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Encyclopedia > Claude Louis Hector de Villars
Marquis and duc de Villars, Marshal of France by Hyacinthe Rigaud.
Marquis and duc de Villars, Marshal of France by Hyacinthe Rigaud.

Claude Louis Hector de Villars, Prince de Martigues, Marquis and Duc de Villars and Vicomte de Melun (May 8, 1653June 17, 1734) was the last great general of the Sun King and one of the most brilliant commanders in French military history, one of only six Marshals that have been promoted to Marshal General of France. Image File history File links Claude_Louis_Hector_duc_de_Villars. ... Image File history File links Claude_Louis_Hector_duc_de_Villars. ... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Hyacinthe Rigaud (July 20, 1659-December 27, 1743) was a French painter. ... May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (129th in leap years). ... Events February 2 - New Amsterdam (later renamed New York City) is incorporated. ... June 17 is the 168th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (169th in leap years), with 197 days remaining. ... Events January 8 - Premiere of George Frideric Handels opera Ariodante at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden. ... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715) reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death. ... Henry IV at the Battle of Ivry, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... The Marshal of France (maréchal de France) was one of the Great Officers of the Crown of France. ... The title Marshal General of France was given to signify that the recipient had authority over all camps and armies of the King in the days when a Marshal governed only one army usually. ...

Contents

Early career

Villars was born at Moulins in a noble family, bur poor and out of favour. He entered the French army through the corps of pages in 1671. He distinguished himself at twenty in the siege of Maastricht in 1673 during the Franco-Dutch War and after the bloody Battle of Seneffe a year later he was promoted on the field to mestre de camp (colonel) of a cavalry regiment. Moulins or Moulin (French for mill) is the name or part of the name of several communes in France. ... The Dutch War (1672–1678) was a war fought between France and a quadruple alliance consisting of Brandenburg, the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, and the United Provinces. ... Battle of Seneffe Conflict Third Anglo-Dutch War Date August 11, 1674 Place Near Seneffe, Belgium Result French victory The Battle of Seneffe was fought on August 11, French victory under Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé against the Dutch-Austrian army under William III of Orange. ... Colonel (IPA: or ) is a military rank of a commissioned officer, with the corresponding ranks existing in nearly every country in the world. ...


The next promotion would take time in spite of a long record of excellent service under Turenne, The Great Condé and Luxembourg, and of his aristocratic birth. The reason was that he had incurred the enmity of the powerful Louvois, he was finally made maréchal de camp in 1687. Turenne Henri de la Tour dAuvergne, Vicomte de Turenne, often referred to as Turenne (September 11, 1611 – July 27, 1675) achieved military fame and became a Marshal of France. ... Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé (September 8, 1621 – November 11, 1686) was the most celebrated representative of Princes de Condé and one of the most brilliant generals of the 17th century. ... François Michel le Tellier, Marquis de Louvois (January 18, 1641 - July 16, 1691), was the French war minister under Louis XIV. He was born in Paris to Michel le Tellier. ... In the French army of the Ancien Régime, the normal brigade command rank in French army was Field Marshal (Maréchal de camp). ...


In the interval between the Dutch wars and the formation of the League of Augsburg, Villars, who combined with his military gifts the tact and subtlety of the diplomatist, was employed in an unofficial mission to the court of Bavaria, and there became the constant companion Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria. The Grand Alliance (known, prior to 1689, as the League of Augsburg) was a European coalition, consisting (at various times) of Austria, Bavaria, Brandenburg, England, the Holy Roman Empire, the Netherlands, the Palatinate of the Rhine, Saxony, Spain, Sweden, and the United Provinces. ... The Free State of Bavaria  (German: Freistaat Bayern), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ... Maximilian II Emanuel (July 11, 1662 - February 26, 1726) was a Wittelsbach ruler of Bavaria and an elector (Kurfürst) of the Holy Roman Empire. ...


He returned to France in 1690 and was given a command in the cavalry of the army in Flanders, but towards the end of the War of the Grand Alliance he went to Vienna as ambassador. Events Giovanni Domenico Cassini observes differential rotation within Jupiters atmosphere. ... Nine Years War redirects here. ... Inhabitants according to official census figures: 1800 to 2005 Vienna in 1858 Vienna (German: Wien ) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ...


War of the Spanish Succession

Villars winning his most important victory at Denain.
Villars winning his most important victory at Denain.

His part in the next war beginning with Friedlingen (1702) and Hochstadt (1703) and ending with Denain (1712), has made him immortal. For Friedlingen he received the marshalate, and for the pacification of the insurgent Cévennes the Saint-Esprit order and the title of duke. Friedlingen and Hochstadt were barren victories, and the campaigns of which they formed part records of lost opportunities. Villars's glory thus begins with the year 1709 when France, apparently helpless, was roused to a great effort of self-defence by the stringent demands of the Coalition. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (800x659, 133 KB) Battle of Denain, oil on canvas. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (800x659, 133 KB) Battle of Denain, oil on canvas. ... Combatants France Holy Roman Empire Commanders Claude-Louis-Hector de Villars Louis, Margrave of Baden-Baden Strength Casualties The Battle of Friedlingen was fought in 1702 between France and the Holy Roman Empire. ... The Battle of Hochstadt was fought on September 20, 1703, and resulted in a French-Bavarian victory under General Austrians under General Stirum. ... Combatants Austria United Provinces Britain France Commanders Eugene of Savoy Claude de Villars Strength 105,000 120,000 Casualties 18,000 dead or wounded 5,000 dead or wounded The Battle of Denain was fought on July 24, 1712, as part of the War of the Spanish Succession, and resulted... After the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, a revolt by the Camisards (Occitan camisa, smock or shirtsleeves) broke out in 1702, in the rugged and isolated Cevennes region of south-central France, the traditional heartland of religious heterodoxy (see Cathar). ... The Cévennes are a range of mountains in south-central France, covering parts of the départements of Gard, Lozère, Ardèche, and Haute-Loire. ... // Events January 12 - Two-month freezing period begins in France - The coast of the Atlantic and Seine River freeze, crops fail and at least 24. ...


In that year he was called to command the main army opposing Prince Eugène of Savoy and Marlborough on the northern frontier. During the famine of the winter he shared the soldiers' miserable rations. When the campaign opened the old Marshal Boufflers volunteered to serve under him, and after the terrible battle of Malplaquet, in which he was gravely wounded (cannonball to the leg), he was able to tell the king: "If it please God to give your majesty's enemies another such victory, they are ruined." Prince Eugen von Savoyen in a contemporary painting François-Eugène, Prince of Savoy-Carignan, known as Prinz Eugen von Savoyen in German and Eugenio, Principe di Savoia in Italian (October 18, 1663 – April 24, 1736) was arguable the greatest general to serve the Habsburgs. ... John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, in his Garter robes John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, KG, PC (26 May 1650 – 16 June 1722) was an English military officer during the War of the Spanish Succession. ... Louis François, duc de Boufflers, comte de Cagny (January 10, 1644 - August 22, 1711) was a Marshal of France. ... The Battle of Malplaquet was a battle of the War of the Spanish Succession that took place on September 11, 1709 between France and a British–Austrian alliance (known as the Allies). ...


Two more campaigns passed without a battle and with scarcely any advance on the part of the invaders, but at last Marlborough manoeuvred Villars out of the famous Ne plus ultra lines, and the power of the defence seemed to be broken. But Louis made a last effort, the English contingent and its great leader were withdrawn from the enemy's camp, and Villars, though still suffering from his Malplaquet wounds, outmanoeuvered and decisively defeated Eugène at Denain. This victory saved France, though the war dragged on for another year on the Rhine, where Villars took Landau, led the stormers at Freiburg and negotiated the Treaty of Rastatt with Prince Eugène. This page lists direct English translations of common Latin phrases, such as veni vidi vici and et cetera. ... Combatants Austria United Provinces Britain France Commanders Eugene of Savoy Claude de Villars Strength 105,000 120,000 Casualties 18,000 dead or wounded 5,000 dead or wounded The Battle of Denain was fought on July 24, 1712, as part of the War of the Spanish Succession, and resulted... Loreley At 1,320 kilometres (820 miles) and an average discharge of more than 2,000 cubic meters per second, the Rhine (Dutch Rijn, French Rhin, German Rhein, Italian: Reno, Romansch: Rein, ) is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe. ... Landau or Landau in der Pfalz (pop. ... The Battle of Freiburg, also called the Three Day Battle, took place on August 3, August 5 and August 9, 1644 as part of the Thirty Years War. ... The Treaty of Rastatt, in March 7, 1714, was essentially part of the Treaty of Utrecht. ...


Regency

He played a conspicuous part in the politics of the Regency period as the principal opponent of Cardinal Dubois, and only the memories of Montmorency's rebellion prevented his being made constable of France. He took the field for the last time in the War of the Polish Succession (1734), with the title marshal-general of the king's armies, that Turenne had held before him. But he was now over eighty years of age, and the war was more diplomatic than earnest, and after opening the campaign with all the fire and restless energy of his youth he died at Turin on 17 June 1734. The Constable of France (French connétable de France, from Latin comes stabulari for count of the stables), as the First Officer of the Crown, was one of the original five Great Officers of the Crown of France (along with seneschal, chamberlain, butler, and chancellor) and Commander in Chief of... The War of the Polish Succession (1733-1738) was a European war and a Polish civil war, with considerable interference from other countries, to determine the succession to Augustus II, King of Poland, as well as an attempt by the Bourbon powers to check the power of Austria in western... Turin (Italian: ; Piedmontese: Turin) is a major industrial city as well as a business and cultural center in northwest Italy, capital of the Piedmont region, located mainly on the west bank of the Po River. ... June 17 is the 168th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (169th in leap years), with 197 days remaining. ... Events January 8 - Premiere of George Frideric Handels opera Ariodante at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden. ...


Legacy

Villars's memoirs show us a fanfaron plein d'honneur, as Voltaire calls him. He was indeed boastful, with the gasconading habit of his native province, and also covetous of honours and wealth. But he was an honourable man of high courage, moral and physical, and a soldier who stands above all his contemporaries and successors in the 18th century, on the same height as de Saxe and Frederick II of Prussia. François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), better known by the pen name Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, essayist, deist and philosopher. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Frederick II of Prussia (German: ; January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) of Hohenzollern dynasty, ruled the Kingdom of Prussia from 1740 to 1786. ...


The memoirs, part of which was published in 1734 and afterwards several times republished in untrustworthy versions, were for the first time completely edited by the Marquis de Vogüé in 1884–92. Events January 8 - Premiere of George Frideric Handels opera Ariodante at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden. ... Eugène-Melchior, comte, later marquis de Vogüé (February 25, 1848 - March 29, 1910) was a French Occitan diplomat, travel writer, archaeologist, philanthropist and literary critic. ...


External Links

  • The French Army 1600-1900

References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
Preceded by
Jean-François de Chamillart
Seat 18
Académie française
1714-1734
Succeeded by
Honoré-Armand de Villars
Preceded by
Daniel Voysin de la Noiraye
Secretary of State for War
October 1, 1715September 24, 1718
Succeeded by
Claude le Blanc

  Results from FactBites:
 
Claude Louis Hector de Villars - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (829 words)
Claude Louis Hector de Villars, Prince de Martigues, Marquis and Duc de Villars and Vicomte de Melun (May 8, 1653 - June 17, 1734) was the last great general of the Sun King and one of the most brilliant in the history of France.
In the interval between the Dutch wars and the formation of the League of Augsburg, Villars, who combined with his military gifts the tact and subtlety of the diplomatist, was employed in an unofficial mission to the court of Bavaria, and there became the constant companion Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria.
But Louis made a last effort, the English contingent and its great leader were withdrawn from the enemy's camp, and Villars, though still suffering from his Malplaquet wounds, outmanoeuvred and decisively defeated Eugène in the battle of Denain.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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