city-state in the Peloponnesus. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 6th century BC started on January 1, 600 BC and ended on December 31, 501 BC. // Monument 1, an Olmec colossal head at La Venta The 5th and 6th centuries BC were a time of empires, but more importantly, a time... The 5th century BC started the first day of 500 BC and ended the last day of 401 BC. // The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... For other uses, see Leonidas (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Battle of Thermopylae (disambiguation). ... Gorgo was the daughter and the only child of Cleomenes I, King of Sparta during the 6th and 5th centuries BC. She was the wife of her uncle, King Leonidas I who fought and died in the Battle of Thermopylae. ...


Background

He was the son of Anaxandrides II (of the Agiad royal house) and his second wife (apparently a daughter of Prinetades), and was the half-brother of Dorieus, Leonidas I, and Cleombrotus. Although the three younger half-brothers were the sons of Anaxandrides' first wife and therefore had a better claim to the throne according to tradition, Cleomenes was apparently the eldest-born son and succeeded his father around 520 BC. He allowed his half-brother Dorieus to mount expeditions overseas, perhaps as a way of expanding Spartan influence and territories, and perhaps to rid himself of a potential rival.[1] His interest in the world outside the Peloponnesse may have accounted for some of his reputation for insanity among fellow Spartans who tended to be highly insular, conservative, and suspicious of all things foreign. Anaxandridas II (Anaxandrides, Greek Αναξανδριδης) was a king of Sparta between 560 to 525 BC. Anaxandridas was of the Agid (or Agiad) dynasty. ... For other uses, see Leonidas (disambiguation). ... Cleombrotus, regent of Sparta between 480 and 479 BC. He was a member of the Agiad family, the son of Anaxandridas II and the brother of Cleomenes I and of Leonidas I. When the latter died, he became the tutor of his nephew Pleistarchus, son of Leonidas, and leader of... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC Events 529 BC - Cambyses II succeeds his father Cyrus as ruler of Persia. ...


Career

Around 510 BC the Alcmaeonidae family, who had been exiled from Athens, requested that Sparta help them overthrow Hippias, the son of Pisistratus and tyrant of Athens. The Alcmaeonidae, led by Cleisthenes, bribed the oracle at Delphi to tell the Spartans to assist them, and Cleomenes came to their aid. The first attack on Athens was a failure, but Cleomenes personally led the second attack and besieged Hippias and his supporters on the Acropolis. He was unable to force Hippias to surrender, but the Spartans captured some of Hippias' relatives and took them hostage until he agreed to give up the city. Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC Events and Trends Establishment of the Roman Republic March 12, 515 BC - Construction is completed on the... The Alcmaeonidae or Alcmaeonids were a powerful noble family of ancient Athens who claimed descent from the mythological Alcmaeon, the grandson of Nestor. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Sparta (Doric: Spártā, Attic: Spártē) is a city in southern Greece. ... Hippias was one of the sons of Pisistratus, and was tyrant of Athens in the 6th century BC. Hippias succeeded Pisistratus in 527 BC, and in 525 BC he introduced a new system of coinage in Athens. ... Peisistratos or Peisistratus (Greek: )[1] (ca. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Cleisthenes (also Clisthenes or Kleisthenes) was a noble Athenian of the accursed Alcmeonidate family. ... For other uses, see Delphi (disambiguation). ... The Acropolis of Athens, seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ...


Cleisthenes and Isagoras then fought for control of Athens. Cleomenes came with an armed force to support Isagoras, and they forced Cleisthenes and the Alcmaeonidae family to go into exile for a second time. Cleomenes also abolished the Boule, a council set up by Cleisthenes, and occupied the Acropolis. The citizens of Athens objected to this and forced him out of the city. The following year Cleomenes gathered an army, intending to set up Isagoras as tyrant, and invaded Attica. The Corinthians in his force refused to attack Athens once they learned of Cleomenes' plan, and the invasion failed. Cleomenes realized a democratic Athens threatened Sparta's pre-eminence in Greece, and tried again to gather an army to restore Hippias as tyrant, but Sparta's allies disliked tyranny and refused to help. Isagoras, son of Tisander, was an Athenian aristocrat in the late 6th century BC. He had remained in Athens during the tyranny of Hippias, but after Hippias was overthrown he became involved in a struggle for power with Cleisthenes, a fellow aristocrat. ... The term boule can be used to describe a large block of synthetically produced crystal material. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about Attica in Greece. ... Temple of Apollo at Corinth Corinth, or Korinth (Κόρινθος) is a Greek city, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the original isthmus, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ...


Cleomenes was still king when Aristagoras, the tyrant of Miletus, came to Sparta to request help for the Ionian Revolt in 499 BC. Aristagoras was almost able to convince Cleomenes to help, promising an easy conquest of Persia and its riches, but Cleomenes sent him away when he learned how far away Persia really was. According to Herodotus, Cleomenes's young daughter Gorgo warned him not to trust a man who threatened to corrupt him. Aristagoras was the leader of Miletus in the late 6th century BC and early 5th century BC. He was the son of Molpagoras, and son_in_law (and nephew) of Histiaeus, whom the Persians had set up as tyrant of Miletus. ... The lower half of the benches and the remnants of the scene building of the theater of Miletus (August 2005) Miletus (Carian: Anactoria Hittite: Milawata or Millawanda, Greek: Μίλητος transliterated Miletos, Turkish: Milet) was an ancient city on the western coast of Anatolia (in what is now Aydin Province, Turkey), near... The Ionian Revolts were triggered by the actions of Aristagoras, the tyrant of the Ionian city of Miletus at the end of the 6th century BC and the beginning of the 5th century BC. They constituted the first major conflict between Greece and Persia. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC Years: 499 BC - 498 BC 497 BC 496 BC 495 BC 494 BC Births Deaths Events Aristagoras... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hērodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... Gorgo was the daughter and the only child of Cleomenes I, King of Sparta during the 6th and 5th centuries BC. She was the wife of her uncle, King Leonidas I who fought and died in the Battle of Thermopylae. ...


When the Persians invaded Greece after putting down the revolt in 494 BC, many city-states quickly submitted to them. Among these states was Aegina, so Cleomenes attempted to arrest the major collaborators there. The Aeginetans would not cooperate with him, and the other Spartan king, Demaratus, was also attempting to undermine his efforts. Cleomenes overthrew Demaratus, after first bribing the oracle at Delphi to announce that this was the divine will, and replaced him with Leotychides. The two kings successfully captured the Persian collaborators in Aegina. Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC Years: 499 BC 498 BC 497 BC 496 BC 495 BC - 494 BC - 493 BC 492 BC... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... Aegina (Greek: Αίγινα (Egina)) is one of the Saronic Islands of Greece in the Saronic Gulf, 31 miles (50 km) from Athens. ... Demaratus, king of Sparta from 515 until 491 BC of the Eurypontid line, successor to his father Ariston. ... Leotychidas [Leotychides] (c. ...


Also around 494, Cleomenes invaded Argos, and by fooling the Argive army he killed about 6000 inhabitants. Argos remained a bitter enemy of Sparta for decades after this attack. This article is about the city in Greece. ...


Exile and Death

Around 490 BC Cleomenes was forced to flee Sparta when his plot against his co-king Demaratus was discovered, but the Spartans allowed him to return when he began gathering an army in the surrounding territories. However, according to Herodotus he was by this time insane, and given to attacking any Spartan in his way. The Spartans put him in prison. By the command of his half-brothers, Leonidas I and Cleombrotus, Cleomenes was chained in the stocks 491 BC. Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC Years: 495 BC 494 BC 493 BC 492 BC 491 BC - 490 BC - 489 BC 488 BC... Demaratus, king of Sparta from 515 until 491 BC of the Eurypontid line, successor to his father Ariston. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hērodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... For other uses, see Leonidas (disambiguation). ... Cleombrotus, regent of Sparta between 480 and 479 BC. He was a member of the Agiad family, the son of Anaxandridas II and the brother of Cleomenes I and of Leonidas I. When the latter died, he became the tutor of his nephew Pleistarchus, son of Leonidas, and leader of... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC Years: 496 BC 495 BC 494 BC 493 BC 492 BC - 491 BC - 490 BC 489 BC...


While in said stocks, a bloody knife was found near him. Also found were slices of flesh carved from his legs, hips and belly; despite this, his death was ruled a suicide by self-mutilation. He was succeeded by the elder of his surviving half-brothers Leonidas I, who then married Cleomenes's daughter Gorgo. For other uses, see Leonidas (disambiguation). ... Gorgo was the daughter and the only child of Cleomenes I, King of Sparta during the 6th and 5th centuries BC. She was the wife of her uncle, King Leonidas I who fought and died in the Battle of Thermopylae. ...


The manner of Cleomenes's death and his insanity have the subject of some speculation among modern historians.

Preceded by
Anaxandridas II
Agiad King of Sparta
c.520-489
Succeeded by
Leonidas I

  Results from FactBites:
 
Cleomenes III - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (386 words)
Cleomenes III was the son of Leonidas II.
In 224 BC Cleomenes fortified the isthmus but his position was turned with the defection of Argos.
Cleomenes was deposed and was killed in exile in 219 BC.
The Internet Classics Archive | Cleomenes by Plutarch (6178 words)
Cleomenes, encouraged by this success, began to speak boldly among the citizens, and reminding them of a sentence of one of their ancient kings, said, it was in vain now that the Spartans asked not how many their enemies were, but where they were.
Cleomenes at first proposed fair and easy conditions by his ambassadors to the Achaeans, but afterwards he sent others, and required the chief command to be settled upon him; in other matters offering to agree to reasonable terms, and to restore their captives and their country.
Cleomenes, hearing this, said that he was unjustly dealt with; for they ought to have told him so plainly at first, and not now he was come even to their doors, show their jealousy and deny him admission.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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