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Encyclopedia > Claude Elwood Shannon
Claude Shannon
Claude Shannon

Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916February 24, 2001), an American electrical engineer and mathematician, has been called "the father of information theory", and was the founder of practical digital circuit design theory. Image File history File links Shannon. ... Image File history File links Shannon. ... April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (121st in leap years), with 245 days remaining. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... February 24 is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... An engineers degree is an academic degree which is intermediate in rank between a masters degree and a doctorate; it is occasionally to be encountered in the United States in technical fields. ... Leonhard Euler is considered by many people to be one of the greatest mathematicians of all time A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study and research is mathematics. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Digital circuits are electric circuits based on a number of discrete voltage levels. ...

Contents


Biography

Shannon was born in Petoskey, Michigan. The first sixteen years of Shannon's life were spent in Gaylord, Michigan, where he attended the Public School, graduating from Gaylord High School in 1932. While growing up, he worked as a messenger for Western Union. Shannon was a distant relative of Thomas Edison. Petoskey is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Gaylord is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... The Western Union Logo Western Union is a financial services and communications company based in the United States and owned by First Data Corporation. ... Thomas Edison is the current Good Article Collaboration of the week! Please help to improve this article to the highest of standards. ...


Boolean theory

In 1932 he entered the University of Michigan, where he took a course that introduced him to the works of George Boole. He graduated in 1936 with two bachelor's degrees, one in electrical engineering and one in mathematics, then began graduate study at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he worked on Vannevar Bush's differential analyzer, an analog computer. 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ... This article is about the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. ... George Boole [], (November 2, 1815 Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England – December 8, 1864 Ballintemple, Cork City, Ireland) was a mathematician and philosopher. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... This article treats electronics engineering as a subfield of electrical engineering, though this is not typical use in some areas. ... Euclid, a famous Greek mathematician known as the father of geometry, is shown here in detail from The School of Athens by Raphael. ... The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, or MIT, is a private research university located in the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. MIT is one of the worlds leading research institutions in science and technology. ... Vannevar Bush (March 11, 1890 – June 30, 1974) was an American engineer and science administrator, known for his political role in the development of the atomic bomb, and idea of the memex—seen as a pioneering concept for the World Wide Web. ... The differential analyser was a mechanical analog computer invented by Vannevar Bush in 1927. ... A page from the Bombardiers Information File (BIF) that describes the components and controls of the Norden bombsight. ...


While studying the complicated ad hoc circuits of the differential analyzer, Shannon saw that Boole's concepts could be used to great utility. A paper drawn from his 1937 master's thesis, A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits, was published in the 1938 issue of the Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. It also earned Shannon the Alfred Noble American Institute of American Engineers Award in 1940. Howard Gardner, of Harvard University, called Shannon's thesis "possibly the most important, and also the most famous, master's thesis of the century". 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Look up thesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In his 1937 MIT masters thesis, A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits, Claude Elwood Shannon proved that Boolean algebra and binary arithmetic could be used to simplify the arrangement of the electromechanical relays then used in telephone routing switches, then turned the concept upside down and also... 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Alfred Noble Prize is an award created to recognize an outstanding technical paper by an author under the age of 35. ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... Howard Gardner (born 1943 in Scranton, Pennsylvania, USA) is a cognitive and educational psychologist based at Harvard University best known for his theory of multiple intelligences. ... Harvard University campus (old map) Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ...


In this work, Shannon proved that Boolean algebra and binary arithmetic could be used to simplify the arrangement of the electromechanical relays then used in telephone routing switches, then turned the concept upside down and also proved that it should be possible to use arrangements of relays to solve Boolean algebra problems. Exploiting this property of electrical switches to do logic is the basic concept that underlies all electronic digital computers. Shannon's work became the foundation of practical digital circuit design when it became widely known among the electrical engineering community during and after World War II. The theoretical rigor Shannon's work supplied completely replaced the "ad hoc" methods that had prevailed heretofore. Wikibooks has more about Boolean logic, under the somewhat misleading title Boolean Algebra For a basic intro to sets, Boolean operations, Venn diagrams, truth tables, and Boolean applications, see Boolean logic. ... The binary or base-two numeral system is a system for representing numbers in which a radix of two is used; that is, each digit in a binary numeral may have either of two different values. ... Relay as used in cars A relay is an electromechanical switch that uses an electromagnet to open or close one or many sets of contacts. ... Digital circuits are electric circuits based on a number of discrete voltage levels. ... Combatants Allies: United Kingdom, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, Canada, China, India, Australia, Poland, New Zealand, South Africa, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million...


Flush with this success, Vannevar Bush suggested that Shannon work on his dissertation at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, funded by the Carnegie Institution headed by Bush, to develop similar mathematical relationships for Mendelian genetics, which resulted in Shannon's 1940 PhD thesis at MIT, An Algebra for Theoretical Genetics. The Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) is a research and educational institution, consisting of science laboratories located in Cold Spring Harbor, New York on Long Island, USA. The Laboratory has research programs focusing on cancer, neurobiology, plant genetics, genomics and bioinformatics, and has a broad educational mission, including the recently... Gregor Johann Mendel Gregor Johann Mendel (July 20[1], 1822 – January 6, 1884) was an Augustinian abbot who is often called the father of genetics for his study of the inheritance of traits in pea plants. ... Genetics (from the Greek genno γεννώ= give birth) is the science of genes, heredity, and the variation of organisms. ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... PhD usually refers to the academic title Doctor of Philosophy PhD can also refer to the manga Phantasy Degree This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... In Shannons masters thesis, he proved that Boolean algebra and binary arithmetic could be used to simplify the arrangement of the electromechanical relays, then turned the concept upside down and also demonstrated that it should be possible to use arrangements of relays to solve Boolean algebra problems. ...


Wartime research

Shannon then joined Bell Labs to work on fire-control systems and cryptography during World War II, under a contract with section D-2 (Control Systems section) of the National Defense Research Committee (NDRC). Bell Laboratories (also known as Bell Labs and formerly known as AT&T Bell Laboratories and Bell Telephone Laboratories) was the main research and development arm of the United States Bell System. ... In June of 1940, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt established the National Defense Research Committee (NDRC) to coordinate, supervise, and conduct scientific research on the problems underlying the development, production, and use of mechanisms and devices of warfare. ...


In 1945, as the war was coming to an end, the NDRC was issuing a summary of technical reports as a last step prior to its eventual closing down. Inside the volume on Fire Control a special essay titled Data Smoothing and Prediction in Fire-Control Systems, coauthored by Richard B. Blackman, Hendrik Wade Bode, and Claude Shannon, formally introduced the problem of Fire Control as a special case of transmission, manipulation and utilization of intelligence, in other words it modeled the problem in terms of Data and Signal Processing and thus heralded the coming of the information age. Shannon was greatly influenced by this work. It is clear that the technological convergence of the information age was preceded by the synergy between these scientific minds and their collaborators. Hendrik Wade Bode Hendrik Wade Bode, (born 24 December 1905 in Madison, Wisconsin, died 21 June 1982 at his home in Cambridge, Mass. ... Data processing is any computer process that converts data into information. ... Signal processing is the processing, amplification and interpretation of signals and deals with the analysis and manipulation of signals. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Technological convergence is the modern presence of a vast array of different types of technology to perform very similar tasks. ... Synergy or synergism (from the Greek synergos meaning working together, circa 1660) refers to the phenomenon in which two or more discrete influences or agents acting together create an effect greater than the sum of the effects each is able to create independently. ...


Postwar contributions

Shannon and his famous electromechanical mouse Theseus, named after the Greek mythology hero of Minotaur and Labyrinth fame, and which he tried to teach to come out of the maze in one of the first experiments in artificial intelligence.

In 1948 Shannon published A Mathematical Theory of Communication article in two parts in the July and October issues of the Bell System Technical Journal. This work focuses on the problem of how to best encode the information a sender wants to transmit. In this fundamental work he used tools in probability theory, developed by Norbert Wiener, which were in their nascent stages of being applied to communication theory at that time. Shannon developed information entropy as a measure for the uncertainty in a message while essentially inventing what became known as the dominant form of "information theory." The book, co-authored with Warren Weaver, The Mathematical Theory of Communication, reprints Shannon's 1948 article and Weaver's popularization of it, which is accessible to the non-specialist. Shannon's concepts were also popularized, subject to his own proofreading, in John Robinson Pierce's Symbols, Signals, and Noise. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (853x773, 445 KB) Summary Bell Labs obituary page http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (853x773, 445 KB) Summary Bell Labs obituary page http://www. ... In engineering, electromechanics combines electromagnetism and mechanics. ... Theseus (Greek Θησεύς) was a legendary king of Athens, son of Aegeus (or of Poseidon) and of Aethra. ... // Greek mythology consists in part in a large collection of narratives that explain the origins of the world and detail the lives and adventures of a wide variety of gods, goddesses, heroes, and heroines. ... Minotaur at the Greek pavilion at Expo 88 In Greek mythology, the Minotaur (Greek: Μινόταυρος) was a creature that was part man and part bull. ... A Roman mosaic showing Theseus and the Minotaur. ... Hondas intelligent humanoid robot AI redirects here. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... A Mathematical Theory of Communication, published in 1948 by mathematician and computer scientist Claude Shannon, was one of the founding works of the field of information theory. ... Bell System Technical Journal was the in-house journal of Bell Laboratories. ... Information as a concept bears a diversity of meanings, from everyday usage to technical settings. ... Norbert Wiener Norbert Wiener (November 26, 1894 - March 18, 1964) was a U.S. mathematician and applied mathematician, especially in the field of electronics engineering. ... Entropy of a Bernoulli trial as a function of success probability. ... Warren Weaver is an author of the well-known work on communication, The Mathematical Theory of Communication (together with Claude Shannon). ... John Robinson Pierce (March 27, 1910 - April 2, 2002), was an American engineer and author. ...


Another notable paper published in 1949 is Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems, a major contribution to the development of a mathematical theory of cryptography. He is also credited with the introduction of Sampling Theory, which is concerned with representing a continuous-time signal from a (uniform) discrete set of samples. 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems is a paper published by Claude Shannon discussing cryptography from the viewpoint of information theory. ... The German Lorenz cipher machine Cryptography or cryptology is a field of mathematics and computer science concerned with information security and related issues, particularly encryption and authentication. ... The Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem is the fundamental theorem in the field of information theory, in particular telecommunications. ...


He returned to MIT to hold an endowed chair in 1956.


Hobbies and Inventions

Outside of his academic pursuits, Shannon was interested in juggling, unicycling, and chess. He also invented many devices, including rocket-powered Frisbees, a motorized pogo stick, a wearable computer to predict the result of playing roulette [1], and a flame-throwing trumpet for a science exhibition. One of his more humorous devices was a box he kept on his desk with a single switch on the side. When the switch was flipped, the lid of the box opened and a mechanical hand reached out, flipped off the switch, then retracted back inside the box. Juggling can refer to all forms of artful or skillful object manipulation. ... Unicycling is the activity of riding a unicycle. ... Chess is an abstract strategy board game for two players. ... A Wham-O Professional Frisbee For the amusement ride, see Frisbee (ride). ... Roulette is a casino and gambling game (Roulette is a French word meaning small wheel). A croupier turns a round roulette wheel which has 37 or 38 separately numbered pockets in which a ball must land. ...


Legacy and Tributes

Shannon came to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1956 to join its faculty and to conduct work in the Research Laboratory of Electronics (RLE). He continued to serve on the MIT faculty until 1978. To commemorate his achievements, there were celebrations of his work in 2001, and there are currently five statues of Shannon: one at the University of Michigan; one at MIT in the Laboratory for Information and Decision Systems; one in Gaylord, Michigan; one at the University of California at San Diego; and another at Bell Labs. After the breakup of the Bell system, the part of Bell Labs that remained with AT&T was named Shannon Labs in his honor. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, or MIT, is a private research university located in the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. MIT is one of the worlds leading research institutions in science and technology. ... Mapúa Institute of Technology (MIT, MapúaTech or simply Mapúa) is a private, non-sectarian, Filipino tertiary institute located in Intramuros, Manila. ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... William Smith (2006). ... Mapúa Institute of Technology (MIT, MapúaTech or simply Mapúa) is a private, non-sectarian, Filipino tertiary institute located in Intramuros, Manila. ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... This article is about the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. ... The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, or MIT, is a private research university located in the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. MIT is one of the worlds leading research institutions in science and technology. ... The MIT Laboratory for Information and Decision Systems is a research labotarory of MIT, working in the areas of communication, controls, and signal processing. ... Gaylord is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... AT&T Inc. ...


Robert Gallager has called Shannon the greatest scientist of the 20th century. According to Neil Sloane, an AT&T fellow who co-edited Shannon's large collection of papers in 1993, the perspective introduced by Shannon's communication theory (now called information theory) is the foundation of the digital revolution and every device containing a microprocessor or microcontroller is a conceptual descendant of Shannon's 1948 publication.[1] "He's one of the great men of the century. Without him, none of the things we know today would exist. The whole digital revolution started with him," said Neil Sloane, according to a Star-Ledger obituary article.[2] Yet Shannon, whose genius many scientists consider at par with Einstein's, was oblivious to the marvels of the digital revolution because his mind was ravaged by Alzheimer's disease, his wife mentioned in the same Star-Ledger article. "He would have been bemused" by it all, Betty Shannon added.[2] Robert G. Gallager (born May 29, 1931 in Philadelphia, PA) is an American computer scientist known for his work on information theory and communications networks. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Neil James Alexander Sloane is a US-American mathematician. ... We might say that communication consists of transmitting information from one person to another. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Microprocessors, including an Intel 80486DX2 and an Intel 80386. ... A microcontroller (or MCU) is a computer-on-a-chip used to control electronic devices. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... The Digital Revolution describes the effects of rapid drop in cost and ongoing improvement of digital devices such as computers replacing or emulating analog devices, enabling former unthinkable innovations like the World Wide Web (WWW). ... The Star-Ledger is the leading newspaper in New Jersey and ranks number 16 in total circulation for U.S. daily newspapers. ... Obituary for World War I death For information on the death metal band, see Obituary (band). ... A genius is a person with distinguished mental abilities. ... Einstein redirects here. ...


Shannon miscellany

Shannon's computer chess program

In 1950 Shannon published a groundbreaking paper on computer chess entitled Programming a Computer for Playing Chess. It describes how a machine or computer could be made to play a reasonable game of chess. His process for having the computer decide on which move to make is a minimax procedure, based on an evaluation function of a given chess position. Shannon gave a rough example of an evaluation function in which the value of the black position was subtracted from that of the white position. Material was counted according to the usual relative chess piece point value (1 point for a pawn, 3 points for a knight or bishop, 5 points for a rook, and 9 points for a queen). He considered some positional factors, subtracting ½ point for each doubled pawn, backward pawn, and isolated pawn. Another positional factor in the evaluation function was mobility, adding 0.1 point for each legal move available. Finally, he considered checkmate to be the capture of the king, and gave it the artificial value of 200 points. Quoting from the paper: 1990s Pressure-sensory Chess Computer with LCD screen The idea of creating a chess-playing machine dates back to the eighteenth century. ... Chess is an abstract strategy board game for two players. ... Minimax (sometimes minmax) is a method in decision theory for minimizing the maximum possible loss. ... An evaluation function, also known as heuristic evaluation function or static evaluation function by game-playing programs to estimate the value or goodness of a position in the minimax algorithm. ... In chess, the chess pieces are often assigned certain point values that help determine how valuable a piece is strategically. ... In chess, doubled pawns are two pawns of the same player residing on the same file. ... In chess, a backward pawn is a pawn that is behind the pawns of the same color on the adjacent files and that cannot easily be advanced. ... In chess, an isolated pawn is a pawn for which there is no friendly pawn on an adjacent file. ... Checkmate (frequently shortened to mate) is a situation in chess (and in other boardgames of the chaturanga family) in which one players king is under attack and there is no way to meet that threat; it is a check from which there is no escape. ...

The coefficients .5 and .1 are merely the writer's rough estimate. Furthermore, there are many other terms that should be included. The formula is given only for illustrative purposes. Checkmate has been artificially included here by giving the king the large value 200 (anything greater than the maximum of all other terms would do).

The evaluation function is clearly for illustrative purposes, as Shannon stated. For example, according to the function, pawns that are doubled as well as isolated would have no value at all, which is clearly unrealistic.


The reason for assigning checkmate a value higher than the maximum sum of all other terms is so that the minimax procedure will value checkmate above all else and thus it will sacrifice as much material as it has to in order to prevent itself from being checkmated, or to checkmate the opponent. The value is arbitrary — any number larger than the sum of all of the other terms would cause the minimax procedure to give the same result.


The Las Vegas connection: Information theory and its applications to game theory

Shannon and his wife Betty also used to go on weekends to Las Vegas with M.I.T. mathematician Ed Thorp,[3] and made very successful forays in roulette and blackjack using game theory type methods co-developed with fellow Bell Labs associate, Texas tough guy, recreational gunslinger, daredevil pilot and physicist John L. Kelly Jr. based on principles of information theory,[4] making a fortune as detailed in the book Fortune's Formula by William Poundstone and corroborated by the writings of Elwyn Berlecamp,[5] Kelly's research assistant in 1960 and 1962.[6] Shannon and Thorp also applied the same theory, later known as the Kelly criterion, to the stock market with even better results.[7] This article is about the city of Las Vegas in Nevada. ... MIT redirects here. ... Edward Oakley Thorp is famous for his book Beat the Dealer in which he was the first to prove a mathematical system for beating blackjack by card counting. ... Roulette is a casino and gambling game (Roulette is a French word meaning small wheel). A croupier turns a round roulette wheel which has 37 or 38 separately numbered pockets in which a ball must land. ... Blackjack! The face cards (Jack, Queen, and King) count as 10 points, and the Ace counts as 1 or 11. ... Game theory is a branch of applied mathematics that studies strategic situations where players choose different actions in an attempt to maximize their returns. ... Gunslinger from The Great Train Robbery Gunslinger, also gunfighter, is a name given to men in the American Old West who had gained a reputation as being dangerous with a gun. ... A stunt performer is someone who performs dangerous stunts. ... John Larry Kelly, Jr. ... The Kelly Criterion or sometimes refered to as Kelly formula is a formula used to maximize the long-run growth rate of repeated plays of a given gamble that has positive expected value. ...


Other trivia

He met his wife Betty when she was a numerical analyst at Bell Labs. Bell Laboratories (also known as Bell Labs and formerly known as AT&T Bell Laboratories and Bell Telephone Laboratories) was the main research and development arm of the United States Bell System. ...


Awards and honors list

The Alfred Noble Prize is an award created to recognize an outstanding technical paper by an author under the age of 35. ... Following several attempts to form a technical organization of wireless practitioners in 1908-1912, the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) was finally established in 1912 in New York. ... Yale redirects here. ... The Franklin Institute is the memorial to Benjamin Franklin, that serves to perpetuate his legacy; the museum contains many of Franklins personal effects. ... This article is about the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. ... Rice University William Marsh Rice University, commonly called Rice University and opened in 1912 as Rice Institute, is one of the United Statess top teaching and research universities. ... Princeton University is a coeducational private university located on an extensive campus mostly in the Borough of Princeton and partly in the Princeton Township in New Jersey, United States. ... The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1583, is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... The University of Pittsburgh is a state-related, doctoral/research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ... Not to be confused with the Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE). ... National Medal of Science The National Medal of Science, also called the Presidential Medal of Science, is an honor given by the President of the United States to individuals in science and engineering who have made important contributions to the advancement of knowledge in the fields of behavioral and social... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908 – January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was the 36th President of the United States (1963–1969). ... For other schools named Northwestern please see Northwestern College. ... The Technion - Israel Institute of Technology (הטכניון - מכון טכנולוגי לישראל) is a university in Haifa, Israel. ... Nickname: Red Haifa Official website: www. ... The Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen (KNAW, Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences) is an organisation dedicated to the advancement of science and literature in the Netherlands. ... The University of Oxford (often called Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Joseph Marie Jacquard. ... Harold Pender (1879–1959) was an academic, author, and inventor. ... The University of East Anglia (UEA) is a campus university located in Norwich, Norfolk, England, founded as part of the British Governments New Universities programme in the 1960s. ... Carnegie Mellon University is a private research university located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ... Established in 1948, the Audio Engineering Society (AES) draws its membership from amongst engineers, scientists, manufacturers and other organisations and individuals with an interest or involvement in the professional audio industry. ... The Kyoto Prize (京都賞) has been awarded annually since 1984 by the Inamori Foundation, founded by Kazuo Inamori (fortune from ceramics). ... Tufts University is a private university located in Medford, Massachusetts, a suburb of Boston. ... The University of Pennsylvania (Penn is the moniker used by the university itself [2]) is a private, nonsectarian research university located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... Prof. ... The National Inventors Hall of Fame is an organization that honors important inventors from the United States. ...

See also

In the field of data compression, Shannon-Fano coding is a technique for constructing a prefix code based on a set of symbols and their probabilities (estimated or measured). ... In information theory, the Shannon-Hartley theorem states the maximum amount of error-free digital data (that is, information) that can be transmitted over a communication link with a specified bandwidth in the presence of noise interference. ... The Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem is the fundamental theorem in the field of information theory, in particular telecommunications. ... In information theory, the noisy-channel coding theorem establishes that however contaminated with noise interference a communication channel may be, it is possible to communicate digital data (information) error-free up to a given maximum rate through the channel. ... Rate distortion theory is the branch of information theory addressing the problem of determining the minimal amount of entropy (or information) R that should be communicated over a channel such that the source (input signal) can be reconstructed at the receiver (output signal) with given distortion D. As such, rate... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In cryptography, confusion and diffusion are two properties of the operation of a secure cipher which were identified by Shannon in his paper, Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems published in 1949. ... Excerpt from a one-time pad. ... The Shannon switching game is an abstract strategy game for two players, invented by the father of information theory, Claude Shannon. ... The Shannon number, 1078, is an estimation of the game-tree complexity of chess. ... The Claude E. Shannon Award of the IEEE Information Theory Society was institued to honour consistent and profound contributions to the field of information theory. ...

References

Cited references

  1. ^ C. E. Shannon: A mathematical theory of communication. Bell System Technical Journal, vol. 27, pp. 379–423 and 623–656, July and October, 1948
  2. ^ a b Bell Labs digital guru dead at 84 -- Pioneer scientist led high-tech revolution (The Star-Ledger, obituary by Kevin Coughlin 27 February 2001)
  3. ^ American Scientist online: Bettor Math, article and book review by Elwyn Berlekamp
  4. ^ John Kelly by William Poundstone website
  5. ^ Elwyn Berlekamp (Kelly's Research Assistant) Bio details
  6. ^ Poundstone, William: Fortune's Formula : The Untold Story of the Scientific Betting System That Beat the Casinos and Wall Street
  7. ^ William Pounstone website

The Star-Ledger is the leading newspaper in New Jersey and ranks number 16 in total circulation for U.S. daily newspapers. ... February 27 is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ...

General references

  • Claude E. Shannon and Warren Weaver: The Mathematical Theory of Communication. The University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Illinois, 1949. ISBN 0252725484
  • Claude E. Shannon: Programming a Computer for Playing Chess, Philosophical Magazine, Ser.7, Vol. 41, No. 314, March 1950. (Available online under External links below)
  • David Levy: Computer Gamesmanship: Elements of Intelligent Game Design, Simon & Schuster, 1983. ISBN 0-671-49532-1
  • Mindell, David A., "Automation's Finest Hour: Bell Labs and Automatic Control in World War II", IEEE Control Systems, December 1995, pp. 72-80.
  • David Mindell, Jérôme Segal, Slava Gerovitch, "From Communications Engineering to Communications Science: Cybernetics and Information Theory in the United States, France, and the Soviet Union" Science and Ideology: A Comparative History, Mark Walker (Ed.), Routledge, London, 2003, pp. 66-95.

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers or IEEE (pronounced as eye-triple-ee) is an international non-profit, professional organization incorporated in the State of New York, United States. ...

External links

General subfields and scientists in Cybernetics
K1 Polycontexturality, Second-order cybernetics
K2 Catastrophe theory, Connectionism, Control theory, Decision theory, Information theory, Semiotics, Synergetics, Sociosynergetics, Systems theory
K3 Biological cybernetics, Biomedical cybernetics, Biorobotics, Computational neuroscience, Homeostasis, Medical cybernetics, Neuro cybernetics, Sociocybernetics
Cyberneticians William Ross Ashby, Claude Bernard, Valentin Braitenberg, Ludwig von Bertalanffy, George S. Chandy, Joseph J. DiStefano III, Heinz von Foerster, Charles François, Jay Forrester, Buckminster Fuller, Ernst von Glasersfeld, Francis Heylighen, Erich von Holst, Stuart Kauffman, Sergei P. Kurdyumov, Niklas Luhmann, Warren McCulloch, Humberto Maturana, Horst Mittelstaedt, Talcott Parsons, Walter Pitts, Alfred Radcliffe-Brown, Robert Trappl, Valentin Turchin, Francisco Varela, Frederic Vester, John N. Warfield, Kevin Warwick, Norbert Wiener

  Results from FactBites:
 
Claude Elwood Shannon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1898 words)
Shannon was a distant relative of Thomas Edison.
Shannon developed information entropy as a measure for the uncertainty in a message while essentially inventing what became known as the dominant form of "information theory." The book, co-authored with Warren Weaver, The Mathematical Theory of Communication, reprints Shannon's 1948 article and Weaver's popularization of it, which is accessible to the non-specialist.
Shannon gave a rough example of an evaluation function in which the value of the fl position was subtracted from that of the white position.
CLAUDE SHANNON (1917 words)
Claude Elwood Shannon was born in Gaylord, Michigan, on April 30, 1916, to Claude Elwood and Mabel Wolf Shannon.
Shannon's grandfather was an inventor and a farmer.
Shannon is as the founding father of electronic communications age since he noticed and discovered the similarity between Boolean algebra and the telephone switching circuits.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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