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Encyclopedia > Clave (rhythm)

Clave (pronounced clah-vay) is a rhythmic pattern or timeline which has its roots in West African music and was developed in Cuba. The clave serves as a tool for temporal organization, and essentially all Afro-Cuban music of Yoruban descent (including Cuban popular music such as salsa) is based around the clave rhythm. The word “clave” is Spanish for “key”, in the sense of an answer key or a musical key signature. This is in contrast to the Spanish word “llave”, which means key in the sense of the key to a door. This name helps to emphasize the functional importance of the clave as a structural element in Cuban music. For the popular Tamil film, see Rhythm (film) Rhythm (Greek = flow, or in Modern Greek, style) is the variation of the accentuation of sounds or other events over time. ... The Caribbean island of Cuba has been influential in the development of multiple musical styles in the 19th and 20th centuries. ... Salsa music is a diverse and predominantly Spanish Caribbean genre that is popular across Latin America and among Latinos abroad. ... In musical notation, a key signature is a series of sharp symbols or flat symbols placed on the staff, designating notes that are to be consistently played one semitone higher or lower than the equivalent natural notes (for example, the white notes on a piano keyboard) unless otherwise altered with...


Depending on the style and musicians involved, the clave may play a role from a simple rhythmic decoration to an elaborate structural framework upon which the rest of the music must relate. This framework is functional, and all parts are seen as relating to or derived from the framework in some sense. “Claves” is also the name of the percussion instrument that plays the clave rhythm, consisting of two small wooden sticks that are hit together to produce a high-pitched sound. Claves is a percussion instrument, consisting of a pair of short, thick wooden dowels. ... A percussion instrument can be any object which produces a sound by being struck with an implement, shaken, rubbed, scraped, or by any other action which sets the object into vibration. ...


The most common type of clave rhythm in Cuban popular music is called the “son clave”, named after the Cuban musical style of the same name: Arsenio Rodríguez initially developed son montuno from son. ...


3-2 Son clave rhythm in musical notation son clave rhythm in musical notation This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ...


(Listen to a Midi "son clave.")


Because there are three notes in the first measure and two in the second, the above is said to be in the 3-2 direction. The 2-3 clave is the same but with the measures reversed.


Another type of clave is the rumba clave. This is most commonly associated with the folkloric Guaguancó style. It also can be in the 3-2 direction, as shown below, and in the 2-3 direction, although 3-2 is more common. Rumba is both a family of music rhythms and a dance style that originated in Africa and traveled via the slave trade to Cuba and the New World. ... Guaguancó is one sub-genre of Cuban rumba, a highly complex rhythmic music and dance style. ...


3-2 rumba clave 3-2 Rumba Clave, created by Hyacinth. ...


The third Cuban clave, often called the "6/8 clave", is an adaptation of the well-documented West African 12/8 timeline. It is a cowbell pattern and is played mainly in the ‘’rumba colombia’’, ‘’abaquá’’, and other older styles.


It is often mistakenly believed that Brazilian music is largely without clave. As examples, these are transcriptions of several clave patterns found in various styles of brazilian music on an ago-gô and surdo. L=low bell, H=high bell, O = open surdo hit, X = muffled surdo hit, and | divides the measure:


Samba1: LL.L.H.H|L.L.L.H.


Samba2: LH.HL.H.|L.H.LH.H


Samba3: L|.L.L..L.|..L..L.L|


3rd Surdo: OO.OX...|O.O.X...


Partido Alto: L.H..L.L|.H..L.L.


Maracatu: L.H.L.H.|LH.HL.H.


Samba-Reggae: O..O..O.|..O..O..


Ijexa: LL.L.LL.|L.L.L.L. (HH.L.LL.|H.H.L.L.)



For Samba3 above, the clave pattern is based on a common accompaniment pattern played by the guitarist. B=bass note played by guitarist's thumb, C=chord played by fingers.


C|BC.CB.C.|B.C.BC.C|


What often differentiates Brazilian clave feel from Cuban clave feel is that whereas Cuban clave is typically one bar of rhythmic tension plus one bar of relaxation (speaking only generally), Brazilian clave tends to place the tension at either end with the relaxation in the middle. The pickup to the first bar sets off the tension.


Discussion of clave in Bossa Nova has been very problematic because of the insistence that Bossa Nova is distinct from samba. João Gilberto, the father of Bossa Nova, was not composing new song forms but was interpreting the Samba-Canções (plural of Samba-Canção) of Tom Jobim, et al.



Although the actual term clave is mostly used in the context of Afro-Cuban music, the rhythm also permeates Rock and Roll and Jazz. This is not surprising, as early twentieth-century musicians from Havana and New Orleans would take the twice-daily ferry between both cities to perform. Both the New Orleans Second-Line rhythm, and the variation in popular music which came to be known as the Bo Diddley beat are in similar to the son clave rhythm, with a shift of the accent from the third note of the three-note portion to the first note of that portion. The son clave rhythm is also used in the catch phrase "Shave and a haircut, two dimes" (inflation turned it into "Shave and a haircut, two bits"). It should be noted, however, that whether or not there was any continuous exchange between musicians in Louisiana and Cuba, African musical traditions in the United States are very much a part of the musical heritage of the african american culture since the first slaves landed in the US. Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... Jazz is a musical art form that originated in New Orleans at around the start of the 20th century. ... Havana (Spanish (IPA pronunciation: ) in full: Ciudad de La Habana, formerly named San Cristóbal de La Habana; UN/LOCODE: CU HAV) is the capital of Cuba. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... Bo Diddleys emphasis on rhythm largely influenced popular music, especially that of rock and roll in the 1960s. ... Look up Dime in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Dime has several different meanings, here are some of them: Dime (U.S. coin) - a U.S. coin worth ten cents. ... The bit is a unit of money worth 1/8 of a Spanish dollar (peso). ...


References

  • Ortiz, Fernando (1950). La Africania De La Musica Folklorica De Cuba. Ediciones Universales, en español. Hardcover illustrated edition. ISBN 84-89750-18-1.
  • Mauleón, Rebeca (1993). Salsa Guidebook for Piano and Ensemble. Petaluma, California: Sher Music. ISBN 0-9614701-9-4.
  • Crawford, Richard (1935) America's Musical Life. W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, New York. ISBN 0-393-32736-4.
  • Catro, Ruy (2000). Bossa Nova - The Story of the Brazilian Music That Seduced the World. A Capella Books, ISBN 1-55652-409-9.

External links

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Claves - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (202 words)
Claves is a percussion instrument (idiophone), consisting of a pair of short (about 20-30 cm), thick dowels.
Claves are sometimes hollow and carved in the middle to amplify the sound.
So the claves are very important in many latin music styles as the Son and Salsa as they build the rhythmic basis.
Clave (rhythm) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (751 words)
The clave serves as a tool for temporal organization, and essentially all Afro-Cuban music of Yoruban descent (including Cuban popular music such as salsa) is based around the clave rhythm.
“Claves” is also the name of the percussion instrument that plays the clave rhythm, consisting of two small wooden sticks that are hit together to produce a high-pitched sound.
The son clave rhythm is also used in the catch phrase "Shave and a haircut, two dimes" (inflation turned it into "Shave and a haircut, two bits").
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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