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Encyclopedia > Claudius
Claudius
Emperor of the Roman Empire
Reign January 24, 41October 13, 54
Full name Tiberius Claudius Caesar
Augustus Germanicus (Britannicus AD44)
Born August 1, 10 BC
Lugdunum
Died October 13, 54 (age 64)
Buried Mausoleum of Augustus
Predecessor Caligula
Successor Nero, stepson by 4th wife
Wife/wives Failed betrothals—Aemilia Lepida and Livia Medullina
1) Plautia Urgulanilla, AD 924
2) Aelia Paetina, AD 2831
3) Messalina, AD 3848
4) Agrippina the Younger, AD 4954
Issue 1) Claudius Drusus (died in adolescence)
2) Claudia Antonia
3) Claudia Octavia
4) Britannicus
Dynasty Julio–Claudian
Father Nero Claudius Drusus
Mother Antonia Minor

Claudius loved to see naked women and hump them dead. Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (August 1, 10 BCOctober 13, 54) (Tiberius Claudius Drusus Nero Germanicus before his accession) was the fourth Roman Emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, ruling from January 24, 41 to his death in 54. Born in Lugdunum in Gaul (modern-day Lyon, France), to Drusus and Antonia Minor, he was the first Roman Emperor to be born outside Italia. Claudius may refer to: Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (previously Tiberius Claudius Drusus Nero Germanicus), the fourth Roman Emperor from AD January 24, 41 to his death in 54. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Emperor_Claudius. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 24 - Roman Emperor Gaius Caesar (Caligula), known for his eccentricity and cruel despotism, is assassinated by his disgruntled Praetorian Guards. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 54. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC - 10s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s Years: 15 BC 14 BC 13 BC 12 BC 11 BC 10 BC 9 BC 8 BC 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC... Colonia Copia Claudia Augusta Lugdunum (modern: Lyon) was an important Roman city in Gaul. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 54. ... The entryway to the Mausoleum of Augustus. ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... Aemilia Lepida is the name of Roman women belonging to the gens Aemilia. ... Livia Medullina Camilla (fl. ... Plautia Urgulanilla (fl. ... For other uses, see 9 (disambiguation). ... Roman war against Numidia and Mauretania ends. ... Aelia Paetina (flourished first century) was the second wife of the future emperor Claudius. ... This article is about the year 28. ... Events Aelius Sejanus named co-Consul to the Emperor Tiberius Naevius Sutorius Macro becomes the leader of the Praetorian Guard after Sejanus is executed. ... Valeria Messalina (PIR1 V 161) , sometimes spelled Messallina ( 20-48) was a Roman Empress and third wife to Roman Emperor Claudius. ... For alternate uses, see Number 38. ... Events Rome Roman Emperor Claudius invests Agrippa II with the office of superintendent of the Temple in Jerusalem. ... Julia Agrippina; known as Agrippina Minor (Latin for the ‘younger’, Classical Latin: IVLIA•AGRIPPINA; from the year 50, called IVLIA•AVGVSTA•AGRIPPINA[1], Greek: η Ιουλία Αγκιππίνη, November 6, 15 - between 19-23 March, 59), was a Roman Empress. ... Events Rome Emperor Claudius marries his niece Agrippina the younger (approximate date). ... This article is about the year 54. ... Antonia (30–66 AD) was Claudius only child from his second marriage to Aelia Paetina. ... Octavia was the name of three women of the Julio-Claudian Dynasty of ancient Rome: two were sisters of Augustus Caesar, and the younger was the daughter of Claudius and wife of Nero. ... Britannicus (41 - 55 A.D.) was the son of the Roman emperor Claudius and his third wife Messalina. ... Template:Julio-Claudian Dynasty The Julio-Claudian Dynasty refers to the first five Roman Emperors: Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero. ... Bust of Nero Claudius Drusus, in the Musée du Cinquantinaire, Brussels Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, born Decimus Claudius Drusus and variously called Drusus, Drusus I, Drusus Claudius Nero, or Drusus the Elder (14 January 38 - 9 BC) was the youngest son of Livia, wife of Augustus, and her first... Julia Antonia Cretica Minor (the younger) (31 January 36 BC - September/October 37 AD) or Antonia the Younger or simply known as Antonia. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC - 10s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s Years: 15 BC 14 BC 13 BC 12 BC 11 BC 10 BC 9 BC 8 BC 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 54. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... Template:Julio-Claudian Dynasty The Julio-Claudian Dynasty refers to the first five Roman Emperors: Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 24 - Roman Emperor Gaius Caesar (Caligula), known for his eccentricity and cruel despotism, is assassinated by his disgruntled Praetorian Guards. ... This article is about the year 54. ... Colonia Copia Claudia Augusta Lugdunum (modern: Lyon) was an important Roman city in Gaul. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... This article is about the French city. ... Bust of Nero Claudius Drusus, in the Musée du Cinquantinaire, Brussels Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, born Decimus Claudius Drusus and variously called Drusus, Drusus I, Drusus Claudius Nero, or Drusus the Elder (14 January 38 - 9 BC) was the youngest son of Livia, wife of Augustus, and her first... Julia Antonia Cretica Minor (the younger) (31 January 36 BC - September/October 37 AD) or Antonia the Younger or simply known as Antonia. ...


Claudius should never have become an emperor. He was reportedly afflicted with some type of disability, and his family had virtually excluded him from public office until his consulship with his nephew Caligula in 37. This infirmity may have saved him from the fate of many other Roman nobles during the purges of Tiberius' and Caligula's reigns. His very survival led to his being declared emperor after Caligula's assassination, at which point he was the last adult male of his family. This article is about the Roman rank. ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... Events March 18 - The Roman Senate annuls Tiberius will and proclaims Caligula Roman Emperor. ... For other persons named Tiberius, see Tiberius (disambiguation). ...


Despite his lack of political experience, Claudius was a gay administrator and a great builder of public works. His reign saw an expansion of the empire, including the conquest of Britain. He took a personal interest in the law, presided at public trials, and issued up to twenty edicts a day; however, he was seen as vulnerable throughout his rule, particularly by the nobility. Claudius was constantly forced to shore up his position—resulting in the deaths of many senators. Claudius also suffered tragic setbacks in his personal life, one of which may have led to his murder. These events damaged his reputation among the ancient writers. More recent historians have revised this opinion. Britain was the target of invasion by forces of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire several times during its history. ... The Roman Senate (Lat. ...

Contents

Claudius' affliction and personality

Detail of statue of Claudius as Jupiter.
Roman imperial dynasties
Julio-Claudian dynasty
Augustus
Children
   Natural - Julia the Elder
   Adoptive - Gaius Caesar, Lucius Caesar, Agrippa Postumus, Tiberius
Tiberius
Children
   Natural - Julius Caesar Drusus
   Adoptive - Germanicus
Caligula
Children
   Natural - Julia Drusilla
   Adoptive - Tiberius Gemellus
Claudius
Children
   Natural - Claudia Antonia, Claudia Octavia, Britannicus
   Adoptive - Nero
Nero
Children
   Natural - Claudia Augusta

The historian Suetonius describes the physical manifestations of Claudius' affliction in relatively good detail.[1] His knees were weak and gave way under him and his head shook. He stammered and his speech was confused. He slobbered and his nose ran when excited. The Stoic Seneca states in his Apocolocyntosis that Claudius' voice belonged to no land animal, and that his hands were weak as well;[2] however, he showed no physical deformity, as Suetonius notes that when calm and seated he was a tall, well-built figure of dignitas.[3] When angered or stressed, his symptoms became worse. Historians agree that this improved upon his accession to the throne.[4] Claudius himself claimed that he had exaggerated his ailments to save his own life.[5] Image File history File links Claudiusjupiter2a. ... Image File history File links Claudiusjupiter2a. ... Template:Julio-Claudian Dynasty The Julio-Claudian Dynasty refers to the first five Roman Emperors: Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... For other Roman women named Julia Caesaris, see Julia Caesaris. ... Gaius Julius Caesar Vipsanianus (20 BC - AD 4), most commonly known as Gaius Caesar, was the oldest son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder. ... Lucius Julius Caesar (17 BC-2 AD), most commonly known as Lucius Caesar, was the second son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder. ... Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Postumus, (12 BC-14 AD) also known as Agrippa Postumus or Postumus Agrippa, was a son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder. ... For other persons named Tiberius, see Tiberius (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Tiberius, see Tiberius (disambiguation). ... Drusus the Younger, son of Tiberius. ... Germanicus Julius Caesar Claudianus (24 May 15 BC–October 10, 19) was a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty of the early Roman Empire. ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... For the identically named daughter of Germanicus, see Drusilla (sister of Caligula). ... Tiberius Gemellus, son of Drusus the Younger and Livilla Tiberius Julius Caesar Nero , known as Tiberius Gemellus, (10 October AD 19–AD 37 or 38) was the son of Drusus and Livilla, the grandson of Tiberius, and the cousin of Gaius Caligula. ... Antonia (30–66 AD) was Claudius only child from his second marriage to Aelia Paetina. ... Octavia was the name of three women of the Julio-Claudian Dynasty of ancient Rome: two were sisters of Augustus Caesar, and the younger was the daughter of Claudius and wife of Nero. ... Britannicus (41 - 55 A.D.) was the son of the Roman emperor Claudius and his third wife Messalina. ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... Claudia Augusta was the only daughter of the Roman Emperor Nero by his second wife Poppaea Sabina. ... The Twelve Caesars is a set of twelve biographies of Julius Caesar and the first 11 emperors of the Roman Empire. ... A restored Stoa in Athens. ... Bust, traditionally thought to be Seneca, now identified by some as Hesiod. ... The Pumpkinification of (the Divine) Claudius or Apocolocyntosis (divi Claudii) is a political satire on the Roman emperor Claudius, probably written by Seneca the Younger. ... For other uses, see Dignitas (disambiguation). ...


The modern diagnosis has changed several times in the past century. Prior to World War II, infantile paralysis (or polio) was widely accepted as the cause. This is the diagnosis used in Robert Graves' Claudius novels, first published in the 1930s. Polio does not explain many of the described symptoms, however, and a more recent theory implicates cerebral palsy as the cause, as outlined by Ernestine Leon.[6] Tourette syndrome is also a likely candidate for Claudius' symptoms.[7] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Poliomyelitis (polio) is a viral paralytic disease. ... Robert von Ranke Graves (24 July 1895 – 7 December 1985) was an English poet, scholar, and novelist. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Cerebral palsy (CP) is an umbrella term encompassing a group of non-progressive,[1] non-contagious diseases that cause physical disability in human development. ... “Tourette” redirects here. ...


On the personal front, the ancient historians describe Claudius as generous and lowbrow, a man who cracked lame jokes, laughed uncontrollably, and lunched with the plebeians.[8] They also paint him as bloodthirsty and cruel, overly fond of both gladiatorial combat and executions, and very quick to anger (though Claudius himself acknowledged this last trait, and apologized publicly for his temper).[9] To them he was also overly trusting, and easily manipulated by his wives and freedmen.[10] But at the same time they portray him as paranoid and apathetic, dull and easily confused.[11] The extant works of Claudius present a different view, painting a picture of an intelligent, scholarly, well-read, and conscientious administrator with an eye to detail and justice. Thus, Claudius becomes an enigma. Since the discovery of his "Letter to the Alexandrians" in the last century, much work has been done to rehabilitate Claudius and determine where the truth lies. In Ancient Rome, the plebs was the general body of Roman citizens, distinct from the privileged class of the patricians. ... For other uses, see Gladiator (disambiguation). ...


Family and early life

Claudius was born Tiberius Claudius Drusus on August 1, 10 BC, in Lugdunum, Gaul, on the day of the dedication of an altar to Augustus. His parents were Nero Claudius Drusus and Antonia, and he had two older siblings named Germanicus and Livilla. Antonia may have had two other children who died young, as well. is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC - 10s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s Years: 15 BC 14 BC 13 BC 12 BC 11 BC 10 BC 9 BC 8 BC 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC... Colonia Copia Claudia Augusta Lugdunum (modern: Lyon) was an important Roman city in Gaul. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... Bust of Nero Claudius Drusus, in the Musée du Cinquantinaire, Brussels Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, born Decimus Claudius Drusus and variously called Drusus, Drusus I, Drusus Claudius Nero, or Drusus the Elder (14 January 38 - 9 BC) was the youngest son of Livia, wife of Augustus, and her first... Julia Antonia Cretica Minor (the younger) (31 January 36 BC - September/October 37 AD) or Antonia the Younger or simply known as Antonia. ... Germanicus Julius Caesar Claudianus (24 May 15 BC–October 10, 19) was a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty of the early Roman Empire. ... (Claudia) Livia Julia (Classical Latin: LIVIA•IVLIA[1]), most commonly known by her family nickname of Livilla (the little Livia) (circa 13 BC–AD 31) was the only daughter of Nero Claudius Drusus and Antonia. ...


His maternal grandparents were Mark Antony and Octavia Minor, Caesar Augustus' sister. His paternal grandparents were Livia, Augustus' third wife, and Tiberius Claudius Nero. During his reign, Claudius revived the rumor that his father Drusus was actually the illegitimate son of Augustus. Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... Octavia Minor (69 - 11 BC), also known as Octavia the Younger or simply Octavia, was the sister of the first Roman Emperor, Augustus, and half sister of Octavia Thurina Major. ... Livia Drusilla, after 14 AD called Livia Augusta (Classical Latin: LIVIA•DRVSILLA, later LIVIA•AVGVSTA[1]) (58 BC-AD 29) was the wife of Caesar Augustus (also known as Octavian) and the most powerful woman in the early Roman Empire, acting several times as regent and being Augustus faithful advisor. ... Tiberius Claudius Nero (c. ...


In 9 BC, Drusus unexpectedly died, possibly from an injury. Claudius was then left to be raised by his mother, who never remarried. When Claudius' afflictions became evident, the relationship with his family turned sour. Antonia referred to him as a monster, and used him as a standard for stupidity. She seems to have passed her son off on his grandmother Livia for a number of years.[12] Livia was little kinder, and often sent him short, angry letters of reproof. He was put under the care of a "former mule-driver"[13] to keep him disciplined, under the logic that his condition was due to laziness and a lack of will-power. However, by the time he reached his teenage years his symptoms apparently waned and his family took some notice of his scholarly interests. In 7, Livy was hired to tutor him in history, with the assistance of Sulpicius Flavus. He spent a lot of his time with the latter and the philosopher Athenodorus. Augustus, according to a letter, was surprised at the clarity of Claudius' oratory.[14] Expectations about his future began to increase. Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 14 BC 13 BC 12 BC 11 BC 10 BC 9 BC 8 BC 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC Events... This article is about the year 7. ... A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death. ... Athenodoros Cananites (Greek: ̉Αθηνόδωρος Κανανίτης, sometimes transliterated Athenodoros) (c. ...


In the end, it was his work as a budding historian that destroyed his early career. According to Vincent Scramuzza and others, Claudius began work on a history of the Civil Wars that was either too truthful or too critical of Octavian.[15] In either case, it was far too early for such an account, and may have only served to remind Augustus that Claudius was Antony's descendant. His mother and grandmother quickly put a stop to it, and this may have proved to them that Claudius was not fit for public office. He could not be trusted to toe the existing party line. When he returned to the narrative later in life, Claudius skipped over the wars of the second triumvirate altogether. But the damage was done, and his family pushed him to the background. When the Arch of Pavia was erected to honor the imperial clan in 8, Claudius' name (now Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus after his elevation to paterfamilias of Claudii Nerones on the adoption of his brother) was inscribed on the edge—past the deceased princes, Gaius and Lucius, and Germanicus' children. There is some speculation that the inscription was added by Claudius himself decades later, and that he originally did not appear at all.[16] This article is about the occupation of studying history. ... After 30 BC, the Republic was unified under leadership of Octavian. ... A triumphal arch is a structure in the shape of a monumental archway, usually built to celebrate a victory in war. ... For the municipality in the Philippines, see Pavia, Iloilo. ... The pater familias was the eldest or ranking male in a Roman household. ... Gaius Julius Caesar Vipsanianus (20 BC - AD 4), most commonly known as Gaius Caesar, was the oldest son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder. ... Lucius Julius Caesar (17 BC-2 AD), most commonly known as Lucius Caesar, was the second son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder. ...

Gratus proclaims Claudius emperor. Detail from A Roman Emperor 41AD, by Lawrence Alma-Tadema. Oil on canvas, c. 1871.
Gratus proclaims Claudius emperor. Detail from A Roman Emperor 41AD, by Lawrence Alma-Tadema. Oil on canvas, c. 1871.

When Augustus died in 14, Claudius—then twenty-three—appealed to his uncle Tiberius to allow him to begin the cursus honorum. Tiberius, the new emperor, responded by granting Claudius consular ornaments. Claudius requested office once more and was snubbed. Since the new emperor was not any more generous than the old, Claudius gave up hope of public office and retired to a scholarly, private life. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 736 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1658 × 1350 pixel, file size: 211 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 736 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1658 × 1350 pixel, file size: 211 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, OM, RA (January 8, 1836, Dronrijp, the Netherlands. ... Events First year of tianfeng era of the Chinese Xin Dynasty. ... For other persons named Tiberius, see Tiberius (disambiguation). ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law The cursus honorum (Latin: course of honours) was the sequential order of public offices held by aspiring politicians in both the Roman Republic and the early Empire. ...


Despite the disdain of the imperial family, it seems that from very early on the general public respected Claudius. At Augustus' death, the equites, or knights, chose Claudius to head their delegation. When his house burned down, the Senate demanded it be rebuilt at public expense. They also requested that Claudius be allowed to debate in the senate. Tiberius turned down both motions, but the sentiment remained. During the period immediately after the death of Tiberius' son, Drusus, Claudius was pushed by some quarters as a potential heir. This again suggests the political nature of his exclusion from public life. However, as this was also the period during which the power and terror of the Praetorian Sejanus was at its peak, Claudius chose to downplay this possibility. An equestrian (Latin eques, plural equites - also known as a vir egregius, lit. ... Drusus the Younger, son of Tiberius. ... Lucius Aelius Seianus (or Sejanus) (20 BC – October 18, 31 AD) was an ambitious soldier, friend and confidant of the Roman Emperor Tiberius. ...


After the death of Tiberius the new emperor Caligula recognized Claudius to be of some use. He appointed Claudius his co-consul in 37 in order to emphasize the memory of Caligula's deceased father Germanicus. Despite this, Caligula relentlessly tormented his uncle: playing practical jokes, charging him enormous sums of money, humiliating him before the Senate, and the like. According to Cassius Dio, as well a possible surviving portrait, Claudius became very sickly and thin by the end of Caligula's reign—most likely due to stress.[17] This article is about the Roman emperor. ... Events March 18 - The Roman Senate annuls Tiberius will and proclaims Caligula Roman Emperor. ... Cassius Dio Cocceianus (ca. ...


Accession as emperor

On January 24, 41, Caligula was assassinated by a broad-based conspiracy (including Praetorian commander Cassius Chaerea and several Senators). There is no evidence that Claudius had a direct hand in the assassination, although it has been argued that he knew about the plot—particularly since he left the scene of the crime shortly before the event.[18] However, after the deaths of Caligula's wife and daughter, it became apparent that Cassius intended to go beyond the terms of the conspiracy and wipe out the imperial family. In the chaos following the murder, Claudius witnessed the German guard cut down several uninvolved noblemen, including friends of his. Concerned for his survival, he fled to the palace to hide himself. According to tradition, a Praetorian named Gratus found him hiding behind a curtain and suddenly declared him imperator.[19] A section of the guard may have planned in advance to seek out Claudius, perhaps with his approval. They reassured him that they were not one of the battalions looking for revenge. He was spirited away to the Praetorian camp and put under their protection. is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 24 - Roman Emperor Gaius Caesar (Caligula), known for his eccentricity and cruel despotism, is assassinated by his disgruntled Praetorian Guards. ... Cassius Chaerea (fl. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... Milonia Caesonia (PIR2 M 590) (6-41) was a Roman Empress. ... The Latin word imperator was a title originally roughly equivalent to commander during the period of the Roman Republic. ...


The Senate quickly met and began debating a change of government, but this eventually devolved into an argument over which of them would be the new Princeps. When they heard of the Praetorians' claim, they demanded that Claudius be delivered to them for approval, but he refused, rightly sensing the danger that would come with complying. Some historians, particularly Josephus,[20] claim that Claudius was directed in his actions by the Judean King Herod Agrippa. However, an earlier version of events by the same ancient author downplays Agrippa's role[21] — so it is not known how large a hand he had in things. Eventually the Senate was forced to give in and, in return, Claudius pardoned nearly all the assassins. The Latin word Princeps (plural: principes) means the first. This article is devoted to a number of specific historical meanings the word took, by far the most important of which follows first. ... A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... Iudaea Province in the 1st century Iudaea (Hebrew: יהודה, Standard Yehuda Tiberian , praise God; Greek: Ιουδαία; Latin: Iudaea) was a Roman province that extended over the region of Judea proper, later Palestine. ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ...

Claudius issued this denarius type to emphasize his clemency after Caligula's assassination. The depiction of the goddess Pax-Nemesis, representing subdued vengeance, would be used on the coins of many later emperors.
Claudius issued this denarius type to emphasize his clemency after Caligula's assassination. The depiction of the goddess Pax-Nemesis, representing subdued vengeance, would be used on the coins of many later emperors.

Claudius took several steps to legitimize his rule against potential usurpers, most of them emphasizing his place within the Julio-Claudian family. He adopted the name "Caesar" as a cognomen — the name still carried great weight with the populace. In order to do so, he dropped the cognomen "Nero" which he had adopted as paterfamilias of the Claudii Nerones when his brother Germanicus was adopted out. While he had never been adopted by Augustus or his successors, he was the grandson of Octavia, and so felt he had the right. He also adopted the name "Augustus" as the two previous emperors had done at their accessions. He kept the honorific "Germanicus" in order to display the connection with his heroic brother. He deified his paternal grandmother Livia in order to highlight her position as wife of the divine Augustus. Claudius frequently used the term "filius Drusi" (son of Drusus) in his titles, in order to remind the people of his legendary father and lay claim to his reputation. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (894x443, 109 KB) Summary Denarius of the Roman emperor Claudius. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (894x443, 109 KB) Summary Denarius of the Roman emperor Claudius. ... First row : c. ... Nemesis (Νέμεσις, as well called Rhamnousia, the goddess of Rhamnous, at her sanctuary at Rhamnous, north of Marathon), in Greek mythology, is the spirit of divine retribution against those who succumb to hubris, vengeful fate personified as a remorseless goddess. ... The cognomen (name known by in English) was originally the third name of a Roman in the Roman naming convention. ...


Because he was proclaimed emperor on the initiative of the Praetorian Guard instead of the Senate — the first emperor thus proclaimed — Claudius' repute suffered at the hands of commentators (such as Seneca). Moreover, he was the first Emperor who resorted to bribery as a means to secure army loyalty. This is not entirely how it seems. Tiberius and Augustus had both left gifts to the army and guard in their wills, and on the death of Caligula the same would have been expected, even if no will existed. Claudius remained grateful to the guard, however, issuing coins with tributes to the praetorians in the early part of his reign. The Praetorian Guard of Augustus - 1st century. ... Bust, traditionally thought to be Seneca, now identified by some as Hesiod. ...


Expansion of the empire

Model of the Temple of the divine Claudius, erected in Colchester after the conquest of Britain.

Under Claudius, the empire underwent its first major expansion since the reign of Augustus. The provinces of Thrace, Noricum, Pamphylia, Lycia, and Judea were annexed under various circumstances during his term. The annexation of Mauretania, begun under Caligula, was completed after the defeat of rebel forces, and the official division of the former client kingdom into two imperial provinces. [22] The most important new conquest was that of Britannia.[23] Image File history File links Claudiuscellamodel. ... Image File history File links Claudiuscellamodel. ... The Temples cella. ... This article is about the town in England. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Noricum in ancient geography was a celtic kingdom in Austria and later a province of the Roman Empire. ... Pamphylia, in ancient geography, was the region in the south of Asia Minor, between Lycia and Cilicia, extending from the Mediterranean to Mount Taurus. ... Lycian rock cut tombs of Dalyan Lycian rock cut tombs of Dalyan Lycia (in Lycian, Trm̃misa (see List of Lycian place names); in ancient Greek, Λυκία and in modern Turkish, Likya) is a region in the modern-day provinces of Antalya and MuÄŸla on the southern coast of Turkey. ... Map of the southern Levant, c. ... In Antiquity, Mauretania was originally an independent Berber kingdom on the Mediterranean coast of north Africa (named after the Maure tribe, after whom the Moors were named), corresponding to western Algeria, and northern Morocco. ... Britain was the target of invasion by forces of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire several times during its history. ...


In 43, Claudius sent Aulus Plautius with four legions to Britain (Britannia) after an appeal from an ousted tribal ally. Britain was an attractive target for Rome because of its material wealth — particularly mines and slaves. It was also a safe haven for Gallic rebels and the like, and so could not be left alone much longer. Claudius himself traveled to the island after the completion of initial offensives, bringing with him reinforcements and elephants. The latter must have made an impression on the Britons when they were used in the capture of Camulodunum. He left after 16 days, but remained in the provinces for some time. The Senate granted him a triumph for his efforts, as only members of the imperial family were allowed such honors. Claudius later lifted this restriction for some of his conquering generals. He was granted the honorific "Britannicus" but only accepted it on behalf of his son, never using the title himself. When the British general, Caractacus, was finally captured in 50, Claudius granted him clemency. Caractacus lived out his days on land provided by the Roman state, an unusual end for an enemy commander, but one that must have calmed the British opposition. Events Aulus Plautius, with 4 legions, landed on Britain. ... Aulus Plautius (lived 1st century) was the first governor of Roman Britain, serving from 43 to 47. ... The Roman Legion (from Latin , from lego, legere, legi, lectus — to collect) is a term that can apply both as a transliteration of legio (conscription or army) to the entire Roman army and also, more narrowly (and more commonly), to the heavy infantry that was the basic military unit of... The term Briton may have the following meanings: in a historical context: an inhabitant of Great Britain in pre-Roman times a descendant of Britons during a later period (e. ... This article is about the town in England. ... A Roman Triumph was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly honour the military commander (dux) of a notably successful foreign war or campaign and to display the glories of Roman victory. ... Caratacus (also spelled Caractacus) was a historical British chieftain of the Catuvellauni tribe, who led the British resistance to the Roman conquest. ...


Claudius conducted a census in 48 that found 5,984,072 Roman citizens[24], an increase of around a million since the census conducted at Augustus' death. He had helped increase this number through the foundation of Roman colonies that were granted blanket citizenship. These colonies were often made out of existing communities, especially those with elites who could rally the populace to the Roman cause. Several colonies were placed in new provinces or on the border of the empire in order to secure Roman holdings as quickly as possible. Events Rome Roman Emperor Claudius invests Agrippa II with the office of superintendent of the Temple in Jerusalem. ... The toga was the characteristic garment of the Roman citizen. ...


Judicial and legislative affairs

Roman sestertius struck under Claudius. The reverse depicts Spes Augusta (Hope). Coins of this type were first issued to commemorate the birth of Claudius' son Britannicus in 41.
Roman sestertius struck under Claudius. The reverse depicts Spes Augusta (Hope). Coins of this type were first issued to commemorate the birth of Claudius' son Britannicus in 41.

Claudius personally judged many of the legal cases tried during his reign. Ancient historians have many complaints about this, stating that his judgments were variable and sometimes did not follow the law.[25] He was also easily swayed. Nevertheless, Claudius paid detailed attention to the operation of the judicial system. He extended the summer court session, as well as the winter term, by shortening the traditional breaks. Claudius also made a law requiring plaintiffs to remain in the city while their cases were pending, as defendants had previously been required to do. These measures had the effect of clearing out the docket. The minimum age for jurors was also raised to 25 in order to ensure a more experienced jury pool.[26] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 392 pixelsFull resolution (1004 × 492 pixel, file size: 140 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 392 pixelsFull resolution (1004 × 492 pixel, file size: 140 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The sestertius was an ancient Roman coin. ... In Roman mythology, Spes was the goddess of hope. ... Britannicus (41 - 55 A.D.) was the son of the Roman emperor Claudius and his third wife Messalina. ...


Claudius also settled disputes in the provinces. He freed the island of Rhodes from Roman rule for their good faith and exempted Troy from taxes. Early in his reign, the Greeks and Jews of Alexandria sent him two embassies at once after riots broke out between the two communities. This resulted in the famous "Letter to the Alexandrians," which reaffirmed Jewish rights in the city but also forbade them to move in more families en masse. According to Josephus, he then reaffirmed the rights and freedoms of all the Jews in the empire.[27] An investigator of Claudius' discovered that many old Roman citizens based in the modern city of Trento were not in fact citizens.[28] The emperor issued a declaration that they would be considered to hold citizenship from then on, since to strip them of their status would cause major problems. However, in individual cases, Claudius punished false assumption of citizenship harshly, making it a capital offense. Similarly, any freedmen found to be impersonating equestrians were sold back into slavery.[29] This article is about the Greek island of Rhodes. ... For other uses of Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... Trento (Italian: Trento; German: Trient; Latin: Tridentum; Note that many of the regions Italian languages/dialects use Trent or Trènt) is an Italian city located in the Adige River valley in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol. ...


Numerous edicts were issued throughout Claudius' reign. These were on a number of topics, everything from medical advice to moral judgments. Two famous medical examples are one promoting Yew juice as a cure for snakebite,[30] and another promoting public flatulence for good health.[31] One of the more famous edicts concerned the status of sick slaves. Masters had been abandoning ailing slaves at the temple of Aesculapius to die, and then reclaiming them if they lived. Claudius ruled that slaves who recovered after such treatment would be free. Furthermore, masters who chose to kill slaves rather than take the risk were liable to be charged with murder.[32] Binomial name L. Taxus baccata is a conifer native to western, central and southern Europe, northwest Africa, northern Iran and southwest Asia. ... A view from the south on the Tiber Island. ...


Public works

The Porta Maggiore in Rome
The Porta Maggiore in Rome

Claudius embarked on many public works throughout his reign, both in the capital and in the provinces. He built two aqueducts, the Aqua Claudia, begun by Caligula, and the Anio Novus. These entered the city in 52 and met at the famous Porta Maggiore. He also restored a third, the Aqua Virgo. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Pont du Gard, France, a Roman era aqueduct circa 19 BC. It is one of Frances top tourist attractions at over 1. ... Aqua Claudia (Latin, literally the Claudian water) was an aqueduct which like the Anio Novus was begun by Caligula in 38 A.D. and completed by Claudius in 52¹. Its main springs, the Caeruleus and Curtius, were situated 300 paces to the left of the thirty-eighth milestone of the... Anio Novus (named after a river Anio at the forty-second mile of the Via Sublacensis from which the water was taken originally) is an aqueduct, which, like the Aqua Claudia, was begun by Caligula in 38 A.D.¹ and completed in 52 by Claudius, who dedicated them both on... Oblique view of the Porta Maggiore, showing the aqueduct channels through the gate. ... The Aqua Virgo (also known as the Acqua Vergine) was one of the 11 aqueducts that supplied the city of ancient Rome, Italy. ...


He paid special attention to transportation. Throughout Italy and the provinces he built roads and canals. Among these was a large canal leading from the Rhine to the sea, as well as a road from Italy to Germany — both begun by his father, Drusus. Closer to Rome, he built a navigable canal on the Tiber, leading to Portus, his new port just north of Ostia. This port was constructed in a semicircle with two moles and a lighthouse at its mouth. The construction also had the effect of reducing flooding in Rome. Tiber River in Rome. ... Portus is an ancient harbour of Latium, Italy, on the right bank of the Tiber River, at its mouth. ... Ostia Antica was the harbor of ancient Rome and perhaps its first colonia. ... A mole is a massive structure, usually of stone, used as a pier, breakwater, or junction between places separated by water. ...


The port at Ostia was part of Claudius' solution to the constant grain shortages that occurred in winter, after the Roman shipping season. The other part of his solution was to insure the ships of grain merchants who were willing to risk traveling to Egypt in the off-season. He also granted their sailors special privileges, including citizenship and exemption from the Lex Papia-Poppaea, a law that regulated marriage. In addition, he repealed the taxes that Caligula had instituted on food, and further reduced taxes on communities suffering drought or famine. The Lex Julia et Papia Poppaea was a law enacted by Roman emperor Augustus Caesar around 18 BC. The history of the law is not quite clear. ...


The last part of Claudius' plan was to increase the amount of arable land in Italy. This was to be achieved by draining the Fucine lake, which would have the added benefit of making the nearby river navigable year-round [33]. A tunnel was dug through the lake bed, but the plan was a failure. The tunnel was not large enough to carry the water, and crooked, which caused it to back up when opened. The resultant flood washed out a large gladiatorial exhibition held to commemorate the opening, causing Claudius to run for his life along with the other spectators. The draining of the lake was not a bad idea, and many other emperors and potentates considered it, including the emperors Hadrian and Trajan, and Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II in the Middle Ages. It was finally achieved by the Prince Torlonia in the 19th century, producing over 160,000 new acres of arable land.[34] He expanded the Claudian tunnel to three times its original size. The Fucine Lake (Italian: Lago Fucino or Lago di Celano) was a large lake in central Italy. ... Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 –– July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was emperor of Rome from 117 A.D. to 138 A.D., as well as a Stoic and Epicurean philosopher. ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Frederick II (December 26, 1194 – December 13, 1250), of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was a pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212 and unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The princes Torlonia are a Roman family, with origins in a huge fortune gained during the 18th and 19th century by the administration of the finances of the Vatican. ...


Claudius and the Senate

Because of the circumstances of his accession, Claudius took great pains to please the Senate. During regular sessions, the emperor sat amongst the Senate body, speaking in turn. When introducing a law, he sat on a bench between the consuls in his position as Holder of the Power of Tribune (The emperor could not officially serve as a Tribune of the Plebes as he was a Patrician, but it was a power taken by previous rulers). He refused to accept all his predecessors' titles (including Imperator) at the beginning of his reign, preferring to earn them in due course. He allowed the Senate to issue its own bronze coinage for the first time since Augustus. He also put the imperial provinces of Macedonia and Achaea back under Senate control. Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by 2-3 elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ... This article is about the social and political class in ancient Rome. ... The Latin word imperator was a title originally roughly equivalent to commander during the period of the Roman Republic. ... The Roman Empire in 120, with the province of Achaea highlighted. ...


Claudius set about remodeling the Senate into a more efficient, representative body. He chided the senators about their reluctance to debate bills introduced by himself, as noted in the fragments of a surviving speech:

If you accept these proposals, Conscript Fathers, say so at once and simply, in accordance with your convictions. If you do not accept them, find alternatives, but do so here and now; or if you wish to take time for consideration, take it, provided you do not forget that you must be ready to pronounce your opinion whenever you may be summoned to meet. It ill befits the dignity of the Senate that the consul designate should repeat the phrases of the consuls word for word as his opinion, and that every one else should merely say 'I approve', and that then, after leaving, the assembly should announce 'We debated'.[35]

It is not known whether this plea had any effect on discourse.

Roman sestertius issued during Claudius' reign. The reverse reads "EX SC PP OB CIVES SERVATOS", meaning "Senatus Consulto" (approved by the Senate), "Pater Patriae" (to the father of his country), "Ob Cives Servatos" (For having saved the citizens).
Roman sestertius issued during Claudius' reign. The reverse reads "EX SC PP OB CIVES SERVATOS", meaning "Senatus Consulto" (approved by the Senate), "Pater Patriae" (to the father of his country), "Ob Cives Servatos" (For having saved the citizens).

In 47 he assumed the office of Censor with Lucius Vitellius, which had been allowed to lapse for some time. He struck the names of many senators and equites who no longer met qualifications, but showed respect by allowing them to resign in advance. At the same time, he sought to admit eligible men from the provinces. The Lyons Tablet preserves his speech on the admittance of Gallic senators, in which he addresses the Senate with reverence but also with criticism for their disdain of these men. He also increased the number of Patricians by adding new families to the dwindling number of noble lines. Here he followed the precedent of Lucius Junius Brutus and Julius Caesar. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The sestertius was an ancient Roman coin. ... This article is about the year 47. ... Censor was the title of two magistrates of high rank in the Roman Republic. ... Lucius Vitellius was the name of two politicians of the early Roman Empire, father and son. ... The Lyon Tablet is an ancient bronze tablet that bears the transcript a speech given by the Roman emperor Claudius. ... This article is about the social and political class in ancient Rome. ... This article is about the founder of the Roman Republic . ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ...


Despite this, many in the Senate remained hostile to Claudius, and many plots were made on his life. This hostility carried over into the historical accounts. As a result, Claudius was forced to reduce the Senate's power for efficiency. The administration of Ostia was turned over to an imperial Procurator after construction of the port. Administration of many of the empire's financial concerns was turned over to imperial appointees and freedmen. This led to further resentment and suggestions that these same freedmen were ruling the emperor. See Roman Governor for the duties of a promagistrate as a governor of a province A promagistrate is a person who acts in and with the authority and capacity of a magistrate, but without holding a magisterial office. ...


Several coup attempts were made during Claudius' reign, resulting in the deaths of many senators. Appius Silanus was executed early in Claudius' reign under questionable circumstances. Shortly after, a large rebellion was undertaken by the Senator Vinicianus and Scribonianus, the governor of Dalmatia and gained quite a few senatorial supporters. It ultimately failed because of the reluctance of Scribonianus' troops, and the suicide of the main conspirators. Many other senators tried different conspiracies and were condemned. Claudius' son-in-law Pompeius Magnus was executed for his part in a conspiracy with his father Crassus Frugi. Another plot involved the consulars Lusiius Saturninus, Cornelius Lupus, and Pompeius Pedo. In 46, Asinius Gallus, the grandson of Asinius Pollio, and Statilius Corvinus were exiled for a plot hatched with several of Claudius' own freedmen. Valerius Asiaticus was executed without public trial for unknown reasons. The ancient sources say the charge was adultery, and that Claudius was tricked into issuing the punishment. However, Claudius singles out Asiaticus for special damnation in his speech on the Gauls, which dates over a year later, suggesting that the charge must have been much more serious. Asiaticus had been a claimant to the throne in the chaos following Caligula's death and a co-consul with the Statilius Corvinus mentioned above. Most of these conspiracies took place before Claudius' term as Censor, and may have induced him to review the Senatorial rolls. The conspiracy of Gaius Silius in the year after his Censorship, 48, is detailed in the section discussing Claudius's third wife, Messalina. Suetonius states that a total of 35 senators and 300 knights were executed for offenses during Claudius' reign.[36] Needless to say, the necessary responses to these conspiracies could not have helped Senate-emperor relations. Gaius Appius Junius Silanus (Classical Latin: Gaivs Appivs Ivnivs Silanvs; ? — 42 A.D.) was a consul in 28 A.D. (with Publius Silius Nerva). ... Lucius Arruntius Camillus Scribonianus (consul in 32 BC) was apparently the adoptive son of M. Furius Camillus (consul of 8 AD) and brother to Livia Medullina, the second fiancee of Claudius. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ... Gaius Asinius Gallus was an ambitious Roman senator with family connections to the Julio-Claudian house. ... Gaius Asinius Pollio ( 76/75 BC-AD 5) was a Roman orator, poet and historian. ... Decimus Valerius Asiaticus (? — 47 A.D.) was a Roman consul twice (in 35 and 46 A.D.), the first Narbonian Gaul to be admitted to the Senate and one of the instigators of Caligulas assassination. ... Censor was the title of two magistrates of high rank in the Roman Republic. ... Gaius Silius was the name of two consuls of the Roman Empire, during the 1st century. ... Valeria Messalina (PIR1 V 161) , sometimes spelled Messallina ( 20-48) was a Roman Empress and third wife to Roman Emperor Claudius. ...


The Secretariat and centralization of powers

A sardonyx cameo of Claudius.

Claudius was hardly the first emperor to use freedmen to help with the day-to-day running of the empire. He was, however, forced to increase their role as the powers of the Princeps became more centralized and the burden larger. This was partly due to the ongoing hostility of the senate, as mentioned above, but also due to his respect for the senators. Claudius did not want free-born magistrates to have to serve under him, as if they were not peers. Image File history File links Claudiuscameo. ... Image File history File links Claudiuscameo. ... Onyx is a banded variety of chalcedony, a cryptocrystalline form of quartz. ... 2002 Lincoln cent, obverse, proof with cameo Cameo is a method of carving, or an item of jewelry made in this manner. ... poop. ... The Latin word Princeps (plural: principes) means the first. This article is devoted to a number of specific historical meanings the word took, by far the most important of which follows first. ...


The secretariat was divided into bureaus, with each being placed under the leadership of one freedman. Narcissus was the secretary of correspondence. Pallas became the secretary of the treasury. Callistus became secretary of justice. There was a fourth bureau for miscellaneous issues, which was put under Polybius until his execution for treason. The freedmen could also officially speak for the emperor, as when Narcissus addressed the troops in Claudius' stead before the conquest of Britain. Since these were important positions, the senators were aghast at their being placed in the hands of former slaves. If freedmen had total control of money, letters, and law, it seemed it would not be hard for them to manipulate the emperor. This is exactly the accusation put forth by the ancient sources. However, these same sources admit that the freedmen were loyal to Claudius.[37] He was similarly appreciative of them and gave them due credit for policies where he had used their advice. However, if they showed treasonous inclinations, the emperor did punish them with just force, as in the case of Polybius and Pallas' brother, Felix. There is no evidence that the character of Claudius' policies and edicts changed with the rise and fall of the various freedmen, suggesting that he was firmly in control throughout. Tiberius Claudius Narcissus ( 1st century AD) was one of the freedmen who formed the core of the civil service under the Roman emperor Claudius. ... Marcus Antonius Pallas (c. ... Gaius Julius Callistus was a Greek freedman of the Emperor Caligula. ... Tiberius Claudius Polybius (fl. ... Marcus Antonius Felix (Felix in Greek: ο Φηλιξ, born between 5/10-?) was the ancient Rome procurator of Iudaea Province 52-60, in succession to Ventidius Cumanus. ...


Regardless of the extent of their political power, the freedmen did manage to amass wealth through their positions. Pliny the Elder notes that several of them were richer than Crassus, the richest man of the Republican era.[38] Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Marcus Licinius Crassus Dives (c. ...


Religious reforms and games

Claudius, as the author of a treatise on Augustus' religious reforms, felt himself in a good position to institute some of his own. He had strong opinions about the proper form for state religion. He refused the request of Alexandrian Greeks to dedicate a temple to his divinity, saying that only gods may choose new gods. He restored lost days to festivals and got rid of many extraneous celebrations added by Caligula. He reinstituted old observances and archaic language. Claudius was concerned with the spread of eastern mysteries within the city and searched for more Roman replacements. He emphasized the Eleusinian mysteries which had been practiced by so many during the Republic. He expelled foreign astrologers, and at the same time rehabilitated the old Roman soothsayers (known as haruspices) as a replacement. He was especially hard on Druidism, because of its incompatibility with the Roman state religion and its proselytizing activities. It is also reported that at one time he expelled the Jews from Rome, probably because the appearance of Christianity had caused unrest within the Jewish community.[39] Claudius opposed proselytizing in any religion, even in those regions where he allowed natives to worship freely. The results of all these efforts were recognized even by Seneca, who has an ancient Latin god defend Claudius in his satire.[40] The Eleusinian Mysteries (Greek: Ἐλευσίνια Μυστήρια) were initiation ceremonies held every year for the cult of Demeter and Persephone based at Eleusis in ancient Greece. ... The bronze sheeps liver of Piacenza, with Etruscan inscriptions A haruspex was a sort of augur in the Roman religion who practiced divination, by inspecting the entrails of sacrificed animals, especially the livers of sacrificed sheep. ... Druidry or Druidism was the religion of the ancient druids, the priestly class in ancient Celtic and Gallic societies through much of Western Europe north of the Alps and in the British Isles. ... Proselytism is the practice of attempting to convert people to another opinion, usually another religion. ...


Claudius performed the Secular games, marking the 800th anniversary of the founding of Rome. Augustus had performed the same games less than a century prior. Augustus' excuse was that the interval for the games was 110 years, not 100, but his date actually did not qualify under either reasoning. Claudius also presented naval battles to mark the attempted draining of the Fucine lake, as well as many other public games and shows. Secular games (Lodi Sæculares, originally Terentini). ...


Death, deification, and reputation

The general consensus of ancient historians was that Claudius was murdered by poison — possibly contained in mushrooms — and died in the early hours of October 13, 54. Accounts vary greatly. Some claim Claudius was in Rome[41] while others claim he was in Sinuessa.[42] Some implicate either Halotus, his taster, Xenophon, his doctor, or the infamous poisoner Locusta as the administrator of the fatal substance.[43] Some say he died after prolonged suffering following a single dose at dinner, and some have him recovering only to be poisoned again.[41] Nearly all implicate his final wife, Agrippina, as the instigator. Agrippina and Claudius had become more combative in the months leading up to his death. This carried on to the point where Claudius openly lamented his bad wives, and began to comment on Britannicus' approaching manhood with an eye towards restoring his status within the royal family.[44] Agrippina had motive in ensuring the succession of Nero before Britannicus could gain power. is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 54. ... Halotus was a prime suspect in the poisoning of Claudius (seen here), who he served as an official taster. ... The Emperor Claudius. ... Locusta was a woman thought to be the first documented serial killer. ...


In modern times, some authors have cast doubt on whether Claudius was murdered or merely succumbed to illness or old age.[45] Some modern scholars claim the universality of the accusations in ancient texts lends credence to the crime.[46] Claudius' ashes were interred in the Mausoleum of Augustus on October 24, after a funeral in the manner of Augustus. History in those days could not be objectively collected or written, so sometimes amounted to committing whispered gossip to parchment, often years after the events, when the writer was no longer in danger of arrest. The entryway to the Mausoleum of Augustus. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Model of ancient Rome showing the Temple of Claudius, built by Vespasian. The Aqua Claudia aqueduct runs next to it, and the Colosseum sits adjacent.

Claudius was deified by Nero and the Senate almost immediately.[47] Those who regard this homage as cynical should note that, cynical or not, such a move would hardly have benefited those involved, had Claudius been "hated", as some commentators, both modern and historic, characterize him. Many of Claudius' less solid supporters quickly became Nero's men. Claudius' will had been changed shortly before his death to either recommend Nero and Britannicus jointly or perhaps just Britannicus, who would be considered a man in a few months. Image File history File links Claudiustemple. ... Image File history File links Claudiustemple. ...


Agrippina had sent away Narcissus shortly before Claudius' death, and now murdered the freedman. The last act of this secretary of letters was to burn all of Claudius' correspondence—most likely so it could not be used against him and others in an already hostile new regime. Thus Claudius' private words about his own policies and motives were lost to history. Just as Claudius has criticized his predecessors in official edicts (see below), Nero often criticized the deceased emperor and many of Claudius' laws and edicts were disregarded under the reasoning that he was too stupid and senile to have meant them.[48] This opinion of Claudius, that he was indeed an old idiot, remained the official one for the duration of Nero's reign. Eventually Nero stopped referring to his deified adoptive father at all, and realigned with his birth family. Claudius' temple was left unfinished after only some of the foundation had been laid down. Eventually the site was overtaken by Nero's Golden House.[49]


The Flavians, who had risen to prominence under Claudius, took a different tack. They were in a position where they needed to shore up their legitimacy, but also justify the fall of the Julio-Claudians. They reached back to Claudius in contrast with Nero, to show that they were good associated with good. Commemorative coins were issued of Claudius and his natural son Britannicus—who had been a friend of the emperor Titus. When Nero's Golden House was buried, the Temple of Claudius was finally completed on Caelian Hill.[50] However, as the Flavians became established, they needed to emphasize their own credentials more, and their references to Claudius ceased. Instead, he was put down with the other emperors of the fallen dynasty. The Flavian dynasty was a series of three Roman Emperors who ruled from 69, the Year of the Four Emperors, to 96, when the last member was assassinated, starting the Nervan-Antonian dynasty. ... For other uses, see Titus (disambiguation). ...


The main ancient historians Tacitus, Suetonius, and Cassius Dio all wrote after the last of the Flavians had gone. All three were senators or equites. They took the side of the Senate in most conflicts with the princeps, as well as the senator's views of the emperor. This resulted in biases, both conscious and unconscious. Suetonius lost access to the official archives shortly after beginning his work. He was forced to rely on second-hand accounts when it came to Claudius (with the exception of Augustus' letters which had been gathered earlier) and does not quote the emperor. Suetonius painted Claudius as a ridiculous figure, belittling many of his acts and attributing the objectively good works to his retinue.[51] Tacitus wrote a narrative for his fellow senators and fit each of the emperors into a simple mold of his choosing.[52] He wrote Claudius as a passive pawn and an idiot—going so far as to hide his use of Claudius as a source and omit Claudius' character from his works.[53] Even his version of Claudius' Lyons tablet speech is edited to be devoid of the emperor's personality. Dio was less biased, but seems to have used Suetonius and Tacitus as sources. Thus the conception of Claudius as the weak fool, controlled by those he supposedly ruled, was preserved for the ages. For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ... The Twelve Caesars is a set of twelve biographies of Julius Caesar and the first 11 emperors of the Roman Empire. ... Cassius Dio Cocceianus (ca. ...


As time passed, Claudius was mostly forgotten outside of the historians' accounts. His books were lost first, as their antiquarian subjects became unfashionable. In the second century, Pertinax, who shared his birthday, became emperor, overshadowing any commemoration of Claudius. In the third century, the emperor Claudius II Gothicus usurped his name. When Claudius Gothicus died, he was also deified, replacing Claudius in the Roman pantheon. Publius Helvius Pertinax (August 1, 126 - March 28, 193) was Roman emperor for a short period in 193. ... Claudius Gothicus on a coin celebrating his equity (AEQUITAS AUGUSTI). ...


Marriages and personal life

Messalina holding the infant Britannicus.

Claudius' love life was unusual for an upper-class Roman of his day. As Edward Gibbon mentions, of the first fifteen emperors, "Claudius was the only one whose taste in love was entirely correct"—the implication being that he was the only one not to take men or boys as lovers. Gibbon based this on Suetonius' factual statement that "He had a great passion for women, but had no interest in men."[54] Suetonius and the other ancient authors actually used this against Claudius. They accused him of being dominated by these same women and wives, of being uxorious, and of being a womanizer. Image File history File links Messalina2. ... Image File history File links Messalina2. ... Edward Gibbon (1737–1794). ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... Pederasty or paederasty (literally boy-love, see Etymology below) refers to an intimate or erotic relationship between an adolescent boy and an adult male outside his immediate family. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


Claudius married four times. His first marriage, to Plautia Urgulanilla, occurred after two failed betrothals (The first was to his distant cousin Aemilia Lepida, but was broken for political reasons. The second was to Livia Medullina, which ended with the bride's sudden death on their wedding day). Urgulanilla was a relation of Livia's confidant Urgulania. During their marriage she gave birth to a son, Claudius Drusus. Unfortunately, Drusus died of asphyxiation in his early teens, shortly after becoming engaged to the daughter of Sejanus. Claudius later divorced Urgulanilla for adultery and on suspicion of murdering her sister-in-law Apronia. When Urgulanilla gave birth after the divorce, Claudius repudiated the baby girl, Claudia, as the father was one of his own freedmen. Soon after (possibly in 28), Claudius married Aelia Paetina, a relation of Sejanus. They had a daughter, Claudia Antonia. He later divorced her after the marriage became a political liability (although Leon (1948) suggests it may have been due to emotional and mental abuse by Aelia). Plautia Urgulanilla (fl. ... Aemilia Lepida is the name of Roman women belonging to the gens Aemilia. ... Livia Medullina Camilla (fl. ... Urgulania (fl. ... Lucius Aelius Seianus (or Sejanus) (20 BC – October 18, 31 AD) was an ambitious soldier, friend and confidant of the Roman Emperor Tiberius. ... Aelia Paetina (flourished first century) was the second wife of the future emperor Claudius. ... Antonia (30–66 AD) was Claudius only child from his second marriage to Aelia Paetina. ...


In 38 or early 39, Claudius married Valeria Messalina, who was his first cousin once removed and closely allied with Caligula's circle. Shortly thereafter, she gave birth to a daughter Claudia Octavia. A son, first named Tiberius Claudius Germanicus, and later known as Britannicus, was born just after Claudius' accession. This marriage ended in tragedy. The ancient historians allege that Messalina was a nymphomaniac who was regularly unfaithful to Claudius — Tacitus states she went so far as to compete with a prostitute to see who could have the most sexual partners in a night[55] — and manipulated his policies in order to amass wealth. In 48, Messalina married her lover Gaius Silius in a public ceremony while Claudius was at Ostia. Sources disagree as to whether or not she divorced the emperor first, and whether the intention was to usurp the throne. Scramuzza, in his biography, suggests that Silius may have convinced Messalina that Claudius was doomed, and the union was her only hope of retaining rank and protecting her children.[56] The historian Tacitus suggests that Claudius's ongoing term as Censor may have prevented him from noticing the affair before it reached such a critical point.[57] Whatever the case, the result was the execution of Silius, Messalina, and most of her circle. Claudius made the Praetorians promise to kill him if he ever married again. Valeria Messalina (17–48) was the third wife of the Roman emperor Claudius. ... Octavia was the name of three women of the Julio-Claudian Dynasty of ancient Rome: two were sisters of Augustus Caesar, and the younger was the daughter of Claudius and wife of Nero. ... Britannicus (41 - 55 A.D.) was the son of the Roman emperor Claudius and his third wife Messalina. ... Nympho redirects here. ... For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ... Prostitution is the sale of sexual services (typically manual stimulation, oral sex, sexual intercourse, or anal sex) for cash or other kind of return, generally indiscriminately with many persons. ... Gaius Silius was the name of two consuls of the Roman Empire, during the 1st century. ... Ostia Antica was the harbor of ancient Rome and perhaps its first colonia. ... For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ... The Praetorian Guard (sometimes Prætorian Guard) (in Latin: praetoriani) comprised a special force of bodyguards used by Roman emperors. ...

Agrippina and Nero.

Despite this declaration, Claudius did marry once more. The ancient sources tell that his freedmen pushed three candidates, Caligula's former wife Lollia Paulina, Claudius's divorced second wife Aelia, and Claudius's niece Agrippina the younger. According to Suetonius, Agrippina won out through her feminine wiles.[58] The truth is likely more political. The coup attempt by Silius probably made Claudius realize the weakness of his position as a member of the Claudian but not the Julian family. This weakness was compounded by the fact that he did not have an obvious adult heir, Britannicus being just a boy. Agrippina was one of the few remaining descendants of Augustus, and her son Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus (later known as Nero) was one of the last males of the imperial family. Future coup attempts could rally around the pair, and Agrippina was already showing such ambition. It has been suggested in recent times that the Senate may have pushed for the marriage to end the feud between the Julian and Claudian branches.[59] This feud dated back to Agrippina's mother's actions against Tiberius after the death of her husband Germanicus, actions which Tiberius had gladly punished. In any case, Claudius accepted Agrippina, and later adopted the newly mature Nero as his son. Image File history File links Woman_childstatue3. ... Image File history File links Woman_childstatue3. ... Lollia Paulina was an Empress, and third wife to Emperor Caligula. ... Julia Agrippina; known as Agrippina Minor (Latin for the ‘younger’, Classical Latin: IVLIA•AGRIPPINA; from the year 50, called IVLIA•AVGVSTA•AGRIPPINA[1], Greek: η Ιουλία Αγκιππίνη, November 6, 15 - between 19-23 March, 59), was a Roman Empress. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... (Vipsania) Agrippina (PIR1 V 463) (14 BC – 18 October 33), most commonly known as Agrippina Major or Agrippina the Elder, was one of the most prominent women in the Roman Empire in the early 1st century AD. She was the daughter of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa by his third wife Julia...


Nero was made joint heir with the underage Britannicus, married to Octavia and heavily promoted. This was not as unusual as it seems to people acquainted with modern hereditary monarchies. Barbara Levick notes that Augustus had named his grandson Postumus Agrippa and his stepson Tiberius joint heirs.[60] Tiberius named his great-nephew Caligula joint heir with his grandson Tiberius Gemellus. Adoption of adults or near adults was an old tradition in Rome when a suitable natural adult heir was unavailable. This was the case during Britannicus' minority. S.V. Oost suggests that Claudius looked to adopt one of his sons-in-law to protect his own reign.[61] Possible usurpers could note that there was no adult to replace him. Faustus Sulla, married to his daughter Antonia, was only descended from Octavia and Antony on one side — not close enough to the imperial family to prevent doubts (that didn't stop others from making him the object of a coup attempt against Nero a few years later). Besides which, he was the half brother of Messalina, and at this time those wounds were still fresh. Nero was more popular with the general public as the grandson of Germanicus and the direct descendant of Augustus. Barbara Levick (born 1932) is one of Britains foremost ancient historians. ... Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Postumus, also known as Agrippa Postumus or Postumus Agrippa, was the grandson of Roman Emperor Augustus and was named after his father Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa. ... Tiberius Gemellus, son of Drusus the Younger and Livilla Tiberius Julius Caesar Nero , known as Tiberius Gemellus, (10 October AD 19–AD 37 or 38) was the son of Drusus and Livilla, the grandson of Tiberius, and the cousin of Gaius Caligula. ... Faustus Cornelius Sulla Felix (22–62) was one of the lesser known figures of the Julio-Claudian dynasty of ancient Rome. ... Antonia (30–66 AD) was Claudius only child from his second marriage to Aelia Paetina. ... Valeria Messalina (PIR1 V 161) , sometimes spelled Messallina ( 20-48) was a Roman Empress and third wife to Roman Emperor Claudius. ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ...


Scholarly works and their impact

Claudius wrote copiously throughout his life. Arnaldo Momigliano[62] states that during the reign of Tiberius — which covers the peak of Claudius' literary career — it became impolitic to speak of republican Rome. The trend among the young historians was to either write about the new empire or obscure antiquarian subjects. Claudius was the rare scholar who covered both. Besides the history of Augustus' reign that caused him so much grief, his major works included an Etruscan history and eight volumes on Carthaginian history, as well as an Etruscan Dictionary and a book on dice playing. Despite the general avoidance of the imperatorial era, he penned a defense of Cicero against the charges of Asinius Gallus. Modern historians have used this to determine both the nature of his politics and of the aborted chapters of his civil war history. He proposed a reform of the Latin alphabet by the addition of three new letters, two of which served the function of the modern letters W and Y. He officially instituted the change during his censorship, but they did not survive his reign. Claudius also tried to revive the old custom of putting dots between different words (Classical Latin was written with no spacing). Finally, he wrote an eight-volume autobiography that Suetonius describes as lacking in taste.[63] Since Claudius (like most of the members of his dynasty) heavily criticized his predecessors and relatives in surviving speeches,[64] it is not hard to imagine the nature of Suetonius' charge. Arnaldo Dante Momigliano KBE (September 5, 1908, Caraglio, Piemont–September 1, 1987, London) was an Italian historian known for his work in historiography, characterized by Donald Kagan as the world’s leading student of the writing of history in the ancient world. He became professor of Roman history at the... Extent of Etruscan civilization and the twelve Etruscan League cities. ... For other uses, see Carthage (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... Claudian letters Claudian letters were developed by, and named after, the Roman Emperor Claudius (reigned 41–54). ...

Unfortunately, none of the actual works survive. They do live on as sources for the surviving histories of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Suetonius quotes Claudius' autobiography once, and must have used it as a source numerous times. Tacitus uses Claudius' own arguments for the orthographical innovations mentioned above, and may have used him for some of the more antiquarian passages in his annals. Claudius is the source for numerous passages of Pliny's Natural History.[65] Image File history File links Claudian_letters. ... Image File history File links Claudian_letters. ... Claudian letters Claudian letters were developed by, and named after, the Roman Emperor Claudius (reigned 41–54). ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Naturalis Historia, 1669 edition, title page. ...


The influence of historical study on Claudius is obvious. In his speech on Gallic senators, he uses a version of the founding of Rome identical to that of Livy, his tutor in adolescence. The detail of his speech borders on the pedantic, a common mark of all his extant works, and he goes into long digressions on related matters. This indicates a deep knowledge of a variety of historical subjects that he could not help but share. Many of the public works instituted in his reign were based on plans first suggested by Julius Caesar. Levick believes this emulation of Caesar may have spread to all aspects of his policies.[66] His censorship seems to have been based on those of his ancestors, particularly Appius Claudius Caecus, and he used the office to put into place many policies based on those of Republican times. This is when many of his religious reforms took effect and his building efforts greatly increased during his tenure. In fact, his assumption of the office of Censor may have been motivated by a desire to see his academic labors bear fruit. For example, he believed (as most Romans) that his ancestor Appius Claudius Caecus had used the censorship to introduce the letter "R"[67] and so used his own term to introduce his new letters. For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Appius Claudius Caecus (Appius Claudius the Blind, c. ...


Claudius in fiction

Claudius has been represented several times in fiction, both in literature and in film and television. The most famous modern representation is in the novels I, Claudius and Claudius the God by Robert Graves, and the 1976 BBC television adaptation. Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (10 BC – 54) was the fourth Roman Emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. ... I, Claudius is a novel by Robert Graves, (ISBN 067972477X) first published in 1934, dealing sympathetically with the life of the Roman Emperor Claudius and the history of the Julio-Claudian Dynasty and Roman Empire, from Julius Caesars assassination in 44 BC to Caligulas assassination in 41 AD... Robert von Ranke Graves (24 July 1895 – 7 December 1985) was an English poet, scholar, and novelist. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... I, Claudius, 1976 was a BBC Television adaptation of Robert Gravess I Claudius and Claudius the God. ...


Ancestry

 
 
 
 
8. Drusus Claudius Nero
 
 
4. Tiberius Nero
 
 
 
 
 
 
9. ?
 
 
2. Nero Claudius Drusus
 
 
 
 
 
 
10. Marcus Livius Drusus Claudianus
 
 
5. Livia
 
 
 
 
 
 
11. Aufidia
 
1.Claudius
 
 
 
 
 
12. Marcus Antonius Creticus
 
 
6. Mark Antony
 
 
 
 
 
 
13. Julia Antonia
 
 
3. Antonia Minor
 
 
 
 
 
 
14. Gaius Octavius
 
 
7. Octavia Minor
 
 
 
 
 
 
15. Atia Balba Caesonia
 

Drusus Claudius Nero is the name of two prominent Roman citizens. ... Tiberius Claudius Nero (c. ... Bust of Nero Claudius Drusus, in the Musée du Cinquantinaire, Brussels Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, born Decimus Claudius Drusus and variously called Drusus, Drusus I, Drusus Claudius Nero, or Drusus the Elder (14 January 38 - 9 BC) was the youngest son of Livia, wife of Augustus, and her first... Marcus Livius Drusus Claudianus was the father of the Roman Empress Livia Drusilla. ... Livia Drusilla, after 14 AD called Livia Augusta (Classical Latin: LIVIA•DRVSILLA, later LIVIA•AVGVSTA[1]) (58 BC-AD 29) was the wife of Caesar Augustus (also known as Octavian) and the most powerful woman in the early Roman Empire, acting several times as regent and being Augustus faithful advisor. ... Aufidia or Alfidia was a Roman Matron who lived in the first century BC and was the mother to the first Roman Empress Livia Drusilla. ... Marcus Antonius Creticus (lived 1st century BC) was a Roman politician, member of the Antonius family. ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... Julia Caesaris is the name of all women in the Julii Caesares patrician family (to which, for instance Julius Caesar and Caesar Augustus belonged), since feminine names were their fathers gens and cognomen declined in the female form. ... Julia Antonia Cretica Minor (the younger) (31 January 36 BC - September/October 37 AD) or Antonia the Younger or simply known as Antonia. ... Gaius Octavius (d. ... Octavia Minor (69 - 11 BC), also known as Octavia the Younger or simply Octavia, was the sister of the first Roman Emperor, Augustus, and half sister of Octavia Thurina Major. ... Julia Caesaris and her husband, the praetor and commissioner Marcus Atius Balbus, had 3 daughters, all named Atia Balba. ...

See also

The Julio-Claudian dynasty of the early Roman Empire has a family tree complicated by multiple marriages between the members of the gens Julia and the gens Claudia. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Suet. Claud. 30.
  2. ^ Seneca Apocolo. 5, 6.
  3. ^ Suet. Claud. 30.
  4. ^ Suet. Claud. 31.
  5. ^ Suet. Claud. 38.
  6. ^ Leon (1948).
  7. ^ Burden, George. The Imperial Gene, The Medical Post, July 16, 1996. Retrieved 24 June 2007.
  8. ^ Suet. Claud. 5, 21, 40; Dio Rom. Hist. LX 2, 5, 12, 31.
  9. ^ Suet. Claud. 34, 38. Tacitus Ann. XII 20.
  10. ^ Suet. Claud. 29. Dio Rom. Hist. LX 2, 8.
  11. ^ Suet. Claud. 35, 36, 37, 39, 40. Dio Rom. Hist. LX 2, 3.
  12. ^ Dio Hist. LX 2
  13. ^ Suet. Claud. 2. Suet Claud. 4 indicates the reasons for choosing this tutor, as outlined in Leon (1948).
  14. ^ Suet. Claud. 4.
  15. ^ Scramuzza (1940) p. 39.
  16. ^ Stuart (1936).
  17. ^ Dio Rom. Hist. LX 2. Suhr (1955) suggests that this must refer to before Claudius came to power.
  18. ^ Major (1992)
  19. ^ Josephus Antiquitates Iudiacae XIX. Dio Rom. Hist. LX 1.
  20. ^ Josephus Ant. Iud. XIX.
  21. ^ Josephus Bellum Iudiacum II, 204–233.
  22. ^ Pliny 5.1-5.2, Cassius Dio, 60.8, 60.9
  23. ^ Scramuzza, Chap. 9
  24. ^ Scramuzza, Chap. 7, p. 142
  25. ^ Suet. Claud. 15. Dio Rom. Hist. LXI 33.
  26. ^ Scramuzza (1940), Chap. 6
  27. ^ Josephus Ant. Iud. XIX, 287.
  28. ^ Scramuzza (1940), Chap. 7, p.129
  29. ^ Scramuzza (1940), Chap. 7
  30. ^ Suetonius, Claud. 16
  31. ^ Suetonius, Claud. 32
  32. ^ Suetonius, Claud. 51
  33. ^ Tacitus Ann. XII 57
  34. ^ Scramuzza (1940), Chap. 9, pp. 173-4
  35. ^ English translation of Berlin papyrus by W.D. Hogarth, in Momigliano (1934).
  36. ^ Suet. Claud. 29.
  37. ^ Tac. Ann. XII 65. Seneca Ad Polybium.
  38. ^ Pliny Natural History 134.
  39. ^ There is some debate about what actually happened. It is reported by Suetonius and in Acts (18:2), Cassius Dio minimizes the event and Josephus—who was reporting on Jewish events—does not mention it at all. Some scholars hold that it didn't happen, while others have only a few missionaries expelled for the short term.
  40. ^ Seneca Apocolo. 9.
  41. ^ a b Suet. Claud. 44
  42. ^ Tac. Ann. XII 66
  43. ^ Accounts of his death: Suet. Claud. 43, 44. Tac. Ann. XII 64, 66–67. Josephus Ant. Iud. XX 148, 151. Dio Rom. Hist. LX 34. Pliny Natural History II 92, XI 189, XXII 92.
  44. ^ Suet. Claud. 43
  45. ^ Scramuzza (1940) pp. 92–93 says that tradition makes every emperor the victim of foul play, so we can't know if Claudius was truly murdered. Levick (1990) pp. 76–77. raises the possibility that Claudius was killed by the stress of fighting with Agrippina over the succession, but concludes that the timing makes murder the most likely cause.
  46. ^ Levick (1990); also as opposed to the murder of Augustus, which is only found in Tacitus and Dio where he quotes Tacitus. Suetonius, an inveterate gossip, doesn't mention it at all.
  47. ^ Suet. Nero 9
  48. ^ Suet. Nero 33
  49. ^ Levick (1990)
  50. ^ Levick (1990)
  51. ^ Scramuzza, p. 29
  52. ^ Vessey (1971)
  53. ^ Griffin (1990). Ann. XI 14 is a good example. The digression on the history of writing is certainly Claudius' own argument for his new letters, and fits in with his personality and extant writings. Tacitus makes no attribution.
  54. ^ Suet. Claud. 33.
  55. ^ Tac. Ann. XI 10. Also Dio Rom. Hist. LXI 31, and Pliny Nat. Hist. X 172.
  56. ^ Scramuzza (1940) p. 90. Momigliano (1934) pp. 6–7. Levick (1990) p. 19.
  57. ^ Tac. Ann. XI. 25, 8.
  58. ^ Suet. Claud. 26.
  59. ^ Scramuzza (1940) pp. 91–92. See also Tac. Ann. XII 6, 7; Suet. Claud. 26.
  60. ^ Levick (1990) p. 70. See also Scramuzza (1940) p. 92.
  61. ^ Oost (1958).
  62. ^ Momigliano (1934) pp. 4–6.
  63. ^ Suet. Claud. 41.
  64. ^ See Claudius' letter to the people of Trent (linked below), in which he refers to the "obstinate retirement" of Tiberius. See also Josephus Ant Iud. XIX, where an edict of Claudius refers to Caligula's "madness and lack of understanding."
  65. ^ See Momigliano (1934) Chap. 1, note 20 (p. 83). Pliny credits him by name in Book VII 35.
  66. ^ Levick (1978).
  67. ^ Ryan (1993) refers to the historian Varro's account of the introduction

Varro was a Roman cognomen carried by: Caius Terentius Varro, the consul Marcus Terentius Varro (known as Varro Reatinus), the scholar Publius Terentius Varro (known as Varro Atacinus), the poet This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

References

  • Baldwin, B. "Executions under Claudius: Seneca’s Ludus de Morte Claudii". Phoenix 18 (1964).
  • Griffin, M. "Claudius in Tacitus". Classical Quarterly, 40 (1990), 482–501.
  • Levick, B.M., "Claudius: Antiquarian or Revolutionary?" American Journal of Philology, 99 (1978), 79–105.
  • Levick, Barbara. Claudius. Yale University Press. New Haven, 1990.
  • Leon, E.F., "The Imbecillitas of the Emperor Claudius", Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association, 79 (1948), 79–86.
  • McAlindon, D., "Claudius and the Senators", American Journal of Philology, 78 (1957), 279–286.
  • Major, A., "Was He Pushed or Did He Leap? Claudius' Ascent to Power", Ancient History, 22 (1992), 25–31.
  • Momigliano, Arnaldo. Claudius: the Emperor and His Achievement Trans. W.D. Hogarth. W. Heffer and Sons. Cambridge, 1934.
  • Oost, S.V., "The Career of M. Antonius Pallas", American Journal of Philology, 79 (1958). 113–139.
  • Ruth, Thomas De Coursey. The Problem of Claudius. (Johns Hopkins Diss., 1916).
  • Ryan, F.X. "Some Observations on the Censorship of Claudius and Vitellius, AD 47–48", American Journal of Philology, 114 (1993), 611–618.
  • Scramuzza, Vincent. The Emperor Claudius Harvard University Press. Cambridge, 1940.
  • Stuart, M. "The Date of the Inscription of Claudius on the Arch of Ticinum" Am. J. Arch. 40 (1936). 314–322.
  • Suhr, E.G., "A Portrait of Claudius" Am. J. Arch. 59 (1955). 319–322.
  • Vessey, D.W.T.C. "Thoughts on Tacitus' Portrayal of Claudius" American Journal of Philology, 92 (1971), 385–409.

External links

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Preceded by
Gaius (Caligula)
Roman Emperor
41–54
Succeeded by
Nero
Julio-Claudian dynasty
41–54
Preceded by
Gnaeus Acerronius Proculus and Gaius Petronius Pontius Nigrinus
Consul of the Roman Empire together with Caligula
37 (suffect)
Succeeded by
Marcus Aquila Julianus and Gaius Nonius Asprenas
Preceded by
Caligula and Gnaeus Sentius Saturninus
Consul of the Roman Empire together with Gaius Caecina Largus (42) and Lucius Vitellius (43)
4243
Succeeded by
Titus Statilius Taurus and Gaius Sallustius Crispus Passienus
Preceded by
Decimus Valerius Asiaticus and Marcus Junius Silanus Torquatus
Consul of the Roman Empire together with Lucius Vitellius
47
Succeeded by
Vitellius and Lucius Vipstanus Publicola Messalla
Preceded by
Gaius Antistius Vetus and Marcus Suillius Nerullinus
Consul of the Roman Empire together with Servius Cornelius Scipio Salvidienus Orfitus
51
Succeeded by
Faustus Cornelius Sulla Felix and Lucius Salvius Otho Titianus
Persondata
NAME Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Roman emperor
DATE OF BIRTH August 1, 10 BC
PLACE OF BIRTH Lugdunum
DATE OF DEATH October 13, 54 ,
PLACE OF DEATH Rome

is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC - 10s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s Years: 15 BC 14 BC 13 BC 12 BC 11 BC 10 BC 9 BC 8 BC 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC... Colonia Copia Claudia Augusta Lugdunum (modern: Lyon) was an important Roman city in Gaul. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 54. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
I, Claudius - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2306 words)
I, Claudius is a novel by English writer Robert Graves, first published in 1934, that deals sympathetically with the life of the Roman Emperor Claudius and the history of the Julio-Claudian Dynasty and Roman Empire, from Julius Caesar's assassination in 44 BC to Caligula's assassination in AD 41.
Claudius writes his memoirs in Greek, which he believes will remain "the chief literary language of the world." This allows Graves to explore the etymology of Latin words (like the origins of the names "Livia" and "Caesar") that would otherwise be apparent to a native-born Latin speaker like Claudius.
The historical Claudius' extant speech to the senate on voting and juries, his translated letters to the residents of Trent and the Alexandrians, and the text of the Lyon Tablet are all included.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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