FACTOID # 23: Wisconsin has more metal fabricators per capita than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Classical music
History of European art music
Early
Medieval (500 – 1400)
Renaissance (1400 – 1600)
Common practice
Baroque (1600 – 1760)
Classical (1730 – 1820)
Romantic (1815 – 1910)
Modern and contemporary
20th century classical (1900 – 2000)
Contemporary classical (1975 – present)

Classical music is a broad term that usually refers to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of Western ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly the 9th century to present times.[1] The central norms of this tradition became codified between 1550 and 1900, which is known as the common practice period. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Also see articles: History of painting, Western painting Clio, muse of heroic poetry and history, by Pierre Mignard, 17th century. ... The Classical period in Western music occurred from about 1750 to 1820, despite considerable overlap at both ends with preceding and following periods, as is true for all musical eras. ... Classical music in its widest sense refers to music composed in a classical tradition and intended as serious art, especially as distinguished from popular or folk music. ... Early music is commonly defined as European classical music from the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and the Baroque. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Renaissance music is European music written during the Renaissance, approximately 1400 to 1600. ... In music the common practice period is a long period in western musical history spanning from before the classical era proper to today, dated, on the outside, as 1600-1900. ... Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750. ... The Classical period in Western music occurred from about 1750 to 1820, despite considerable overlap at both ends with preceding and following periods, as is true for all musical eras. ... The expression romantic music and the homophone phrase Romantic music have two essentially different meanings. ... 20th century classical music, the classical music of the 20th century, was extremely diverse, beginning with the late Romantic style of Sergei Rachmaninoff, Impressionism of Claude Debussy and Maurice Ravel, and continuing through the Neoclassicism of middle-period Igor Stravinsky, and ranging to such distant sound-worlds as the complete... In the broadest sense, contemporary music is any music being written in the present day. ... Also see articles: History of painting, Western painting Clio, muse of heroic poetry and history, by Pierre Mignard, 17th century. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christian... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... Events February 7 - Julius III becomes Pope. ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... In music the common practice period is a long period in western musical history spanning from before the classical era proper to today, dated, on the outside, as 1600-1900. ...


European classical music is largely distinguished from many other non-European and popular musical forms by its system of staff notation, in use since about the 16th century.[2] Western staff notation is used by composers to prescribe to the performer the pitch, speed, meter, individual rhythms and exact execution of a piece of music. This leaves less room for practices, such as improvisation and ad libitum ornamentation, that are frequently heard in non-European art music (compare Indian classical music and Japanese traditional music), and popular music.[3][4][5] For the music genre, see Pop music. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Pitch is the perceived fundamental frequency of a sound. ... Particularly, this article is not about Hymn meters, as often found on hymn tunes Meter (UK spelling: metre) is the measurement of a musical line into measures of stressed and unstressed beats, indicated in Western music notation by a symbol called a time signature. ... For the popular Tamil film, see Rhythm (film). ... The origins of Indian classical music can be found from the oldest of scriptures, part of the Hindu tradition, the Vedas. ... Many styles of traditional music are included in the music of Japan. ...


The public taste for and appreciation of formal music of this type waned in the late 1900s in the United States and United Kingdom in particular.[6] Certainly this period has seen classical music falling well behind the immense commercial success of popular music, in the opinion of some, although the number of CDs sold is not indicative of the popularity of classical music.[7]


The term "classical music" did not appear until the early 19th century, in an attempt to "canonize" the period from Johann Sebastian Bach to Beethoven as a golden age.[8] The earliest reference to "classical music" recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary is from about 1836.[9][10] “Bach” redirects here. ... “Beethoven” redirects here. ... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of...

Contents

Characteristics

Given the extremely broad variety of forms, styles, genres, and historical periods generally perceived as being described by the term "classical music," it is difficult to list characteristics that can be attributed to all works of that type.


Vague descriptions are plentiful, such as describing classical music as anything that "lasts a long time," a statement made rather moot when one considers contemporary composers who are described as "classical;" or music that has certain instruments like violins, which are also found in bluegrass music, Broadway music, and other genres; or "relaxing" or "background" music for affluent people, descriptions which are probably only accurate when describing court music from the Baroque and Classical periods; indeed, many people do not find modern or avant-garde composers and works such as Threnody to the Victims of Hiroshima by Krzysztof Penderecki or Black Angels by George Crumb to be very relaxing or "snobby." Bluegrass music is a form of American roots music. ... For other uses of Broadway, see Broadway. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... Look up Classical in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ... The musical composition Threnody for the Victims of Hiroshima (Tren ofiarom Hiroszimy in Polish), for 52 string instruments, was composed in 1959 by Krzysztof Penderecki (b. ... Krzysztof Penderecki. ... The Black Angels , a subset of Onterio Varrio Sur (OVS) of South Ontario (OnterioSurX3) and are one of the biggest, strongest and most notorious Chicano gangs from the Inland Empire (San Bernardino County) in Southern California, and dates back to the start of the Mexican Mafia in the 1950s. ... George Crumb (born October 24, 1929) is an American composer of modern and avant garde music. ...


However, there are characteristics that classical music contains that generally few or no other genres of music contain.


Instrumentation

Classical and popular music are often distinguished by their choice of instruments. There are few if any genres in which so many different instruments are used simultaneously by performing groups such as symphony orchestras, which often contain as many as 5 or so different types of string instruments including members of the violin family and harp, 7 or more types of woodwind instruments, 4 or so types of brass instrument, and many diverse percussion instruments, sometimes as many as 10 different types. Also prevalent, especially in opera, is the human voice. Comparatively, most popular music genres involve fewer instruments. For instance a typical rock band will consist of a drummer, a guitarist or two, a singer or two, and an electric bassist. Of course, crossover influences, such as string sections in pop recordings, are very popular as well, but rarely are backing strings considered to be part of pop or rock bands. Orchestra at City Hall (Edmonton). ... A string instrument (also stringed instrument) is a musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings. ... For the Anne Rice novel, see Violin (novel). ... For other uses, see Harp (disambiguation). ... A woodwind instrument is a musical instrument in which sound is produced by blowing through a mouthpiece against an edge or by a vibrating reed, and in which the pitch is varied by opening or closing holes in the body of the instrument. ... Brazen redirects here. ... Percussion instruments are played by being struck, shaken, rubbed or scraped. ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... The word voice can be used to refer to: Sound: The human voice. ... This article is about the type of musical group. ...


The instruments used in common practice classical music were mostly invented before the mid-19th century (often much earlier), and codified in the 18th and 19th centuries. They consist of the instruments found in an orchestra, together with a few other solo instruments (such as the piano, harpsichord, and organ). For the song titled Orchestra, see The Servant (band). ... A short grand piano, with the lid up. ... Harpsichord in the Flemish style A harpsichord is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard. ... Organ in Katharinenkirche, Frankfurt am Main, Germany The organ is a keyboard instrument played using one or more manuals and a pedalboard. ...


Electric instruments such as the electric guitar appear occasionally in the classical music of the 20th and 21st centuries. Both classical and popular musicians have experimented in recent decades with electronic instruments such as the synthesizer, electric and digital techniques such as the use of sampled or computer-generated sounds, and the sounds of instruments from other cultures such as the gamelan. An electric guitar An electric guitar is a type of guitar that uses pickups to convert the vibration of its steel-cored strings into electrical current, which is then amplified. ... Synth redirects here. ... Javanese gamelan at the Indonesian Embassy in Canberra A gamelan is a kind of musical ensemble of Indonesia typically featuring a variety of instruments such as metallophones, xylophones, drums, and gongs; bamboo flutes, bowed and plucked strings, and vocalists may also be included. ...


None of the bass instruments existed until the Renaissance. In Medieval music, instruments are divided in two categories: loud instruments for use outdoors or in church, and quieter instruments for indoor use. Many instruments which are associated today with popular music used to have important roles in early classical music, such as bagpipes, vihuelas, hurdy-gurdies and some woodwind instruments. On the other hand, the acoustic guitar, for example, which used to be associated mainly with popular music, has gained prominence in classical music through the 19th and 20th centuries. A piper playing the Great Highland Bagpipe. ... Orpheus playing a vihuela. ... Drawing of a hurdy gurdy A hurdy gurdy (alternately, hurdy-gurdy) is a stringed musical instrument. ...


While equal temperament became gradually accepted as the dominant musical temperament during the 19th century, different historical temperaments are often used for music from earlier periods. For instance, music of the English Renaissance is often performed in mean tone temperament. An equal temperament is a musical temperament — that is, a system of tuning intended to approximate some form of just intonation — in which an interval, usually the octave, is divided into a series of equal steps (equal frequency ratios). ... In musical tuning, a temperament is a system of tuning which slightly compromises the pure intervals of just intonation in order to meet other requirements of the system. ... The English Renaissance was a cultural and artistic movement in England dating from the early 16th century to the early 17th century. ... Meantone temperament is a system of musical tuning. ...


Form and technical execution

Whereas the majority of popular styles, such as rock music, lend themselves to the song form, classical music can also take on the form of the concerto, symphony, opera, dance music, suite, etude, symphonic poem, and others. This article is about the genre. ... For other uses, see Song (disambiguation). ... The term Concerto (plural concertos or concerti) usually refers to a musical work in which one solo instrument is accompanied by an orchestra. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In music, a suite is an organized set of instrumental or orchestral pieces normally performed at a single sitting, as a separate musical performance, not accompanying an opera, ballet, or theater-piece. ... An etude (from the French word étude meaning study) is a short musical composition designed to provide practice in a particular technical skill in the performance of a solo instrument. ... A symphonic poem or tone poem is a piece of orchestral music, in one movement, in which some extra-musical programme provides a narrative or illustrative element. ...


Classical composers often aspire to imbue their music with a very complex relationship between its affective (emotional) content and the intellectual means by which it is achieved. Many of the most esteemed works of classical music make use of musical development, the process by which a musical germ, idea or motif is repeated in different contexts or in altered form. The classical genres of sonata form and fugue employ rigorous forms of musical development. Musical development is the transformation and restatement of initial material, often contrasted with musical variation, with which it may be difficult to distinguish as a general process. ... This article treats the history of sonata form through the Baroque, Classical, Romantic, and Modern eras. ...


Along with a certain desire for composers to attain high technical achievement in writing their music, performers of classical music are faced with similar goals of technical mastery, as demonstrated by the proportionately high amount of schooling and private study most successful classical musicians have had when compared to "popular" genre musicians, and the large number of secondary schools, including the conservatories, dedicated to the study of classical music. The only other genre in the Western world with comparable secondary education opportunities is jazz. A university school of music or college of music, or academy of music or conservatoire (British English) — also known as a conservatory (American English) or a conservatorium (Australian English) — is a higher education institution dedicated to teaching the art of music, including the playing of musical instruments, musical composition, musicianship...


Complexity

Classical works often display musical complexity through the composer's use of development, modulation (changing of keys), variation rather than exact repetition, musical phrases that are not of even length, counterpoint, polyphony and sophisticated harmony. Larger-scale classical works (such as symphonies, concertos, operas and oratorios) are built up from a hierarchy of smaller units: namely phrases, periods, sections, and movements. Musical analysis often seeks to distinguish and explain these structural levels. In music, modulation is most commonly the act or process of changing from one key (tonic, or tonal center) to another. ... Harmony is the use and study of pitch simultaneity, and therefore chords, actual or implied, in music. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The term Concerto (plural concertos or concerti) usually refers to a musical work in which one solo instrument is accompanied by an orchestra. ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... An oratorio is a large musical composition for orchestra, vocal soloists and chorus. ... Musical analysis can be defined as a process attempting to answer the question how does this music work?. The method employed to answer this question, and indeed exactly what is meant by the question, differs from analyst to analyst. ...


Society

Often perceived as opulent or signifying some aspect of upper-level society, classical music has generally never been as popular with working class society as genres such as hip-hop and rap are in urban areas, or country and folk music are in rural American areas. However, the traditional perception that only upper-class society has access to and appreciation for classical music, or even that classical music represents the upper-class society, may not be true, given that many if not most working classical musicians fall somewhere in the middle-class income range in the USA, and that classical concert-goers and CD-buyers are not necessarily upper class. Even in the Classical era, Mozart's opera buffa such as Cosi fan Tutte were popular with many common people. For other uses, see Hip hop (disambiguation). ... RAP may mean: the IATA airport code for Rapid City Regional Airport Rassemblement pour lalternative progressiste, a Québecois political party. ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... Folk can refer to a number of different things: It can be short for folk music, or, for folksong, or, for folklore; it may be a word for a specific people, tribe, or nation, especially one of the Germanic peoples; it might even be a calque on the related German... Opera buffa (a form of comic opera), also known as Commedia in musica or Commedia per musica, is a genre of opera. ... Così fan tutte is an opera by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. ...


History of classical music

Classical music can be divided into a number of periods spanning from Medieval times to the present. Its roots lie in early Christian music, and its influences date even further back to the Ancient Greeks. Classical music theory is in fact based on the development of individual tones and scales by ancient Greeks such as Aristoxenus and the mathematician Pythagoras. Pythagoras created a tuning system and helped to codify music. Ancient Greek instruments such as the aulos (a reed instrument) and the lyre (a stringed instrument similar to a small harp) eventually led to the modern day instruments of a classical orchestra.[11] The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... Aristoxenus (Greek: Ἀριστόξενος) of Tarentum (4th century BC) was a Greek peripatetic philosopher, and writer on music and rhythm. ... Pythagoras of Samos (Greek: ; between 580 and 572 BC–between 500 and 490 BC) was an Ionian (Greek) philosopher[1] and founder of the religious movement called Pythagoreanism. ... A nude youth plays the aulos at a banquet: Attic red-figure cup by the Euaion Painter, ca. ... Reed instruments are musical instruments; they are members of the woodwind family. ... “Lyres” redirects here. ...


The major time divisions of classical music are the early period (which includes Medieval (476 – 1400) and Renaissance (1400 – 1600)); the Common practice period (which includes Baroque (1600 – 1750), Classical (1730 – 1820), and Romantic periods (1815 – 1910)); and the modern and contemporary period which includes 20th century classical (1900 – 2000) and contemporary classical (1975 – current). This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Renaissance music is European music written during the Renaissance, approximately 1400 to 1600. ... Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750. ... The Classical period in Western music occurred from about 1750 to 1820, despite considerable overlap at both ends with preceding and following periods, as is true for all musical eras. ... The expression romantic music and the homophone phrase Romantic music have two essentially different meanings. ... 20th century classical music, the classical music of the 20th century, was extremely diverse, beginning with the late Romantic style of Sergei Rachmaninoff, Impressionism of Claude Debussy and Maurice Ravel, and continuing through the Neoclassicism of middle-period Igor Stravinsky, and ranging to such distant sound-worlds as the complete... In the broadest sense, contemporary music is any music being written in the present day. ...


The antecedent to the early period was the era of ancient music from before the fall of the Roman Empire (476 AD), very little of which survived. The music that survived from this period is mostly from ancient Greece. The Medieval period includes music from after the fall of Rome to about 1450. Monophonic chant, also called plainsong or Gregorian Chant, was the dominant form until about 1100. Polyphonic (multi-voiced) music developed from monophonic chant throughout the late Middle Ages and into the Renaissance. The Renaissance music was from 1450 – 1600. It was characterized by greater use of instrumentation, multiple interweaving melodic lines and by the use of the first bass instruments. Ancient music is music that developed in literate cultures, replacing prehistoric music. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... In music, the word texture is often used in a rather vague way in reference to the overall sound of a piece of music. ... Gregorian chant is the central tradition of Western plainchant, a form of monophonic, unaccompanied sacred song of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Polyphony is a musical texture consisting of two or more independent melodic voices, as opposed to music with just one voice (monophony) or music with one dominant melodic voice accompanied by chords (homophony). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Instrumentation is the study and practice of writing music for a musical instrument. ... Bass (IPA: [], rhyming with face), when used as an adjective, describes tones of low frequency or range. ...


The common practice era began with the Baroque period in about 1600 and extended until 1750. Baroque music is characterized by the use of complex tonal counterpoint and the use of a basso continuo, a continuous bass line. During this period keyboard music played on the harpsichord and pipe organ became increasingly popular. The classical period, from about 1750 – 1820, established many of the norms of composition, presentation and style, and the piano became the predominant keyboard instrument. For other uses, see Counterpoint (disambiguation). ... Figured bass, or thoroughbass, is a kind of integer musical notation used to indicate intervallic content (the intervals which make up a sonority), later chords, in relation to a bass note. ... Harpsichord in the Flemish style A harpsichord is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard. ... The baroque organ in Roskilde Cathedral, Denmark The pipe organ is a musical instrument that produces sound by forcing pressurized air (referred to as wind) through a series of pipes. ... A short grand piano, with the lid up. ...


The Romantic era, from 1820 – 1910, codified practice, expanded the role of music in cultural life and created institutions for the teaching, performance and preservation of music. It is characterized by increased attention to melody and rhythm, as well as expressive and emotional elements, paralleling romanticism in other art forms. Romantics redirects here. ...


The modern era began with Impressionist music from 1910-1920, which was dominated by French composers who went against the traditional German ways of art and music. Impressionist music by Erik Satie, Claude Debussy and Maurice Ravel used the pentatonic scale, long, flowing phrases and free rhythms. Modernism, 1905-1985, marked a period of many composers' rejection of certain values of the "common practice" period, such as traditional tonality, melody, instrumentation, and structure, and of the extension of theory and technique. 20th century classical music, a wide variety of post-Romantic styles composed through the year 1999, includes late Romantic, Modern and Postmodern styles of composition. The term contemporary music is sometimes used to describe music composed in the late 20th century through present day. The impressionist movement in music is a movement in European classical music that had its beginnings in the late nineteenth century and continued into the middle of the twentieth century. ... Selfportrait of Erik Satie. ... Claude Debussy, photo by Félix Nadar, 1908. ... Maurice Ravel. ... A pentatonic scale is a musical scale with five pitches per octave as compared to the major scale which is made up of seven distinct notes. ... Modernism in musicis characterized by a desire for or belief in progressand science, surrealism, anti-romanticism, politicaladvocacy, general intellectualism, and/or a breaking with tradition or common practice. ...


The prefix neo is used to describe a 20th century or contemporary composition written in the style of an earlier period, such as classical, romantic, or modern. Stravinsky's Pulcinella, for example, is a neoclassical composition. Igor Stravinsky. ... Pulcinella is a ballet by Igor Stravinsky based on an 18th-century play. ... For the subgenre of darkwave, see Neoclassical (Dark Wave). ...


The dates are generalizations, since the periods overlapped and the categories are somewhat arbitrary. The use of counterpoint and fugue, which is considered characteristic of the Baroque era, was continued by Mozart, who is generally classified as typical of the classical period, by Beethoven who is often described as a founder of the romantic period, and Brahms, who is classified as romantic. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Counterpoint (disambiguation). ... In music, a fugue (IPA: ) is a type of contrapuntal composition or technique of composition for a fixed number of parts, normally referred to as voices, irrespective of whether the work is vocal or instrumental. ... “Mozart” redirects here. ... Ludwig van Beethoven Ludwig van Beethoven (baptized December 17, 1770 – March 26, 1827) was a German composer of Classical music, the predominant musical figure in the transitional period between the Classical and Romantic eras. ... Johannes Brahms Johannes Brahms (May 7, 1833 – April 3, 1897) was a German composer of the Romantic period. ...


Timeline of composers


Significance of written notation

Classical music is considered primarily a written musical tradition, preserved in music notation, as opposed to being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings of particular performances. While there are differences between particular performances of a classical work, a piece of classical music is generally held to transcend any interpretation of it. The use of musical notation is an effective method for transmitting classical music, since the written music contains the technical instructions for performing the work. The written score, however, does not usually contain explicit instructions as to how to interpret the piece in terms of production or performance, apart from directions for dynamics, tempo and expression (to a certain extent); this is left to the discretion of the performers, who are guided by their personal experience and musical education, their knowledge of the work's idiom, and the accumulated body of historic performance practices. Music notation is a system of writing for music. ... Music exists both as what is directly heard by listeners, and by its remembered and written forms in music notation and oral tradition. ...


However, improvisation once played an important role in classical music. A remnant of this improvisatory tradition in classical music can be heard in the cadenza, a passage found mostly in concertos and solo works, designed to allow skilled performers to exhibit their virtuoso skills on the instrument. Traditionally this was improvised by the performer; however more often than not, it is written for (or occasionally by) the performer beforehand. Musical improvisation is the spontaneous creative process of making music while it is being performed. ... In music, a cadenza (Italian for cadence) is, generically, an improvised or written-out ornamental passage played or sung by a soloist or soloists, usually in a free rhythmic style, and often allowing for virtuosic display. ...


Its written transmission, along with the veneration bestowed on certain classical works, has led to the expectation that performers will play a work in a way that realizes in detail the original intentions of the composer. During the 19th century the details that composers put in their scores generally increased. Yet the opposite trend — admiration of performers for new "interpretations" of the composer's work — can be seen, and it is not unknown for a composer to praise a performer for achieving a better realization of the composer's original intent than the composer was able to imagine. Thus, classical music performers often achieve very high reputations for their musicianship, even if they do not compose themselves. Generally however, it is the composers who are remembered more than the performers.


Another consequence of the primacy of the composer's written score is that improvisation plays a relatively minor role in classical music, in sharp contrast to traditions like jazz, where improvisation is central. Improvisation in classical music performance was far more common during the Baroque era than in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and recently the performance of such music by modern classical musicians has been enriched by a revival of the old improvisational practices. During the classical period, Mozart and Beethoven sometimes improvised the cadenzas to their piano concertos (and thereby encouraged others to do so), but they also provided written cadenzas for use by other soloists. For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... A piano concerto is a concerto for solo piano and orchestra. ...


Influence

One criterion used to distinguish works of the classical musical canon is that of cultural durability. However, this is not a distinguishing mark of all classical music: while works by J. S. Bach continue to be widely performed and highly regarded, music by many of Bach's contemporaries is deemed mediocre and is rarely performed, even though it is squarely in the "classical" realm. To some extent, the notion of such durability is a self-fulfilling prophecy (and therefore a fallacy), simply because classical music is studied and preserved at much higher levels than other music. A self-fulfilling prophecy is a prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true. ...


Popular music

Classical music has often incorporated elements or even taken material from popular music. Examples include occasional music such as Brahms' use of student drinking songs in his Academic Festival Overture, genres exemplified by Kurt Weill's The Threepenny Opera, and the influence of jazz on early- and mid-twentieth century composers including Maurice Ravel, as exemplified by the movement entitled "Blues" in his sonata for violin and piano.[12] Certain postmodern, minimalist and postminimalist classical composers acknowledge a debt to popular music.[13] The Academic Festival Overture, Op. ... Kurt Julian Weill (March 2, 1900 – April 3, 1950), born in Dessau, Germany and died in New York City, was a German and in his later years, a German-American composer active from the 1920s until his death. ... Die Dreigroschenoper, original German poster from Berlin, 1928. ... Maurice Ravel. ... Postmodern music is both a musical style and a musical condition. ... This article is about a musical style. ... Postminimalism is a term utilized in various artistic fields for work which is influenced by, or attempts to develop, the aesthetic of minimalism. ...


There are, likewise, numerous examples of influence flowing in the opposite direction, including popular songs based on classical music, the use to which Pachelbel's Canon has been put since the 1970s,[14] and the musical crossover phenomenon, where classical musicians have achieved success in the popular music arena (one notable example is the "Hooked on Classics" series of recordings made by the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra in the early 1980s). Pachelbels Canon also known as Canon in D major, or more formally, Canon and Gigue in D major for three Violins and Basso Continuo (Kanon und Gigue in D-Dur für drei Violinen und Basso Continuo) is the most famous piece of music by Johann Pachelbel. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Introduced in 1981, Hooked on Classics was one of the earliest successful remixes. ... The Royal Philharmonic Orchestra (RPO) is an English orchestra based in London. ...


Folk music

Further information: European Classical Composers Noted for Use of Folk Music

Composers of classical music have often made use of folk music (music created by musicians who are commonly not classically trained, often from a purely oral tradition). Some composers, like Dvořák and Smetana, have used folk themes to impart a nationalist flavor to their work, while others (like Bartók) have used specific themes, lifted whole from their folk-music origins. The relationship between folk music and European classical music is complex, several composers have been noted for their use of expressly folk melodies or themes, as well as research into enthno-musicology. ... Folk song redirects here. ... Antonín Dvořák Antonín Leopold Dvořák ( , often anglicized DVOR-zhak; September 8, 1841 – May 1, 1904) was a Czech composer of romantic music, who employed the idioms and melodies of the folk music of his native Bohemia and Moravia in symphonic, oratorial, chamber and operatic works. ... Portrait of BedÅ™ich Smetana BedÅ™ich Smetana (pronounced ; 2 March 1824 - 12 May 1884) was a Czech composer. ... Bartok redirects here. ...


Commercialism

Certain staples of classical music are often used commercially (that is, either in advertising or in the soundtracks of movies made for entertainment). In television commercials, several loud, bombastically rhythmic orchestral passages have become clichés, particularly the opening of Richard Strauss' Also sprach Zarathustra (of 2001 fame) and the opening section "O Fortuna" of Carl Orff's Carmina Burana; other examples in the same vein are the Dies Irae from the Verdi Requiem, Edvard Grieg's In the Hall of the Mountain King from Peer Gynt, the opening bars of Beethoven's Symphony No. 5, Wagner's Ride of the Valkyries from Die Walküre, and excerpts of Aaron Copland's "Rodeo". This article is about the German composer of tone-poems and operas. ... Also sprach Zarathustra, op. ... Carl Orff Carl Orff (July 10, 1895) – March 29, 1982) was a 20th-century German composer, most famous for Carmina Burana (1937). ... This article is about Carl Orffs musical composition based on the medieval collection of poems. ... For other uses, see Dies Irae (disambiguation). ... “Verdi” redirects here. ... Edvard Grieg Edvard Hagerup Grieg (15 June 1843 – 4 September 1907) was a Norwegian composer and pianist who composed in the romantic period. ... In the Hall of the Mountain King (Norwegian: ) is a piece of orchestral music, Opus 23, composed by Edvard Grieg for Henrik Ibsens play Peer Gynt, which premiered in Oslo on February 24, 1876. ... Peer Gynt (IPA: ) is a play by the Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen. ... Ludwig van Beethoven Ludwig van Beethoven (baptized December 17, 1770 – March 26, 1827) was a German composer of Classical music, the predominant musical figure in the transitional period between the Classical and Romantic eras. ... The coversheet to Beethovens 5th Symphony. ... Die Walküre (The Valkyrie) is the second of the four operas that comprise Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of the Nibelung), by Richard Wagner. ... Aaron Copland Aaron Copland (November 14, 1900 – December 2, 1990) was an American composer of concert and film music, as well as an accomplished pianist. ...


Similarly, movies and television often revert to standard, clichéd snatches of classical music to convey refinement or opulence: some of the most-often heard pieces in this category include Mozart's Eine kleine Nachtmusik and Vivaldi's Four Seasons. “Mozart” redirects here. ... The Serenade for strings in G major, better known as Eine kleine Nachtmusik (A little night music or less literally, A little serenade), is one of the most popular compositions by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. ... Vivaldi redirects here. ... The Four Seasons (Le quattro stagioni in original Italian) is a set of four violin concertos by Antonio Vivaldi. ...


Education

Throughout history, parents from middle- and especially upper-class households have often made sure that their children receive classical music training from a young age. Some parents pursue music lessons for their children for social reasons or in an effort to instill a useful sense of self-discipline. Some consider that a degree of knowledge of important works of classical music is part of a good general education.


During the 1990s, several research papers and popular books emergence touting the so-called Mozart effect: a temporary, small elevation of scores on certain tests as a result of listening to Mozart. The popularized version of the controversial theory was expressed succinctly by a New York Times music columnist: "researchers have determined that listening to Mozart actually makes you smarter." Promoters marketed CDs claimed to induce the effect. Florida passed a law requiring toddlers in state-run schools to listen to classical music every day, and in 1998 the governor of Georgia budgeted $105,000 per year to provide every child born in Georgia with a tape or CD of classical music. One of the original researchers commented "I don't think it can hurt. I'm all for exposing children to wonderful cultural experiences. But I do think the money could be better spent on music education programs." The Mozart effect refers to disputed scientific studies that test a theory suggesting that classical music increases brain activity more positively than other kinds of music,[1] and that listening to certain kinds of complex music may induce a short-lived (fifteen minute) improvement in the performance of certain kinds... Music education is a field of study associated with the teaching and learning of music. ...


See also

Classical music Portal
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Portal. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Classical music in its widest sense refers to music composed in a classical tradition and intended as serious art, especially as distinguished from popular or folk music. ... This is an alphabetical list of classical music composers sorted by eras. ... Neo-classical metal is a subgenre of the heavy metal music heavily influenced by classical music in its style of playing and composing[1]. It implies a very technical performance and the use of elements borrowed from classical music and/or by famous classical music composers. ... A film score is the background music in a film, generally specially written for the film and often used to heighten emotions provoked by the imagery on the screen or by the dialogue. ... Electronic music has existed, in various forms, for more than a century. ... The origins of Indian classical music can be found from the oldest of scriptures, part of the Hindu tradition, the Vedas. ... Moosiqi Asil or Persian music is the traditional and indigenous music of Persia and Persian-speaking countries: musiqi, the science and art of music, and moosiqi, the sound and performance of music (Sakata 1983). ... // The Kodály Method is an approach to music education which was developed in Hungary during the mid-twentieth century. ... The Mozart effect refers to disputed scientific studies that test a theory suggesting that classical music increases brain activity more positively than other kinds of music,[1] and that listening to certain kinds of complex music may induce a short-lived (fifteen minute) improvement in the performance of certain kinds... The Orff Schulwerk or Orffschulwerk, also called as Orff-method is an approach for music education for children. ... The Suzuki method, (Japanese: スズキ・メソード) (sometimes called Talent Education, the mother-tongue method, or the Suzuki movement) is a way of teaching, or educational philosophy which strives to create high ability and beautiful character in its students through a nurturing environment. ... American classical music refers to music written in the United States but in the European classical music tradition. ... Subcategories There are 3 subcategories to this category. ... The term classical music in this article refers to the western or European classical music tradition. ... Of all the European countries, France has one of the longest and best-documented traditions of classical music. ... // Art Music Art music is a somewhat broader term than classical music and may be defined for the purposes of this article as establishment music (either religious or secular) that is composed for pubic or private performance. ... This article, Classical music of the United Kingdom, includes a history of the form and discussion of its most notable composers and musicians. ... Persian Symphonic Music generally refers to the pieces by the Persian (Iranian) composers which have been composed for Western ensembles and orchestras, mostly based on the Persian folk and classical melodies. ... Ottoman classical music (Türk Sanat Müziği) is a kind of music that developed parallel with the Ottoman Empire. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... For the academic study of history of music, see Music history. ... Ancient music is music that developed in literate cultures, replacing prehistoric music. ... The category Middle Eastern music refers to music from the Middle East and its different regions such as North Africa, the Levant and the Persian Gulf States. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Renaissance music is European music written during the Renaissance, approximately 1400 to 1600. ... Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750. ... The Classical period in Western music occurred from about 1750 to 1820, despite considerable overlap at both ends with preceding and following periods, as is true for all musical eras. ... The expression romantic music and the homophone phrase Romantic music have two essentially different meanings. ... A revolution occurred in 20th century music listening as the radio gained popularity worldwide, and new media and technologies were developed to record, capture, reproduce and distribute music. ... In the broadest sense, contemporary music is any music being written in the present day. ... World music is, most generally, all the music in the world. ... Image File history File links GClef. ... Musical composition is a phrase used in a number of contexts, the most commonly used being a piece of music. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Musical improvisation is the spontaneous creative process of making music while it is being performed. ... Music theory is a field of study that investigates the nature or mechanics of music. ... A History of Western Music Seventh Edition by J. Peter Burkholder, Donald J. Grout, and Claude V. Palisca is one of several popular books used to teach Music History in North America. ... For album by Prince, see Musicology (album). ... Ethnomusicology, formerly comparative musicology, is cultural musicology or the study of music in its cultural context. ... Music cognition is an interdisciplinary field involving such disparate areas as cognitive science, music theory, psychology, musicology, neuroscience, computer science, philosophy, psychoacoustics, etc. ... Music therapy is the clinical and evidence-based use of music interventions to accomplish individualized goals within a therapeutic relationship by a qualified professional who has completed an approved music therapy program. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An album or record album is a collection of related audio or music tracks distributed to the public. ... For other uses, see Song (disambiguation). ... In music, a suite is an organized set of instrumental or orchestral pieces normally performed at a single sitting, as a separate musical performance, not accompanying an opera, ballet, or theater-piece. ... Look up lyrics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In the music industry, a record label is a brand and a trademark associated with the marketing of music recordings and music videos. ... In the music industry, a record producer (or music producer) has many roles, among them controlling the recording sessions, coaching and guiding the musicians, organizing and scheduling production budget and resources, and supervising the recording, mixing and mastering processes. ... “Instrumentalist” redirects here. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... The term musical form refers to two related concepts: the type of composition (for example, a musical work can have the form of a symphony, a concerto, or other generic type -- see Multi-movement forms below) the structure of a particular piece (for example, a piece can be written in... A compilation album is an album (music or spoken-word) featuring tracks from one or multiple recording artists, often culled from a variety of sources (such as studio albums, live albums, singles, demos and outtakes. ... For other uses, see Dance (disambiguation). ... Music is a human expression in the medium of time using the structures of sounds or tones and silence. ... This page aims to list articles related to music. ... This is a list of musical terms that are likely to be encountered in printed scores. ... A list of musical forms. ... The following is a list of musical instruments, categorized by section. ... The definition of music is a contested evaluation of what constitutes music and varies through history, geography, and within societies. ... Music theory is a field of study that investigates the nature or mechanics of music. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... There is a long history of the connection between music and politics, particularly political expression in music. ... Music theorists often use mathematics to understand musical structure and communicate new ways of hearing music. ... The music industry is the industry that creates, performs, promotes, and preserves music. ...

Notes

  1. ^ "Classical", The Oxford Concise Dictionary of Music, ed. Michael Kennedy, (Oxford, 2007), Oxford Reference Online, accessed 23 July, 2007
  2. ^ Chew, Geffrey & Rastall, Richard. "Notation, §III, 1(vi): Plainchant: Pitch-specific notations, 13th–16th centuries", Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (accessed July 23, 2007), grovemusic.com (subscription access).
  3. ^ Malm, W.P./Hughes, David W.. "Japan, §III, 1: Notation systems: Introduction", Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (accessed July 23, 2007), grovemusic.com (subscription access).
  4. ^ IAN D. BENT, DAVID W. HUGHES, ROBERT C. PROVINE, RICHARD RASTALL, ANNE KILMER. "Notation, §I: General", Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (accessed July 23, 2007), grovemusic.com (subscription access).
  5. ^ Middleton, Richard. "Popular music, §I, 4: Europe & North America: Genre, form, style", Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (accessed July 23, 2007), grovemusic.com (subscription access).
  6. ^ Julian Lloyd Webber's speech to the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland stated that "Declining audiences, government cuts, disastrous CD sales, sponsors pulling out of the arts, fewer children learning musical instruments, and a total lack of interest from the general media, unless semi-naked bimbo violinists ... are involved. ... It is in stark contrast to music-making in the Far East, where there are still huge numbers of children learning instruments, healthy classical CD sales, media that take a real interest in classical music and, above all, concert halls that are packed with young people as a direct result of that media interest."
  7. ^ The economic importance of music in the European Union includes comparison of the number of concerts, venues and musicians employed in classical and popular music
  8. ^ Rushton, Julian, Classical Music, (London, 1994), 10
  9. ^ The Oxford English Dictionary (2007). classical, a.. The OED Online. Retrieved on 5-10-2007.
  10. ^ "Classical", The Oxford Concise Dictionary of Music, ed. Michael Kennedy, (Oxford, 2007), Oxford Reference Online, accessed 23 July, 2007
  11. ^ Template:A History of Western Music
  12. ^ Kelly, Barbara. L. "Ravel, Maurice, §3: 1918–37", Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (accessed July 23, 2007), grovemusic.com (subscription access).
  13. ^ See, for example, Siôn, Pwyll Ap. "Nyman, Michael", Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (accessed July 23, 2007), grovemusic.com (subscription access).
  14. ^ 'Pachelbel Rant', performed by Comedian Rob Paravonian, http://youtube.com/watch?v=JdxkVQy7QLM

Second Edition, shelved The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is an encyclopedic dictionary of music and musicians and is regarded as the most authoritative reference source on the subject in the English language. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Second Edition, shelved The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is an encyclopedic dictionary of music and musicians and is regarded as the most authoritative reference source on the subject in the English language. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Second Edition, shelved The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is an encyclopedic dictionary of music and musicians and is regarded as the most authoritative reference source on the subject in the English language. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Second Edition, shelved The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is an encyclopedic dictionary of music and musicians and is regarded as the most authoritative reference source on the subject in the English language. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Second Edition, shelved The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is an encyclopedic dictionary of music and musicians and is regarded as the most authoritative reference source on the subject in the English language. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Second Edition, shelved The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is an encyclopedic dictionary of music and musicians and is regarded as the most authoritative reference source on the subject in the English language. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

References

  • Norman Lebrecht, When the Music Stops: Managers, Maestros and the Corporate Murder of Classical Music, Simon & Schuster 1996

External links

  • History of Classical Music, The complete history with many MP3 samples of classical works
  • Classic Music UK – UK Classical Music website containg articles and features about Classical Music
  • Classic Cat – download database for classical music
  • Classical.net – review, database and mailing-list resource
  • Classical Composers Database – Classical music composers of all periods and countries, with biographies and work lists
  • Classical Archives – music, artists, composers, MIDI files
  • Classical Music mp3s – pianist Michael Sayers
  • Musikethos.org – project collecting free, legal MP3s of performances (licensed under CC) and promoting young classical musicians
  • MusicWeb International – CD reviews, composer articles, timelines, concert and book reviews
  • Music and Vision magazine – daily magazine about European classical music, illustrated with photos, sound and video
  • Classical music in movies, listed by composer
  • Naxos Glossary of Music
  • Classical Radio Stations - List of radio stations playing classical music, mostly in the U.S.
  • Classical Radio Stations - List of radio stations playing classical music, mostly in Europe
  • ClassicalMusicBroadcast.com - Internet-only 24 hour classical station with live hosts
  • Radio Symphony - Classical radio station
  • - European magazine's selection of best classical music recordings from different time periods
  • - the UK magazine for the music professional
  • - 104.9 XLNC1 Radio Classical music
  • - The J.S.Bach homepage
  • - Schmieder's standard catalogue of J.S.Bachs works
  • - Beethoven center
  • - The site of composer John Cage
  • - Franz Joseph Haydn page
  • - The dialectical structure of W.A.Mozarts Zauberflöte: a phenomenological analysis

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Musical Instrument Digital Interface, or MIDI, is a system designed to transmit information between electronic musical instruments. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Classical Music - Classical Net - Classical Music (113 words)
Classical Net features more than 6600 files including more than 4800 CD/SACD/DVD/Book reviews and over 5500 links to other classical music web sites.
To engage in interesting discussions with a group of enthusiasts on topics related to all aspects of classical music, subscribe to the:
Use of text, images, or any other copyrightable material contained in these pages, without the written permission of the copyright holder, except as specified in the Copyright Notice, is strictly prohibited.
Classical Music | Classical Music | Classical Music Composers (264 words)
When the light wind veers, and the white fog...
Contains thousands of classical music files in MIDI format as well as live recordings.
Tens of thousands of classical music files in MIDI, and live recordings in MP3 and WMA formats.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m