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Encyclopedia > Clay animation

Clay animation is one of many forms of stop motion animation; specifically, it is the form where each animated piece, either character or background, is "deformable", i.e. a malleable substance, usually plasticine clay. Stop motion is an animation technique which makes things that are static appear to be moving. ...


The term "Claymation" is also used to describe clay animation. Though a registered trademark created by Will Vinton in 1978 to describe his clay animated films, the portmanteau claymation has entered the English language as a common term, called a genericized trademark. The Bass Red Triangle, was the first trademark registered in Britain in 1876. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Look up portmanteau word in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A genericized trademark, generic trade mark, generic descriptor, or proprietary eponym, is a trademark or brand name which has become the colloquial or generic description for a particular class of product or service. ...


All animation is produced in a similar fashion, whether done through traditional cel animation, stop-motion, or CGI. Each frame, or still picture, is recorded on film or digital media and then played back in rapid succession. When played back at a frame rate greater than 10-12 frames per second, a fairly convincing illusion of continuous motion is achieved. Animation is the rapid display of a sequence of images of 2-D artwork or model positions in order to create an illusion of movement. ... Traditional animation, sometimes also called cel animation or hand-drawn animation, is the oldest and historically the most popular form of animation. ... Wallace & Gromit is an example of cartoons made with stop-motion animation. ... Computer-generated imagery (CGI) is the application of the field of computer graphics (or more specifically, 3D computer graphics) to special effects. ... Bold textDigital media (as opposed to analog media) usually refers to electronic media that work on digital codes. ... Frame rate, or frame frequency, is the measurement of how quickly an imaging device produces unique consecutive images called frames. ...

A clay animation scene from a Finnish TV commercial. The process is explained here.

Contents

Image File history File links Claychick. ... Image File history File links Claychick. ...

Technical explanation

In clay animation, which is one of the many forms of stop motion animation, each object is sculpted in clay or a similarly pliable material such as Plasticine, usually around a wire skeleton called an armature. As in other forms of object animation, the object is arranged on the set (background), a film frame is taken and the object or character is then moved slightly by hand. Another frame is taken and the object moved slightly again. This cycle is repeated until the animator has achieved the desired amount of film. The human mind processes the series of slightly changing, rapidly playing images as motion, hence making it appear that the object is moving by itself. To achieve the best results, a consistent shooting environment is needed to maintain the illusion of continuity. This means paying special attention to maintaining consistent lighting and object placement and working in a calm environment. Stop motion is an animation technique which makes things that are static appear to be moving. ... Plasticine is a putty-like modelling material made from calcium salts, petroleum jelly and aliphatic acids. ... One of many forms of stop motion animation. ... It has been suggested that video frame be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ... In fiction, continuity is consistency of the characteristics of persons, plot, objects, places and events seen by the reader or viewer. ...


Intensity

Producing a stop motion animation using clay is extremely laborious. Normal film runs at 24 frames per second (FPS). With the standard practice of "doubles" or "twos" (double-framing — exposing 2 frames for each shot), 12 changes are usually made for one second of film movement. For a 30-minute movie, there would be approximately 21,600 stops to change the figures for the frames. For a full length (90 min) movie, there would be approximately 64,800 stops and possibly far more if parts were shot with "singles" or "ones" (one frame exposed for each shot). Great care must be taken to ensure the object is not altered by accident, by even slight smudges, dirt, hair, or even dust. For feature-length productions, the use of clay has generally been supplanted by rubber silicone and resin-cast components. One foam-rubber process has been coined as Foamation by Will Vinton. However, clay remains a viable animation material where a particular aesthetic is desired. Stop motion is an animation technique which makes things that are static appear to be moving. ...


Clay animation can take several forms:


"Freeform" clay animation is an informal term where the shape of the clay changes radically as the animation progresses, such as in the work of Eliot Noyes Jr and Church of the Sub-Genius co-founder Ivan Stang's animated films. Or clay can take the form of "character" clay animation where the clay maintains a recognizable character throughout a shot, as in Art Clokey's and Will Vinton's films. Rev. ...


One variation of clay animation is strata-cut animation in which a long bread-like loaf of clay, internally packed tight and loaded with varying imagery, is sliced into thin sheets, with the camera taking a frame of the end of the loaf for each cut, eventually revealing the movement of the internal images within. Pioneered in both clay and blocks of wax by German animator Oskar Fischinger during the 1920s and 30s, the technique was revivied and highly refined in the mid-90s by David Daniels, an associate of Will Vinton, in his 16-minute short film Buzz Box. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Oskar Fischinger (1900-1967) was an abstract animator, filmmaker, and painter. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Early American actor William Garwood starred in numerous short films, many of which were only 20 minutes in length Short subject is a format description originally coined in the North American film industry in the early period of cinema. ...


Another clay animation technique, and blurring the distinction between stop motion and traditional flat animation, is called clay painting (which is also a variation of the direct manipulation animation process) where clay is placed on a flat surface and moved like wet oil paints as on a traditional artistic canvas to produce any style of images, but with a clay 'look' to them. Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... One of then many forms of stop motion, but certainly blurring the distinction between stop motion and regular flat (drawing or cel) animation. ...


Pioneering this technique was one-time Vinton animator Joan Gratz, first in her Oscar-nominated film The Creation (1980) and then in her Oscar-winning Mona Lisa Descending a Staircase filmed in 1992.


A variation of this technique was developed by another Vinton animator, Craig Bartlett, for his series of "Arnold" short films, also made during the 90s, in which he not only used clay painting, but sometimes built up clay images that rose off the plane of the flat support platform, toward the camera lens, to give a more 3-D stop-motion look to his films. Craig Bartlett (b. ... Photographic lens One of Canons most popular wide angle lenses - 17-40 f/4 L The zoom lens of the Canon Elph A photographic lens (or more correctly, objective) is an optical lens or assembly of lenses used in conjunction with a camera body and mechanism to make images...


A sub-variation of clay animation can be informally called "clay melting". Any kind of heat source can be applied on or near (or below) clay to cause it to melt while an animation camera on a time-lapse setting slowly films the process. An example of this can be seen in Vinton's early short clay-animated film, Closed Mondays, (co-produced by animator Bob Gardiner) at the end of the computer sequence. An animation camera manufactured by Crass, Berlin, in 1957. ... The flower of a geranium opening over a period of about two hours. ...


Some of the best known clay animated works include the Gumby series of television shows created by Art Clokey and the advertisements made for the California Raisin Advisory Board by the Will Vinton studio. Clay animation has also been used in Academy-Award-winning short films such as Closed Mondays (Will Vinton and Bob Gardiner, 1974), Creature Comforts (Aardman, 1989), all three Wallace & Gromit short films, created by Nick Park of Aardman Animation. Aardman also created The Presentators (a series of one-minute clay animation short films aired on Nicktoons). Some clay animations have been popular online, on such sites as Newgrounds. Gumby and Pokey Gumby is a dark-green clay humanoid figure who was the subject of a series of American television shows totaling 223 episodes over a 35 year period, animated using stop motion clay animation. ... Art Clokey (born 1921) is a pioneer in the popularization of claymation, beginning in 1955 with a film experiment called Gumbasia, influenced by his professor Slavko Vorkapich at the University of Southern California (known colloquially as USC Film School). ... The California Raisin Advisory Board (or CALRAB) is most notable for the use of The California Raisins to market their namesake product, raisins. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Creature Comforts was originally a 1989 animated short film made in Britain about how animals feel about living in a zoo, and later became a series of commercials for Heat Electric. ... Aardman Animations is a British stop motion animation studio founded by Peter Lord and David Sproxton in 1972. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Wallace and Gromit are the main characters in a series of three British animated films by Nick Park of Aardman Animations. ... Nicholas Wulstan Park, CBE (b. ... Aardman Animations is a British stop motion animation studio founded by Peter Lord and David Sproxton in 1972. ... The Presentators are a series of one-minute, 3D, computer-animated shorts made by Aardman Animations for Nickelodeon, featuring three animated (mentioned once or twice) characters of unknown origin who explain things like history, mind reading, chemistry, dinosaurs, or why not to press the tiny red button on their desk. ... For the British television channel, see Nicktoons UK A group of Nicktoons characters in a promotional image for Nicktoons TV. Nicktoons are animated television programs airing on the childrens television channel Nickelodeon and its many spin-offs. ... Newgrounds is a website headquartered in Glenside, Pennsylvania, USA and created in 1995 that primarily hosts Adobe Flash animated films and games. ...


Other relatively recent films or television shows produced with clay animation

A Claymation Christmas Celebration (Will Vinton Studio, TV special, 1987) This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Baby Snakes is the live soundtrack to the 1979 Frank Zappa movie of the same name. ... Frank Vincent Zappa[1] (December 21, 1940 – December 4, 1993) was an American composer, guitarist, singer, film director, and satirist. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A music video is a short film or video that accompanies a complete piece of music, most commonly a song. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Spokoinoi Nochi, Malyshi (in English, roughly: Good Night, Kids) is a Russian language childrens television program. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Trap Door is a childrens claymation-style animated television series, shown in the United Kingdom in 1984. ... Cover from the 1990 Atlantic Records soundtrack, currently out of print Will Vintons A Claymation Christmas Celebration is a 1987 Christmas television special featuring stop motion animation known as Claymation. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A television special is a television program, typically a short film or television movie, which interrupts or temporarily replaces programming normally scheduled for a given time slot. ...

Several computer games have also been produced using clay animation, including The Neverhood, Dark Oberon, Platypus and Primal Rage. Television commercials have also utilized the clay animation, such as the Chevron Cars ads, produced by Aardman Studios. Besides commercials, clay animation has also been popularized in recent years by children's shows such as Bob the Builder and The Koala Brothers, as well as adult-oriented shows on Cartoon Network's Adult Swim lineup, including Robot Chicken (which uses clay animation and action figures as stop-motion puppets in conjunction) and Moral Orel. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... John Cameron Fogerty (born May 28, 1945) is an American singer, songwriter, and guitarist, best known for his time with the swamp rock or roots rock band Creedence Clearwater Revival. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Creature Comforts was originally a 1989 animated short film made in Britain about how animals feel about living in a zoo, and later became a series of commercials for Heat Electric. ... Aardman Animations is a British stop motion animation studio founded by Peter Lord and David Sproxton in 1972. ... Wallace and Gromit Wallace and Gromit are the main characters in a series of three British animated short films, a series of ten short animated sequences, and a feature-length film by Nick Park of Aardman Animations. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Celebrity Deathmatch is a claymation parody television show that pits celebrities against each other in a wrestling ring, almost always ending in a gruesome death of the celebrity who lost the match. ... Image:EricFogel. ... The PJs was a claymation television series created by Eddie Murphy, Larry Wilmore, and Steve Tompkins. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the movie. ... Aardman Animations is a British stop motion animation studio founded by Peter Lord and David Sproxton in 1972. ... Nicholas Wulstan Park, CBE (b. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Robot Chicken is an American stop motion animated television series created by Stoop!d Monkey and Sony Pictures Digital and produced by ShadowMachine Films, currently airing in the US as a part of Cartoon Networks Adult Swim line-up, in Britain as part of the Bravos Adult Swim... Seth Geshell Green (born February 8, 1974) is an American actor and television producer best known for his acting roles as Doctor Evils son Scott in the Austin Powers movies and as Oz in the Buffy TV series. ... // Live Freaky Die Freaky is a stop motion animated film based on the Charles Manson murders. ... Moral Orel is a stop-motion animated television show currently airing on Adult Swim. ... Namcos Pac-Man was a hit, and became a universal phenomenon. ... The Neverhood is a 1996 PC CD-ROM claymation video game created by animator Doug TenNapel and released by Dreamworks Studios. ... Playpus is the name of a horizontal scrolling shooter game created by Anthony Flack(aka Squashy Software). ... Primal Rage is a versus fighting game developed and published by Atari Games. ... A television advertisement or commercial (often called an advert in the United Kingdom) is a form of advertising in which goods, services, organizations, ideas, etc. ... Tony Turbo Da Chevron Cars are part of an advertising campaign of da Chevron Corporation consisting of television spots, print ads, billboards, and toy cars available at Chevron retail locations. ... Bob the Builder is a childrens television clay character created by Keith Chapman. ... The Koala Brothers is an animated childrens television show that features the adventures of the titular brothers, Frank and Buster, as they seek to help their neighbors in a sleepy town in the Australian Outback. ... Cartoon Network is an American cable television network created by Turner Broadcasting which primarily shows animated programming. ... Adult Swim, sometimes rendered [adult swim] based on its logo, is the name for the adult-oriented television programming network. ... Robot Chicken is an American stop motion animated television series created by Stoop!d Monkey and Sony Pictures Digital and produced by ShadowMachine Films, currently airing in the US as a part of Cartoon Networks Adult Swim line-up, in Britain as part of the Bravos Adult Swim... Zarbon action figure of from Dragon Ball Z made by Bandai An action figure is a posable plastic figurine of a character, often from a movie, video game, or television program. ... Moral Orel is a stop-motion animated television show currently airing on Adult Swim. ...


See also

Stop motion is an animation technique which makes things that are static appear to be moving. ... Nicholas Wulstan Park, CBE (b. ... Wallace and Gromit Wallace and Gromit are the main characters in a series of three British animated short films, a series of ten short animated sequences, and a feature-length film by Nick Park of Aardman Animations. ... Art Clokey (born 1921) is a pioneer in the popularization of claymation, beginning in 1955 with a film experiment called Gumbasia, influenced by his professor Slavko Vorkapich at the University of Southern California (known colloquially as USC Film School). ... Gumby and Pokey Gumby is a dark-green clay humanoid figure who was the subject of a series of American television shows totaling 223 episodes over a 35 year period, animated using stop motion clay animation. ... Aardman Animations, Ltd. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Neverhood is a 1996 PC CD-ROM claymation video game created by animator Doug TenNapel and released by Dreamworks Studios. ... Timothy William Burton (born August 25, 1958) is an Academy Award-nominated American film director, writer and designer known for his off-beat and quirky style. ... Celebrity Deathmatch is a claymation parody television show that pits celebrities against each other in a wrestling ring, almost always ending in a gruesome death of the celebrity who lost the match. ... Bruce Bickford is an expert claymation artist. ... ClayFighter was a fighting game released for the SNES in 1993 and later ported to Sega Genesis in 1994. ... Image:EricFogel. ... Thomas Reilly is the attorney general of Massachusetts. ... Pingu Pingu is a Swiss animated series aimed at children. ...

References


  Results from FactBites:
 
Stop motion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3813 words)
One variation of clay animation is strata-cut animation in which a long bread-like loaf of clay, internally packed tight and loaded with varying imagery, is sliced into thin sheets, with the camera taking a frame of the end of the loaf for each cut, eventually revealing the movement of the internal images within.
Stop motion animation is essential for model animation which is the process of animating realistic-looking articulated models designed to be combined with live action footage to create the illusion of a a real-world fantasy sequence.
A simiplied variation of graphic animation is called direct manipulation animation which involves the frame-by-frame altering (or adding to) a single graphic image, as close as the stop motion process gets to the process of simply animating a series of drawings, which most people assoctae with the generic "animation' term.
Clay animation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1315 words)
Clay animation is one of many forms of stop motion animation; specifically, it is the form where each animated piece, either character or background, is "deformable".
In clay animation, which is one of the many forms of stop motion animation, each object is sculpted in clay or a similarly pliable material such as Plasticine, usually around a wire skeleton called an armature.
Pioneered in both clay and blocks of wax by German animator Oskar Fischinger during the 1920s and 30s, the technique was revivied and highly refined in the mid-90s by David Daniels, an associate of Will Vinton, in his 16-minute short film Buzz Box.
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