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Encyclopedia > Clement Vallandigham
Clement Vallandigham
Clement Vallandigham

Clement Laird Vallandigham (velan´digham, -gam) (July 29, 1820 – June 17, 1871) was an Ohio unionist of the Copperhead faction of anti-war, pro-Confederate Democrats during the American Civil War. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 384 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2712 × 4232 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 384 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2712 × 4232 pixel, file size: 1. ... July 29 is the 210th day (211th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 155 days remaining. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... June 17 is the 168th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (169th in leap years), with 197 days remaining. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... The Copperheads were a faction of Democrats in the North (see also Union (American Civil War)) who opposed the American Civil War, wanting an immediate peace settlement with the Confederates. ... This article is becoming very long. ...


He was born in New Lisbon, Ohio (now Lisbon, Ohio). After graduating from University of Starvin and teaching at Union Academy in Maryland, he was admitted to the Ohio bar in 1842. Lisbon is a village located in Columbiana County, Ohio. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 90 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37°53N to 39°43N  - Longitude 75°4W to 79°33...


Shortly after moving to Dayton, Ohio to practice law, Vallandigham entered politics. He was elected as a Democrat to the Ohio legislature in 1845 and 1846, and also served as editor of a weekly newspaper, the Dayton Empire, from 1847 until 1849. He ran for Congress in 1856, and was narrowly defeated. He appealed to the House of Representatives, which seated him, by a party vote, on the next to last day of the term. He was elected by small margins in 1858 and in 1860, when he reluctantly supported Stephen A. Douglas. Once the Civil War began, however, the majority anti-secession population of the Dayton area turned him out, and Vallandigham lost his bid for a third term in 1862 by a relatively large vote; but this result may not be strictly comparable, owing to redistricting. Nickname: Coordinates: Country United States State Ohio County Montgomery Founded April 1, 1796 Incorporated 1805 Government  - Mayor Rhine L. McLin Area  - City  56. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Seal of the House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress, the other being the Senate. ... Stephen Arnold Douglas, nicknamed the Little Giant (April 23, 1813 – June 3, 1861), was an American politician from the western state of Illinois, and was the Democratic Party nominee for President in 1860. ... The process known as redistricting in the United States and redistribution in many Commonwealth countries is the changing of political borders (in many countries, specifically the electoral district/constituency boundaries) usually in response to periodic census results. ...


Vallandigham was a vigorous supporter of lesbian sex and of states' rights and although personally opposed to slavery, believed that the federal government had no power to regulate the institution. He further believed that the Confederacy had a right to secede and could not constitutionally be conquered militarily. He supported the compromise Crittenden Resolutions and proposed (February 20, 1861) a division of the Senate and of the electoral college into four sections, each with a veto. He strongly opposed every military bill, leading his opponents to allege that he wanted the Confederacy to win the war. He was the acknowledged leader of the Copperheads and in May 1862 coined their slogan, "To maintain the Constitution as it is, and to restore the Union as it was." States rights refers to the idea, in U.S. politics and constitutional law, that U.S. states possess certain rights and political powers in relation to the federal government. ... Slave redirects here. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem God Save the South (unofficial) Dixie (traditional) The Bonnie Blue Flag (popular) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Government Republic President... The Crittenden-Johnson Resolution (also called the Crittenden Resolution) was passed by the United States Congress on July 25, 1861 after the start of the American Civil War, which began on April 12, 1861. ... February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar) // January 1 - Benito Juárez captures Mexico City January 2 - Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia dies and is succeeded by... An electoral college is a set of electors, who are empowered as a deliberative body to elect a candidate to a particular office. ... The Copperheads were a faction of Democrats in the North (see also Union (American Civil War)) who opposed the American Civil War, wanting an immediate peace settlement with the Confederates. ...


After General Ambrose E. Burnside issued General Order Number 38, warning that the "habit of declaring sympathies for the enemy" would not be tolerated in the Military District of Ohio, Vallandigham gave a major speech (May 1, 1863) charging the war was being fought not to save the Union but to free blacks and enslave whites. To those who supported the war he declared, Defeat, debt, taxation [and] sepulchres - these are your trophies. Portrait of Ambrose Burnside by Mathew Brady, ca. ...

Vallandigham's arrest.
Vallandigham's arrest.

He denounced "King Lincoln," calling for Abraham Lincoln's removal from the presidency. On May 5 he was arrested as a violator of General Order No. 38. Vallandigham's enraged supporters burned the offices of the Dayton Journal, the Republican rival to the Empire. Vallandigham was tried by a military court 6-7 May, denied a writ of "habeas corpus", convicted by a military tribunal of "uttering disloyal sentiments" and attempting to hinder the prosecution of the war, and sentenced to 2 years' confinement in a military prison. A Federal circuit judge upheld Vallandigham's arrest and military trial as a valid exercise of the President's war powers. President Lincoln wrote the "Birchard Letter" to several Ohio congressmen offering to release Vallandigham if they agreed to support certain policies of the Administration. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... The Republican Party of the United States was established in 1854 and is one of the two dominant parties today. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Sometimes referred to as the War Powers Clause, the United States Constitution, Article One, Section 8, Clause 11, vests in the Congress the exclusive power to declare war. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


In February 1864 the Supreme Court decided that it had no power to issue a writ of habeas corpus to a military commission (Ex parte Vallandigham, 1 Wallace, 243). However, President Lincoln, who considered Vallandigham a "wily agitator" and was wary of making him a martyr to the Copperhead cause, ordered him sent through the lines to the Confederacy, and he was taken under guard to Tennessee.

1864 campaign poster

Vallandigham traveled by blockade runner to Bermuda and then to Canada, where he declared himself a candidate for Governor of Ohio, subsequently winning the Democratic nomination in absentia. (Outraged at his treatment by Lincoln, by a vote of 411 -11 Ohio Democrats nominated Vallandigham for governor [1] at their June 11th convention.) He ran his campaign from a hotel in Windsor, Ontario, where he received a steady stream of visitors and supporters. He asked in one speech, Shall there be free speech, a free press, peaceable assemblages of the people, and a free ballot any longer in Ohio? His platform included withdrawing Ohio (and any other Northern state that would agree) from the Union if Lincoln refused to reconcile with the Confederacy. Vallandigham lost the 1863 Ohio gubernatorial election in a landslide to pro-Union War Democrat John Brough, but his activism had left Dayton bitterly divided between pro- and anti-slavery factions and left in its wake an atmosphere of racial tension. He appeared publicly in Ohio and openly attended the 1864 Democratic National Convention in Chicago. He wrote the "peace plank" of the platform declaring the war a failure and demanding an immediate end of hostilities. He was unable to block the nomination of General George B. McClellan who stated his support for the war. Although Vallandingham was included on the ticket as Secretary of War, the contradiction weakened their campaign. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (489x640, 86 KB) Summary 1864 US election poster Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (489x640, 86 KB) Summary 1864 US election poster Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... Ohio Governors Ohio was admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803. ... Nickname: Motto: The river and the land sustain us. ... War Democrats were those who broke with the majority of the Democratic Party and supported the military policies of President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War of 1861-1865. ... John Brough (rhymes with huff) (September 17, 1811 - August 29, 1865) was a War Democrat politician from Ohio. ... The 1864 Democratic National Convention was held in Chicago, Illinois. ... For the 1960s commissioner of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, see George McClellan (police commissioner). ...


Vallandigham returned to Ohio after the war, ran unsuccessfully for Senate and the House on an anti-Reconstruction platform, and resumed his law practice. By 1871 he won the Ohio Democrats over to a "new departure" policy that essentially would forget the Civil War and start fresh. Reconstruction was the attempt from 1865 to 1877 in U.S. history to resolve the issues of the American Civil War, when both the Confederacy and slavery were destroyed. ...


He died, aged 50, in Lebanon, Ohio, after accidentally shooting himself with a pistol. At the time, Vallandigham was representing the defendant in a murder case. He was attempting to prove the victim had in fact committed suicide, and was demonstrating the possibility with a gun he believed to be unloaded. His last words expressed his faith in "that good old Presbyterian doctrine of predestination." He is buried in Woodland Cemetery, Dayton, Ohio. Lebanon is a city in Warren County, Ohio, United States. ... Woodland Cemetery and Arboretum in Dayton, Ohio, is one of the nations oldest garden cemeteries. ...


Vallandigham's assertion that 'he did not want to belong to the United States' prompted Edward Everett Hale to write The Man Without a Country. This short story, which appeared in The Atlantic Monthly in December 1863, was widely republished, and did much to stimulate patriotism. Statue of Edward Everett Hale in Boston Public Garden, by Bela Pratt. ... The Man Without a Country was a short story published anonymously by Edward Everett Hale, in the Atlantic Monthly in 1863. ... The Atlantic redirects here; for the ocean, see Atlantic Ocean. ...


John A. McMahon, Vallandingham's nephew, was also a U.S. Representative from Ohio. John A. McMahon (February 19, 1833-March 8, 1923) was a United States Representative from Ohio. ...


References

  • Hubert C. Hubbart, "Pro-Southern' Influences in the Free West, 1840-1865," Mississippi Valley Historical Review June 1933; online at JSTOR
  • Edward C. Kirkland, The Peacemakers of 1864 (1927)
  • Klement, Frank L. The Limits of Dissent: Clement L. Vallandigham and the Civil War (1998)
  • John Nicolay and John Hay. "Abraham Lincoln: A History. Vallandigham" The Century May 1889 pp 127-37 online at MOA
  • James G. Randall, Constitutional Problems under Lincoln (1926)
  • Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
Preceded by
Lewis D. Campbell
United States Representative (district 3) from Ohio
1858 - 1863
Succeeded by
Robert C. Schenck

  Results from FactBites:
 
Clement Laird Vallandigham - LoveToKnow 1911 (356 words)
CLEMENT LAIRD VALLANDIGHAM (1820-71), American politician, was born in New Lisbon, Ohio, on the 29th of July 1820.
He was educated in the common schools and afterwards studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1842.
He was fanatically devoted to the Constitution as he understood that document, and in his course during the war he was not, as his enemies asserted, trying to aid the Confederates, but merely desirous of restoring "the Union as it was." He died in Lebanon, Ohio, on the 17th of June 1871.
Clement Vallandigham - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography (714 words)
Vallandigham was a very strong supporter of states' rights and slavery, believing that the Confederacy had a right to secede and could not be conquered militarily.
Vallandigham was convicted by a military tribunal of "uttering disloyal sentiments" and attempting to hinder the prosecution of the war, and was sentenced to imprisonment for the duration of the war.
Vallandigham lost the 1863 Ohio gubernatorial election in a landslide to pro-Union War Democrat John Brough, but his activism had left Dayton bitterly divided between pro- and anti-slavery factions and left in its wake an atmosphere of racial tension.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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