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Encyclopedia > Clay
The Gay Head cliffs in Martha's Vineyard are made almost entirely of clay.
The Gay Head cliffs in Martha's Vineyard are made almost entirely of clay.

Clay is a naturally occurring material composed primarily of fine-grained minerals, which show plasticity through a variable range of water content, and which can be hardened when dried and/or fired. Clay deposits are mostly composed of clay minerals (phyllosilicate minerals), minerals which impart plasticity and harden when fired and/or dried, and variable amounts of water trapped in the mineral structure by polar attraction. Organic materials which do not impart plasticity may also be a part of clay deposits.[1] For the town in the United States, see Clay, New York. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2006x1478, 1750 KB) Summary This photo was taken in November at the Gay Head Cliffs in Marthas Vineyard. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2006x1478, 1750 KB) Summary This photo was taken in November at the Gay Head Cliffs in Marthas Vineyard. ... Map of Marthas Vineyard. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plasticity. ... Soil composition Water content or moisture content is the quantity of water contained in a material, such as soil (called soil moisture), rock, ceramics, or wood on a volumetric or gravimetric basis. ... Clay minerals are hydrous aluminium silicates, sometimes with minor amounts of iron, magnesium and other cations. ... The silicate minerals make up the largest and most important class of rock-forming minerals. ... A commonly-used example of a polar compound is water (H2O). ... Organic material or organic matter is informally used to denote a material that originated as a living organism; most such materials contain carbon and are capable of decay. ...


Clay minerals are typically formed over long periods of time by the gradual chemical weathering of rocks (usually silicate-bearing) by low concentrations of carbonic acid and other diluted solvents. These solvents (usually acidic) migrate through the weathering rock after leaching through upper weathered layers. In addition to the weathering process, some clay minerals are formed by hydrothermal activity. Clay deposits may be formed in place as residual deposits, but thick deposits usually are formed as the result of a secondary sedimentary deposition process after they have been eroded and transported from their original location of formation. Clay deposits are typically associated with very low energy depositional environments such as large lake and marine deposits. Weathering is the decomposition of rocks, soils and their minerals through direct contact with the Earths atmosphere. ... Carbonic acid (ancient name acid of air or aerial acid) has the formula H2CO3. ... A substance is soluble in a fluid if it dissolves in the fluid. ... Leaching may refer to: Leaching (agriculture) Leaching (chemical science) Leaching (metallurgy) Dump leaching Heap leaching Tank leaching Leaching (pedology) Bioleaching Parboiling, also known as leaching Categories: ... Hydrothermal circulation in the oceans is the passage of the water through mid-ocean Ridge (MOR) systems. ... Two types of sedimentary rock: limey shale overlaid by limestone. ...

Contents

Definition

Clays are distinguished from other fine-grained soils by various differences in composition. Silts, which are fine-grained soils which do not include clay minerals, tend to have larger particle sizes than clays, but there is some overlap in both particle size and other physical properties, and there are many naturally occurring deposits which include both silts and clays. The distinction between silt and clay varies by discipline. Geologists and soil scientists usually consider the separation to occur at a particle size of 2 µm (clays being finer than silts), sedimentologists often use 4-5 μm, and colloid chemists use 1 μm.[1] Geotechnical engineers distinguish between silts and clays based on the plasticity properties of the soil, as measured by the soils' Atterberg Limits. For other uses, see Silt (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Silt (disambiguation). ... The Geologist by Carl Spitzweg A geologist is a contributor to the science of geology, studying the physical structure and processes of the Earth and planets of the solar system (see planetary geology). ... Soil science deals with soil as a natural resource on the surface of the earth including soil formation, classification and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils per se; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils. ... A micrometre (American spelling: micrometer, symbol µm) is an SI unit of length equal to one millionth of a metre, or about a tenth of the diameter of a droplet of mist or fog. ... Sedimentology encompasses the study of modern sediments and understanding the processes that deposit them. ... A chemist pours from a round-bottom flask. ... Bostons Big Dig presented geotechnical challenges in an urban environment. ... The Liquid Limit, also known as the upper plastic limit, and the Atterberg limit, is the water content at which a soil changes from the liquid state to a plastic state. ...

Quaternary clay in Estonia.

Primary clays, also known as kaolins are located at the site of formation. Secondary clay deposits have been moved by erosion and water from its primary location[2]. Image File history File links Clay-ss-2005. ... Image File history File links Clay-ss-2005. ... The Quaternary Period is the geologic time period from the end of the Pliocene Epoch roughly 1. ... For morphological image processing operations, see Erosion (morphology). ...

Grouping

Depending upon academic source, there are three or four main groups of clays: kaolinite, montmorillonite-smectite, illite, and chlorite. Chlorites are not always considered a clay, sometimes being classified as a separate group within the phyllosilicates. There are approximately thirty different types of "pure" clays in these categories, but most "natural" clays are mixtures of these different types, along with other weathered minerals. Kaolin Kaolinite (Aluminium Silicate Hydroxide) Kaolinite is a mineral with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4. ... A sample of montmorillonite Montmorillonite is a very soft phyllosilicate mineral that typically forms in microscopic crystals, forming a clay. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Clay. ... Structure of Illite mica - USGS. Illite is a non-expanding, clay-sized, micaceous mineral. ... Chlorite is a group of phyllosilicate minerals often classified as clays. ... The silicate minerals make up the largest and most important class of rock-forming minerals. ...


Varve (or varved clay) is clay with visible annual layers, formed by seasonal differences in erosion and organic content. This type of deposit is common in former glacial lakes. A varve is an annual layer of sediment or sedimentary rock. ... For morphological image processing operations, see Erosion (morphology). ... Look up deposit in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Seven Rila Lakes in Rila, Bulgaria are typical representatives of lakes with glacial origin A glacial lake is a lake with origins in a melted glacier. ...


Quick clay is a unique type of marine clay indigenous to the glaciated terrains of Norway, Canada and Sweden. It is a highly sensitive clay, prone to liquefaction, which has been involved in several deadly landslides. Quick clay, also known as Leda Clay and Champlain Sea Clay in Canada, is a unique form of highly sensitive marine clay, with the tendency to change from a relatively stiff condition to a liquid mass when it is disturbed. ... Marine clay is a type of clay found in coastal regions around the world. ... Liquefaction may refer to: Soil liquefaction, the process by which sediments are converted into suspension, as in earthquake liquefaction, quicksand, quick clay, and turbidity currents. ... This entry refers to the geological term landslide. ...


Historical and modern uses

Clay layers in a construction site. Dry clay is normally much more stable than sand with regards to excavations.
Clay layers in a construction site. Dry clay is normally much more stable than sand with regards to excavations.

Clays exhibit plasticity when mixed with water in certain proportions. When dry, clay becomes firm and when fired in a kiln, permanent physical and chemical reactions occur which, amongst other changes, causes the clay to be converted into a ceramic material. It is because of these properties that clay is used for making pottery items, both practical and decorative. Different types of clay, when used with different minerals and firing conditions, are used to produce earthenware, stoneware and porcelain. Early humans discovered the useful properties of clay in prehistoric times, and one of the earliest artifacts ever uncovered is a drinking vessel made of sun-dried clay. Depending on the content of the soil, clay can appear in various colors, from a dull gray to a deep orange-red. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 524 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 524 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... For other uses, see Plasticity. ... Pit fired pottery is the oldest known method of firing clay-- and the ultimate source of all the modern firing variations used by potters. ... Charcoal Kilns, California Gold Kiln, Victoria, Australia Hop kiln. ... This article is about ceramic materials. ... Unfired green ware pottery on a traditional drying rack at Conner Prairie living history museum. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... Earthenware is a common ceramic material, which is used extensively for pottery tableware and decorative objects. ... A Staffordshire stoneware plate from the 1850s with transferred copper print - (From the home of JL Runeberg) Stoneware is a category of clay and a type of ceramic distinguished primarily by its firing and maturation temperature (from about 1200°C to 1315 °C). ... “Fine China” redirects here. ...


Clay tablets were used as the first writing medium, inscribed with cuneiform script through the use of a blunt reed called a stylus. Look up Cuneiform in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... species Pragmites australis Reed is a generic term used to describe numerous plants including: Common Reed (Phragmites australis Cav. ... For the online music and film magazine, see Stylus Magazine. ...


Clays sintered in fire were the first form of ceramic. Bricks, cooking pots, art objects, dishware and even musical instruments such as the ocarina can all be shaped from clay before being fired. Clay is also used in many industrial processes, such as paper making, cement production and chemical filtering. Additionally, Clay is often used in the manufacture of pipes for smoking tobacco and marijuana. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about ceramic materials. ... For other uses, see Brick (disambiguation). ... Some dishware Dishware is a general term for objects—dishes—from which people eat or serve food, such as plates and bowls. ... The ocarina (IPA: ) is an ancient flute-like wind instrument. ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cement (disambiguation). ... In chemistry and common usage, a filter is a device (usually a membrane or layer) that is designed to block certain objects or substances while letting others through. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... A Cannabis sativa plant The drug cannabis, also called marijuana, is produced from parts of the cannabis plant, primarily the cured flowers and gathered trichomes of the female plant. ...


Clay, being relatively impermeable to water, is also used where natural seals are needed, such as in the cores of dams, or as a barrier in landfills against toxic seepage ('lining' the landfill, preferably in combination with geotextiles).[3] In the earth sciences, permeability (commonly symbolized as κ, or k) is a measure of the ability of a material (typically, a rock or unconsolidated material) to transmit fluids. ... This article is about structures for water impoundment. ... Look up landfill in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Geotextiles are permeable fabrics which, when used in association with soil, have the ability to separate, filter, reinforce, protect, or drain. ...


Recent studies have been carried out to investigate clay's adsorption capacities in various applications, such as the removal of heavy metals from waste water and air purification. Not to be confused with absorption. ... For other uses, see Heavy metal (disambiguation). ...


Medical

A recent article in The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy found that certain iron-rich clay was effective in killing bacteria.[4]


See also

Look up Clay in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Bentonite - USGS Bentonite is an absorbent aluminium phyllosilicate generally impure clay consisting mostly of montmorillonite. ... This article is about ceramic materials. ... Clay (Industrial plasticine) is a modelling material which is mainly used by automotive design studios; Clay is a modelling material on wax basis. ... Clay animation is one of many forms of stop motion animation; specifically, it is the form where each animated piece, either character or background, is deformable, i. ... A clay court in Hattori Ryokuchi Park, Osaka A clay court is one of the four different types of tennis court. ... Clay minerals are hydrous aluminium silicates, sometimes with minor amounts of iron, magnesium and other cations. ... A clay pit is an open mine for the extraction of clay, which is generally used for manufacturing bricks. ... Geophagy is a practice of eating earthy substances such as clay, chalk, and laundry starch, often to augment a mineral-deficient diet. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Dr. A. Graham Cairns-Smith (19?? to 20??) is an organic chemist and molecular biologist at Glasgow University, most famous for his controversial 1985 book, Seven Clues to the Origins of Life. ... This article focuses on the history of thought regarding abiogenesis (the spontaneous generation of life from non-living sources). ... Gem animals. ... The London Clay is a marine deposit which is well known for the fossils it contains. ... Clay has been used for modelling from the beginning of civilisation. ... Paperclay is any clay to which processed cellulose fibre (paper being the most common) has been added. ... Particle size, also called grain size, refers to the diameter of individual grains of sediment, or the lithified particles in clastic rocks. ... Not to be confused with the Pleistocene epoch which is part of the geologic timescale. ... Unfired green ware pottery on a traditional drying rack at Conner Prairie living history museum. ... Vertisol profile In both the FAO and USA soil taxonomy, a vertisol is a soil in which there is a high content of expansive clay known as montmorillonite that forms deep cracks in drier seasons or years. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b Guggenheim & Martin 1995, pp. 255–256
  2. ^ http://pubs.usgs.gov/info/clays/
  3. ^ Preliminary evaluation of a compacted bentonite / sand mixture as a landfill liner material (Abstract) - Koçkar, Mustafa K.; Akgün, Haluk; Aktürk, Özgür; Department of Geological Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey
  4. ^ Broad-spectrum in vitro antibacterial activities of clay minerals against antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens

Middle East Technical University (METU; in Turkish, Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi, commonly referred to as ODTÜ) is a public research university in Ankara, Turkey. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after İstanbul. ...

References

  • Ehlers, Ernest G. and Blatt, Harvey (1982). 'Petrology, Igneous, Sedimentary, and Metamorphic' San Francisco: W.H. Freeman and Company. ISBN 0-7167-1279-2.
  • Hillier S. (2003) Clay Mineralogy. pp 139-142 In: Middleton G.V., Church M.J., Coniglio M., Hardie L.A. and Longstaffe F.J.(Editors) Encyclopedia of sediments and sedimentary rocks. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.

This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Clay
Bostons Big Dig presented geotechnical challenges in an urban environment. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For the American hard rock band, see SOiL. For the System of a Down song, see Soil (song). ... For other uses, see Silt (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sand (disambiguation). ... Gravel (largest fragment in this photo is about 4 cm) Gravel is rock that is of a certain particle size range. ... Peat in Lewis, Scotland Peat is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation matter. ... Hydraulic conductivity, symbolically represented as , is a property of vascular plants, soil or rock, that describes the ease with which water can move through pore spaces or fractures. ... Soil composition Water content or moisture content is the quantity of water contained in a material, such as soil (called soil moisture), rock, ceramics, or wood on a volumetric or gravimetric basis. ... Void ratio, in materials science, is defined as the volume of voids in a mixture divided by the volume of solids. ... Bulk density a property of particulate materials. ... Thixotropy is the property of some non-newtonian pseudoplastic fluids to show a time-dependent change in viscosity; the longer the fluid undergoes shear, the lower its viscosity. ... Reynolds dilatancy is the observed tendency of a compacted granular material to dilate (expand in volume) as it is sheared. ... The angle of repose, also referred to as angle of friction, is an engineering property of granular materials. ... Cohesion is the component of shear strength of a rock or soil that is independent of interparticle friction. ... Porosity is a measure of the void spaces in a material, and is measured as a fraction, between 0–1, or as a percentage between 0–100%. The term porosity is used in multiple fields including manufacturing, earth sciences and construction. ... In the earth sciences, permeability (commonly symbolized as κ, or k) is a measure of the ability of a material (typically, a rock or unconsolidated material) to transmit fluids. ... Specific storage (Ss), storativity (S), specific yield (Sy) and specific capacity are aquifer properties; they are measures of the ability of an aquifer to release groundwater from storage, due to a unit decline in hydraulic head. ... Soil mechanics is a discipline that applies the principles of engineering mechanics to soil to predict the mechanical behavior of soil. ... Effective stress (σ) is a value reflecting the strength of a soil. ... Pore water pressure refers to the pressure of groundwater held within a soil or rock, in gaps between particles (pores). ... Shear strength in reference to soil is a term used to describe the maximum strength of soil at which point significant plastic deformation or yielding occurs due to an applied shear stress. ... Consolidation is a process by which soils decrease in volume. ... Soil compaction occurs when weight of livestock or heavy machinery compresses the soil, causing it to lose pore space. ... Soil classification deals with the systematic categorization of soils based on distinguishing characteristics as well as criteria that dictate choices in use. ... A type of seismic wave, the S-wave moves in a shear or transverse wave, so motion is perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation. ... An example of lateral earth pressure overturning a retaining wall. ... A drill rig operator advances a direct push soil sampler. ... The (Dutch) Cone Penetration Test (CPT) is a test to measure the strength or bearing capacity of (soft) soils. ... The Standard Penetration Test (SPT) is an in-situ dynamic penetration test designed to provide information on the geotechnical properties of soils. ... Exploration geophysics is the applied branch of geophysics which uses deep and primarily near surface methods to probe or image the earth. ... Village pump redirects here, for information on Wikipedia project-related discussions, see Wikipedia:Village pump. ... Water borehole in northern Uganda A borehole is a deep and narrow shaft in the ground used for abstraction of fluid or gas reserves below the earths surface. ... The Liquid Limit, also known as the upper plastic limit, and the Atterberg limit, is the water content at which a soil changes from the liquid state to a plastic state. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A direct shear test is a laboratory test used by Professional Engineer Mohamed Fazlin to find the shear strength parameters of soil. ... A hydrometer is an instrument used to measure the specific gravity (or relative density) of liquids; that is, the ratio of the density of the liquid to the density of water. ... The Proctor compaction test, and the related Modified Proctor compaction test, are tests to determine the maximum practically-achievable density of soils and aggregates, and are frequently used in geotechnical engineering. ... The R-Value test, California Test 301, measures the response of a compacted sample of soil or aggregate to a vertically applied pressure under specific conditions. ... A sieve analysis is a practice or procedure used to assess the particle size distribution of a granular material. ... A triaxial shear test is a common method to measure the mechanical properties of many deformable solids, especially soil, sand, clay, and other granular materials or powders. ... Hydraulic conductivity, symbolically represented as , is a property of vascular plants, soil or rock, that describes the ease with which water can move through pore spaces or fractures. ... Soil composition Water content or moisture content is the quantity of water contained in a material, such as soil (called soil moisture), rock, ceramics, or wood on a volumetric or gravimetric basis. ... Crosshole sonic logging is a method to verify the integrity of drilled shafts and other concrete piles. ... Shallow foundations of a house A foundation is a structure that transfers loads to the ground. ... In geotechnical engineering, bearing capacity is the capacity of soil to support the loads applied to the ground. ... A shallow foundation is a type of foundation which transfers building loads to the earth very near the surface, rather than to a subsurface layer or a range of depths as does a deep foundation. ... A deep foundation installation for a bridge in Napa, California. ... Dynamic load testing is a fast and effective method of assessing foundation bearing capacity that requires instrumenting a deep foundation with accelerometers and strain transducers and analyzing data collected by these sensors. ... Wave equation analysis is a numerical method of analysis for the behavior of driven foundation piles. ... A gravity-type stone retaining wall A retaining wall is a structure that holds back soil or rock from a building, structure or area. ... A diagram of a mechanically stabilized earth wall as it would be modeled in a finite element analysis. ... Soil nailing is a technique in which soil slopes, excavations or retaining walls are reinforced by the insertion of relatively slender elements - normally steel reinforcing bars. ... A tieback is a horizontal wire used to reinforce retaining walls for stability. ... Historically, Gabions were round cages with open tops and bottoms, made from wicker and filled with earth for use as fortifications. ... Slurrywall excavator A slurry wall is a type of wall used to build tunnels, open cuts and foundations in areas of soft earth close to open water or with a high ground water table. ... Figure 1: Simple slope slip section The field of slope stability encompasses the analysis of static and dynamic stability of slopes of earth and rock-fill dams, slopes of other types of embankments, excavated slopes, and natural slopes in soil and soft rock. ... Mass wasting, also known as mass movement or slope movement, is the geomorphic process by which soil, regolith, and rock move downslope under the force of gravity. ... This article is about geological phenomenon. ... This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ... Soil liquefaction describes the behavior of water saturated soil when its behavior changes from that of a solid to that of a liquid. ... A series of mixed vertical oscillators A plot of the peak acceleration for the mixed vertical oscillators A response spectrum is simply a plot of the peak or steady-state response (displacement, velocity or acceleration) of a series of oscillators of varying natural frequency, that are forced into motion by... If you want to build a house and need to know where the best (or the worst) place to locate for earthquake shaking, then you need to dig up the regional seismic hazard maps. ... // The interaction between ground and structure consists of an exchange of mutual stress between the structure itself and the foundations ground. ... Geosynthetics is the term used to describe a range of generally synthetic products used to solve geotechnical problems. ... Geotextiles are permeable fabrics which, when used in association with soil, have the ability to separate, filter, reinforce, protect, or drain. ... Geomembranes are a kind of geosynthetic material. ... A geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) is a woven fabric like material primarily used for the lining of landfills. ... Also referred to as Deformation Survey. ... An automatic deformation monitoring system is a group of interacting, interrelated, or interdependent software and hardware elements forming a complex whole for deformation monitoring that, once set up, does not require human input to function. ...

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Clay County is dedicated to providing services to the public in an efficient, responsible and professional manner.
Clay County Board of Commissioners Meetings can be viewed live, as well as on-demand, via the Internet.
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Clay, Henry. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (986 words)
In 1810 Clay was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives and served (1811–14) as speaker.
Earlier Clay had publicly opposed the annexation of Texas, and he restated his position in the “Alabama letters,” agreeing to annexation if it could be accomplished with the common consent of the Union and without war.
Clay denounced the extremists in both North and South, asserted the superior claims of the Union, and was chiefly instrumental in shaping the Compromise of 1850.
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LANG33Silvia
9th October 2010
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