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Encyclopedia > Clementine
Five Clementines whole, peeled, halved and sectioned.
Five Clementines whole, peeled, halved and sectioned.

A Clementine is the fruit of a variety of mandarin (Citrus reticulata), named in 1902. This fruit is a variably formed citrus ranging from slightly oblate through globose to oblong and sometimes broadly pyriform from development of neck or collar, as well as variably sized, ranging from medium-small to medium. The rind is of medium thickness; moderately firm, but easily peelable and does not puff until well after maturity. Smooth and glossy surface of colour deep orange to reddish-orange. The flesh colour is deep orange described as tender and melting with a sweet flavour. Typically there are 8 to 12 juicy segments.[1] Clementine may mean: the fruit clementine, a cross between a mandarin orange and an orange the tree of such fruit a feminine given name: women named Clementine include the belovèds in the film Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind and the song Oh My Darling, Clementine the cowgirl muppet... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,600 × 1,200 pixels, file size: 923 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,600 × 1,200 pixels, file size: 923 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... Binomial name The Mandarin orange or mandarin (瓯柑) is a small citrus tree (Citrus reticulata) with fruit resembling the orange. ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Citrus (disambiguation). ... An oblate spheroid is ellipsoid having a shorter axis and two equal longer axes. ... Figure 1a: A human brain, with the cerebellum in purple. ...


The Clementine is not always distinguished from other varieties of mandarin: in German and Russian, it is generally referred to as "Mandarine". However, it should not be confused with similar fruit such as the satsuma, which is another name for the Japanese mikan, and is another popular variety. The clementine is occasionally referred to as Algerian tangerine.[2][3] The satsuma mandarin (Citrus reticulata) was first introduced to the United States from Japan in 1876. ... This article is about Mandarin orange. ...


As with all fruit, the word "Clementine" can also refer to the tree which is known to be medium in vigour and size, almost thornless and a shy bearer.[3]


Known for its low total heat requirement for fruit maturity and the sensitivity of the seedless fruit to unfavorable conditions during the flowering and fruit-setting period; in regions of high total heat, the Clementine matures very early—only slightly later than the satsuma mandarins. Such regions also favour production of fruit of maximum size and best eating quality. As a consequence, Clementine is without doubt the best early variety in the Mediterranean basin, particularly in North Africa, and in other regions of similar climate.[1]


Moroccan growers have established three export categories for this variety—seedless Clementines, Clementines (maximum of 10 seeds), and Monreal (more than 10 seeds).[1]

Contents

History

Clementines are generally easier to peel than oranges.
Clementines are generally easier to peel than oranges.
Clementines
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 50 kcal   200 kJ
Carbohydrates     12.02 g
- Sugars  9.18 g
- Dietary fibre  1.7 g  
Fat 0.15 g
Protein 0.85 g
Water 86.58 g
Thiamin (Vit. B1)  0.086 mg   7%
Riboflavin (Vit. B2)  0.030 mg   2%
Niacin (Vit. B3)  0.636 mg   4%
Pantothenic acid (B5)  0.151 mg  3%
Vitamin B6  0.075 mg 6%
Folate (Vit. B9)  24 μg  6%
Vitamin C  48.8 mg 81%
Vitamin E  0.20 mg 1%
Calcium  30 mg 3%
Iron  0.14 mg 1%
Magnesium  10 mg 3% 
Phosphorus  21 mg 3%
Potassium  177 mg   4%
Sodium  1 mg 0%
Zinc  0.06 mg 1%
Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

The traditional story is that it was "originally an accidental hybrid said to have been discovered by Father Clément Rodier in the garden of his orphanage in Misserghin, Algeria."[4] Clément then raised the tree and gave it the name "clementino".[5] However, there are claims it originated in China much earlier. James Saunt writes: "Some authorities believe it is virtually identical to the variety known as the Canton mandarin widely grown in Guangxi and Guangdong Provinces in China." In Arabic, it is called "Shaifhirboush".[6] Likewise, the Japanese botanist Tanaka also thinks that clementines first originated somewhere in Asia.[5] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1632x1224, 720 KB) Photo taken by Tokugawapants using Konica-Minolta A200. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1632x1224, 720 KB) Photo taken by Tokugawapants using Konica-Minolta A200. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water and making defecation easier. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Thiamine mononitrate Thiamine or thiamin, also known as vitamin B1, is a colorless compound with chemical formula C12H17ClN4OS. It is soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol. ... Riboflavin (E101), also known as vitamin B2, is an easily absorbed micronutrient with a key role in maintaining health in animals. ... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH, NAD, NAD+, and NADP play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell and DNA repair. ... Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5 (a B vitamin), is a water-soluble vitamin required to sustain life (essential nutrient). ... Pyridoxine Pyridoxal phosphate Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin. ... Folic acid (the anion form is called folate) is a B-complex vitamin (once called vitamin M) that is important in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) in the developing human fetus. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... Tocopherol, or Vitamin E, is a fat-soluble vitamin in eight forms that is an important antioxidant. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Introduction Magnesium is an essential element in biological systems. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... R-phrases 36 S-phrases none Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Other anions NaF, NaBr, NaI Other cations LiCl, KCl, RbCl, CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 Related salts Sodium acetate Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient to meet the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group. ... This article is about a biological term. ... Clément Rodier (1829-1904) was a French missionary in Algeria. ... Misserghin is a city in Algeria that is near Oran. ...


Commercial Clementine production in Spain began in 1925.[7] Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Clementine variety was introduced into the United States in 1909 and brought to California from Florida in 1914 by H. S. Fawcett of the Citrus Research Center at the University of California, Riverside. Evidently another independent introduction was made, since the 191415 catalogue of the Fancher Creek Nurseries of Fresno, California, mentions a new early mandarin from Algeria which later proved to be indistinguishable from Clementine. [1] Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The University of California, Riverside, commonly known as UCR or UC Riverside, is a public, coeducational university and one of ten campuses of the University of California. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Fresno redirects here. ...


At least two clones of Clementine are known to exist in North Africa—the "common ordinary" and the "Monreal". While the two are indistinguishable with respect to the tree, and virtually so for the fruit, the common ordinary exhibits self-incompatibility, and hence the fruit is seedless or nearly so in the absence of cross-pollination causing less regularity and certainty of fruit production under unfavorable conditions of climate or orchard management. The Monreal clone, which was found in 1940 in the orchard of Vincent Monreal at Perregaux, Oran, is self-compatible and without cross-pollination the fruit is regularly seedy. In both Morocco and Spain, seedless Monreal clones have been reported, but thus far they have not demonstrated superiority over the ordinary clone.[1]  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Self-incompatibility (SI) is one of the most important means to prevent selfing and promote the generation of new genotypes in plants, and it is considered as one of the causes for the spread and success of the angiosperms, on our planet. ... Seedless fruits are something of a paradox, as fruits are usually defined in a botanical sense as mature ovaries containing seeds. ... Apples are self incompatible and must be cross pollinated. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... View of Oran Coat of arms of Oran Oran (Arabic:, pronounced Wahran) is a city in northwestern Algeria, situated on the Mediterranean coast. ...

Clemetines in the Parc de la Ciutadella in Barcelona, Spain.

Being monoembryonic, Clementine is especially suitable as the seed parent for breeding purposes. According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Clementine is the seed parent for a number of mandarin-tangelo hybrids—Fairchild, Lee, Nova, Osceola, Page, and Robinson. Clementine is also one of the parents of the Clement tangelo and the Fortune and Fremont mandarins. [1] Monoembryony is when one only one seedling emerges from a seed. ... USDA redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Binomial name ??? The tangelo is a citrus fruit that is a hybrid of any mandarin orange, popularly known as a tangerine, and either a pomelo or a grapefruit. ... Fairchild tangerines are a cross between a Clementine tangerine and an Orlando tangelo. ...


Clementines, usually grown in Morocco and Spain, have been available in Europe for many years. A market for them in the United States was created recently, when the harsh 1997 winter in Florida devastated domestic orange production, increasing prices and decreasing availability. [8] California Clementines are available from mid-November through January; this availability has them referred to in some areas as "Christmas Oranges".[citation needed] For the band, see 1997 (band). ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Binomial name (L.) Osbeck Orange—specifically, sweet orange—refers to the citrus tree Citrus sinensis (syn. ...


Due to the fact that these fruits lose their desirable seedless characteristic when bees cross-pollinate them with other fruit,[1] large growers such as Paramount Citrus in California threatened to sue local beekeepers in early 2006 for their bees' trespass into clementine crop land.[9] Clementines are typically shipped in small wooden or cardboard crates. Cross pollination is a form of pollination in which pollen from one plant pollinates another. ... A beekeeper is a person who keeps honey bees for the purposes of securing commodities such as honey, beeswax, pollen; pollinating fruits and vegetables; raising queens and bees for sale to other farmers; and/or for purposes satisfying natural scientific curiosity. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up crate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Nutrition

Clementines are high in Vitamin C, potassium, thiamin, and niacin. They are also a good source of fiber and contain very little fat.[10] This article is about the nutrient. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... Thiamine mononitrate Thiamine or thiamin, also known as vitamin B1, is a colorless compound with chemical formula C12H17ClN4OS. It is soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol. ... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH, NAD, NAD+, and NADP play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell and DNA repair. ... Fiber or fibre[1] is a class o f materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to lengths of thread. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ...


See also

Box of Clementines with hand for size reference.
Box of Clementines with hand for size reference.

Image File history File links Clementines. ... Image File history File links Clementines. ... Binomial name Citrus reticulata Blanco For other uses, see Tangerine (disambiguation). ... The satsuma mandarin (Citrus reticulata) was first introduced to the United States from Japan in 1876. ... This article is about Mandarin orange. ... Fairchild tangerines are a cross between a Clementine tangerine and an Orlando tangelo. ... Binomial name ??? The tangelo is a citrus fruit that is a hybrid of any mandarin orange, popularly known as a tangerine, and either a pomelo or a grapefruit. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Robert Willard Hodgson, University of California, Division of Agricultural Sciences (1967). Horticultural Varieties of Citrus, Clementine (Algerian) (HTML). The Citrus Industry. Retrieved on 2007-12-19.
  2. ^ Cindy Fake (winter 2005). A mandarin by any other name would taste as sweet. The Curious Gardener 4.
  3. ^ a b Morton, J., Center for New Crops & Plant Products, Purdue University (1987). "Mandarin Orange Class II, Tangerine: Clementine", Fruits of Warm Climates (HTML), Miami, FL.: Julia F. Morton, p. 142–145. ISBN 0-9610184-1-0. Retrieved on 2007-12-19. 
  4. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary (November 2001). search clementine (HTML). Douglas Harper. Retrieved on 2007-12-19.
  5. ^ a b "Clementines". Produce Pete. 2007-11-24.
  6. ^ Saunt, James (2000). Citrus Varieties of the World, 2nd, Sinclair International. ISBN 1-87296-001-4. 
  7. ^ Clementine (HTML). Fruit. Facts About Fruit. Retrieved on 2007-12-19.
  8. ^ United States Department of Agriculture (03 1997). Florida Freeze Reducing Supplies Of Fresh Vegetables (PDF). Agricultural Outlook pg. 9. Economic Research Service. Retrieved on 2007-12-19.
  9. ^ The Fresno Bee, Jeff St. John. "Peace evasive between beekeepers, growers", The Fresno Bee, 2006-12-13. Retrieved on 2006-12-25. 
  10. ^ S. N. Smith (2007). What Is a Clementine? (HTML). wiseGEEK. Retrieved on 2007-12-19.

Berkeley Davis Irvine Los Angeles Merced Riverside San Diego Santa Barbara Santa Cruz UC Office of the President in Oakland The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the state of California. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Purdue redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy the notability guideline for Web content. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... USDA redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Fresno Bee is the daily newspaper serving Fresno, California and surrounding counties in the states San Joaquin Valley. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

USDA redirects here. ... This article is about the year. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... USDA redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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Oh My Darling, Clementine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (331 words)
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Oh My Darling, Clementine quickly became popular, especially with scouts and other groups of young people, as a campfire and excursion song, and there are several different versions of the words.
The song was used as the title of the film My Darling Clementine, which tells the tale of the Gunfight at the OK corral in Tombstone, Arizona.
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