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Encyclopedia > Classical guitar
Classical Guitar
Classification

String instrument (plucked) Toni Michelle Braxton (born October 7, 1968 in Severn, Maryland) is an American R&B singer, songwriter, and actress who was popular during the 1990s. ... Spanish Guitar is the third single of Toni Braxtons The Heat released in 2000. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1051x1600, 384 KB) Classical Guitar, front and side view This image shows two views of a classical guitar. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... A string instrument (or stringed instrument) is a musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings. ... Guitar and lute This ilustration in a French Psalter from the 9th century (c. ...

Playing range
Related instruments
Musicians
• List of classical guitarists

A classical guitar, sometimes also called a Spanish guitar (referring to its origin, not repertoire), is a musical instrument from the family of musical instruments called chordophones. This instrument is commonly used by classical guitarists. The playing range of a musical instrument is the region of pitch in which it can play, i. ... Image File history File links Range_guitar. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... Guitar and lute This ilustration in a French Psalter from the 9th century (c. ... Playing a steel-string guitar without a pick (fingerpicking). ... An electric guitar An electric guitar is a type of guitar that uses pickups to convert the vibration of its steel-cored strings into electrical current, which is then amplified. ... A flamenco guitar is a type of guitar, built for the purpose of playing Flamenco music. ... A sunburst-colored Precision Bass The electric bass guitar (or electric bass; pronounced , as in base) is a bass stringed instrument played with the fingers (either by plucking, slapping, popping, or tapping) or using a pick. ... A medieval era lute. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... A chordophone is any musical instrument which produces sound primarily by way of a vibrating string or strings stretched between two points. ... A Classical guitarists generally perform on classical guitars with classical guitar technique. ...

The evolution of the classical guitar and its repertoire spans more than four centuries. It has a history that was shaped by contributions from earlier instruments, such as the Renaissance guitar, vihuela and the baroque guitar. The popularity of the classical guitar has been sustained over the years by many great players, arrangers, and composers. A very short list might include Gaspar Sanz (1640-1710), Fernando Sor (1778-1839), Mauro Giuliani (1781-1829), Francisco Tárrega (1852-1909), Agustín Barrios Mangoré (1888-1944), Andrés Segovia (1893-1987), Alirio Diaz (1923), Presti-Lagoya Duo (active from 1955-1967: Ida Presti, Alexandre Lagoya), Julian Bream (1933), and John Williams (1941). Orpheus playing a vihuela. ... The guitar player (c. ... Gaspar Sanz (April 4, 1640 - 1710) was a Spanish composer and priest born in Calanda in the region of Aragon. ... Fernando Sor Fernando Sor (baptized Joseph Fernando Macari Sors or JosÃ© Fernando Macarurio Sors February 14, 1778 â€“ July 10, 1839) was a Spanish guitarist and composer, born in Barcelona. ... Mauro Giuliani Mauro Giuliani (July 27, 1781 â€“ May 8, 1829) was an Italian guitarist and composer, and is reckoned by many to be one of the leading guitar virtuosos of the 19th century. ... Francisco TÃ¡rrega (Francisco de AsÃ­s TÃ¡rrega y Eixea) (November 21, 1852 â€” December 15, 1909) was a Spanish composer, and one of the most influential guitarists the world has ever known. ... AgustÃ­n Barrios MangorÃ© (b. ... AndrÃ©s Torres Segovia, marquÃ©s de SalobreÃ±a (21 February 1893 â€“ 3 June 1987) was a Spanish classical guitarist, and later nobleman, born in Linares, Spain who is considered to be the father of the modern classical guitar movement by most modern music scholars. ... Alirio Diaz in Concert Alirio Diaz is a classical guitarist. ... Ida Presti was a French classical guitarist born on May 31, 1924 in Suresnes, France. ... Alexandre Lagoya - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Madame Villa-Lobos and Julien Bream at the presentation of the Villa-Lobos Gold Medal, officially awarded to Julian Bream in 1976. ... John Christopher Williams (born 24 April 1941) is one of the worlds best-known classical guitarists. ...

By using their fingers, or more specifically fingernails and/or fingertips, to pluck instead of a plectrum or bow, classical guitarists can play polyphonic music with a sound unique to the family of guitar instruments. It is common to encounter classical guitar music that sustains two, three, or four musical lines or voices. The use of fingernails combined with some flesh of fingertips is generally the most accepted convention. However there are renowned players who do not utilise fingernails and prefer flesh over nail, examples include Fernando Sor and in his later years, Francisco Tárrega. On a classical guitar, there is more space between the strings, and a slightly wider fingerboard than is typical with other guitars. This satisfies technical demands made upon the left hand for the execution of polyphonic music and the requirement that the right hand fingers pluck the strings. Various guitar picks A plectrum is a small flat tool used to pluck or strum a stringed instrument. ... A cello bow In music, a bow is a device pulled across the strings of a string instrument in order to make them vibrate and emit sound. ... In music, the word texture is often used in a rather vague way in reference to the overall sound of a piece of music. ... This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ... Fernando Sor Fernando Sor (baptized Joseph Fernando Macari Sors or JosÃ© Fernando Macarurio Sors February 14, 1778 â€“ July 10, 1839) was a Spanish guitarist and composer, born in Barcelona. ... Francisco TÃ¡rrega (Francisco de AsÃ­s TÃ¡rrega y Eixea) (November 21, 1852 â€” December 15, 1909) was a Spanish composer, and one of the most influential guitarists the world has ever known. ... The strings of a harp A string is the vibrating element which is the source of vibration in string instruments, such as the guitar, harp, piano, and members of the violin family. ...

Classical guitarists usually hold the instrument by raising the left leg (usually resting it on a footstool), placing the guitar on that leg and holding the guitar in place with the right arm. Alternatively, the left foot might be placed on the floor and a small support placed between the left leg and the guitar. These types of supports (available in various forms) are becoming popular and used by some professionals such as Carlo Marchione and Álvaro Pierri. Either of these positions support the guitar in a way that gives the player greater mobility and access to the strings and the fingerboard. The right hand is a classical guitarist's voice similar to that of a string player's bow. By using a combination of flesh and fingernail to pluck the strings, a classical guitarist is able to generate a wide variety of sounds. Carlo Marchione Carlo Marchione is an Italian classical guitarist born in Rome, Italy in 1964. ... Ãlvaro Pierri (born in Montevideo (Uruguay), in 1952) is a classical guitarist. ... A cello bow In music, a bow is a device pulled across the strings of a string instrument in order to make them vibrate and emit sound. ...

The classical guitar's most characteristic physical feature is the use of nylon strings (which have, largely, supplanted the use of gut strings), although since the mid 1990s carbon fibre or composite treble strings have gained popularity for their nylon-like sound and significantly better reliability. Nylon strings give the classical guitar a unique, varied and rich color palette. The size and shape of the classical guitar have been nearly standard for over 100 years. The finest guitars are built with a solid Western red cedar or spruce top, solid rosewood back and sides, traditionally a Spanish cedar or more recently a mahogany neck and an ebony fingerboard. The strings of a harp A string is the vibrating element which is the source of vibration in string instruments, such as the guitar, harp, piano, and members of the violin family. ... Catgut is the name applied to cord of great toughness and tenacity prepared from the intestines of sheep/goat, or occasionally from those of the hog, horse, mule, pig, and donkey. ... In music, timbre, or sometimes timber, (from Fr. ... Binomial name Thuja plicata Donn ex D.Don Thuja plicata (Western Redcedar) is a species of thuja, an evergreen coniferous tree in the cypress family Cupressaceae, native to the northwestern United States and southwestern Canada, from southern Alaska and British Columbia south to northwest California and inland to western Montana. ... The sounding board is the largest part of a string musical instruments body. ... Species See text. ... Fretted guitar fingerboard Fretless violin fingerboard The fingerboard, (also known as a fretboard on fretted instruments), is a part of most stringed instruments. ...

## Performance

The right and left hand descriptions in this section are mainly typical for right-handed guitarists.

### Plucking of the string

Right-handed players usually use the fingers of the right hand to pluck the strings (with the thumb plucking from the top of a string downward, and the other fingers plucking from the bottom of string upward). The little finger is seldom used, since its small size would cause an unnatural right hand position, if it were often used. (Some guitarists such as Štěpán Rak compensate this with an extremely long fingernail on the little finger.) Å tÄ›pÃ¡n Rak (born 1945) is a Czech classical guitarist and composer. ...

### Changing a string's active vibrating length (frets)

The fingers of the other hand are usually used to change the vibrating length of a string: the finger pushes the string towards a fret to achieve this. The shorter the string, the higher its pitch. Pitch is the perceived fundamental frequency of a sound. ...

### Direct contact with strings

As with other plucked instruments (such as the lute), the musician directly touches the strings (usually plucking) to produce the sound. This has important consequences: Different tone/timbre (of a single note) can be produced by plucking the string in different manners and in different positions. In music, timbre, or sometimes timber, (from Fr. ...

### Tone production/variation and freedom of performance

Guitarists have a lot of freedom within the mechanics of playing the instrument. Often these decisions influence the tone/timbre - factors include: In music, timbre, or sometimes timber, (from Fr. ...

Right Hand:

• At what position along the string the finger plucks the string (This is actively changed by guitarists since it is an effective way of changing the sound from "soft" plucking the string near its middle, to "hard" plucking the string near its end)
• Use of nail or not: today almost all guitarists use their fingernails (which have to be smoothly and roundly filed) to pluck the string since it produces a sharper clearer sound, and also a better controlled loud sound is possible. When using the nail (of index, middle, ring or little finger) to pluck the string, the hand is usually held so that the left side of the nail makes the first contact with the string: this is not achieved by "rolling" the hand to the left, but rather by holding the hand in such a way, that the outstretched fingers are angled slighly the left relative to the strings (as opposed to perpendicular). Before plucking, usually both the left side of the nail and the finger touch the string; this enables the finger (and hand) to rest on the string in a balanced way. When the plucking motion is made, only the nail-contact remains: The curvature of the nail (starting from its left side) allows the string to be pulled back while the string slides towards the tip of the nail where it is released. This occurs so quickly that the gliding of the string over the fingernail is not perceived (but: a smoothly filed nail is necessary).
The "use of nail or not" is usually a fixed consistent decision of the player and not varied; the thumb is an exception and might actively be varied between using nail [sharper clearer sound] and using flesh.
• Which finger to use (the thumb may be able to produce a different tone than the other fingers)
• At what angle the wrist and fingers are held with respect to the strings (angle of attack), for plucking. This is varied by guitarists and effects the produced tone. Modern guitarists (often use a fair amount of nail and thus) seldom hold their hand (such that the outstretched fingers are) at right angles to the strings (this produces excessive clicking noises), but use a more natural angled hand position (with variations), which produces a better tone. Often a trade off is involved: Some rich sounds that are achieved by having the finger rather parallel (if it were outstretched) to the string, do not easily allow fast plucking.
• Rest-stroke (apoyando; having the finger that plucks a string come to a rest on the next string - traditionally used in single melody lines) versus free-stroke (tirando; plucking the string without coming to a rest on the next string): Usually influenced by the nails. Some guitarists with rather long nails avoid the rest-stroke altogether; others avoid it when they feel they have more control over the free-stroke. When 2 neighboring strings are to be plucked simultaneously, the rest-stroke cannot be used.

Left Hand: nail files A nail file is a tool used to gently grind down and shape the edges of nails. ... The Index finger The index finger, pointer finger or forefinger is the second digit of a human hand, located between the thumb and the middle finger. ... This article is about the vulgar gesture. ... The ring finger is the fourth digit of the human hand, and the second most ulnar finger, located between the middle finger and the little finger. ... The little finger, often called the pinky in American English and pinkie in Scottish English (from the Dutch word pink, meaning little finger), is the most ulnar and usually smallest finger of the human hand, opposite the thumb, next to the ring finger. ... nail files A nail file is a tool used to gently grind down and shape the edges of nails. ... Apoyando is a method of plucking used in both Classical guitar and Flamenco guitar. ... Tirando is a method of plucking used in both Classical guitar and Flamenco guitar. ...

• Use of hammer-on and pull-off (Legato, slurs): This is where only the left hand is used in producing the sound - during hammer-on, the finger hits the already vibrating string down towards a fret, thus shortening the vibrating string and increasing the pitch. During pull-off, a finger that holds the string lengthened to a particular fret, is pulled off, resulting in a lengthening of the string either to its open length or to another finger-fret position, thus decreasing the pitch. Since the string is usually already vibrating prior to applying the hammer-on or pull-off, the change of pitch is very smooth: it is hence used for articulation purposes and fast note progressions (since only a single hand is involved). The technique is often used in trills, where e.g. the first finger remains pivoted at a lower fret and the 2nd finger might hammer-on and pull-off repeatedly resulting in the trill.
• Vibrato: Whilst a finger of the left-hand is pressing the string towards a fret, it can rapidly move to string slightly to and fro (along the string), resulting in a slight but fast-changing increase and decrease in the string's tension and thus a proportional change in pitch - giving the impression of a fuller tone.

Both Hands/Other: Hammer-on is a stringed instrument playing technique performed (especially on guitar) by sharply bringing a fretting-hand finger down on the fingerboard behind a fret, causing a note to sound. ... A pull-off is a stringed-instrument playing technique performed (usually on an electric guitar) by pulling a fretting finger off the fingerboard. ... In musical notation legato indicates that musical notes are played smoothly. ... A slur is a symbol in Western musical notation indicating that the notes it embraces are to be played without separation. ... The trill is a musical ornament consisting of a rapid alternation between two adjacent notes of a scale (compare mordent and tremolo). ... Vibrato is a musical effect where the pitch or frequency of a note or sound is quickly and repeatedly raised and lowered over a small distance for the duration of that note or sound. ...

• One and the same note (in terms of pitch), can be played on many different strings (depending on the appropriate fret being used). Since the different strings have distinctive tones, the guitarist may choose to play on certain strings for particular tonal effects: The difference is greatest between the 3rd string (G - pure nylon) and the 4th string (D - nylon wound with thin metal). However at the same time this is also a great difficulty when a melody line (which should have a uniform sound) is played across the strings; since the guitarist has to adjust so as to emphasize tonal similarity, rather than difference. Another example for the use of strings is tone production is the cross-string trill, where the different pitches of the trill are plucked on neighboring strings: this can be used to create a rather dissonant trill, since both strings may be allowed to sound simultaneously if the guitarist so chooses.
• Harmonics: The strings can be brought into different modes of vibration, where its overtones can be are heard. This is achieved by laying a left-hand finger lightly at a position of an integer devision of the string's length (1/2, 1/3, 2/3, etc.) and plucking the string with the other hand (followed by removing the left-hand finger). This causes separate string-parts to vibrate separately, with a "standing, motionless" point where the left-hand finger originally touched the string.

Since it is the hands and fingers that pluck the string and every person has different fingers, there are great differences in playing between guitarists; who often spend a lot of time finding their own way of playing that suits them best in terms of specific objectives: tone-production ("beauty"/quality of tone), minimum noise (e.g. clicking), large dynamic range (from soft to controlled loud), minimum (muscle) effort, fast "motion-recovery" (fast plucking when desired), healthy movement in fingers, wrist, hand and arm The trill is a musical ornament consisting of a rapid alternation between two adjacent notes of a scale (compare mordent and tremolo). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

There is not one definite way of reaching these goals (there is not a single definite optimal guitar technique): rather there are different ways of reaching these goals, due to differences in the hands and fingers (including nails) of guitarists.

When guitarists are performing music (while playing), they continually search (by actively moving/changing their hands, fingers) for a good sound in terms of tone/timbe, to enhance the musical interpretation.

John Williams has remarked[1] that since guitarists find it superficially very easy to play even things such as melody with accompaniment (e.g. Giuliani), [some guitarist's] "approach to tone production is also superficial, with little or no consideration given to voice matching and tonal contrasts". John Christopher Williams (born 24 April 1941) is one of the worlds best-known classical guitarists. ...

## History

The history of the classical guitar and its repertoire span over four centuries. Included in its ancestry is the baroque guitar. Throughout the centuries, the classical guitar has evolved principally from three sources: the lute, the vihuela, and the Renaissance five-string guitar. The history of the classical guitar and its repertoire span over four centuries, including its ancestry the baroque guitar. ... The guitar player (c. ... A medieval era lute. ... Orpheus playing a vihuela. ...

### Origins

Figurines playing the ancestor of the Guitar. Excavated in Susa, Iran. Dated 2000-1500 BCE. Kept at the National Museum of Iran.

Instruments similar to what we know as the guitar have been popular for at least 5,000 years. The guitar appears to be derived from earlier instruments known in ancient central Asia as the cithara. Instruments very similar to the guitar appear in ancient carvings and statues recovered from the old Iranian capital of Susa. Figurines playing the ancestor of the guitar. ... Figurines playing the ancestor of the guitar. ... Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... Entrance of the National Museum of Iran, the vault is built in the style of Persias Sassanid vaults The National Museum of Iran (in Persian: &#1605;&#1608;&#1586;&#1607; &#1575;&#1740;&#1585;&#1575;&#1606; &#1576;&#1575;&#1587;&#1578;&#1575;&#1606; Muze-ye Irân-e Bâstân) is... Ancient India and Central Asia have long traditions of socio-cultural, political and economic contact since remote antiquity. ... Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ...

### Renaissance

#### The Renaissance guitar

The gittern, English for Renaissance guitar is a musical instrument resembling a small lute or guitar. It is related to but is not a citole, another medieval instrument. The gittern was carved from a single piece of wood with a curved ("sickle-shaped") pegbox. An example has survived from around 1450.

### The Vihuela

The written history of the classical guitar can be traced back to the early sixteenth century with the development of the vihuela in Spain. While the lute was then becoming popular in other parts of Europe, the Spaniards did not take to it well because of its association with the Moors . They turned instead to the four string guitarra, adding two more strings to give it more range and complexity. In its most developed form, the vihuela was a guitar-like instrument with six double strings made of gut, tuned like a modern classical guitar with the exception of the third string, which was tuned half a step lower. Orpheus playing a vihuela. ...

### Baroque guitar

A Guitar from the Baroque era. For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ...

The Guitar Player (c. 1672), by Johannes Vermeer, guitar Voboam

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1576x1820, 203 KB) Description: Title: de: Die Gitarrenspielerin en: The Guitar Player Technique: de: Ã–l auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 53 Ã— 46,3 cm Country of origin: de: Niederlande (Holland) Current location (city): de: London Current location (gallery): de: Kenwood House, Lord... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1576x1820, 203 KB) Description: Title: de: Die Gitarrenspielerin en: The Guitar Player Technique: de: Ã–l auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 53 Ã— 46,3 cm Country of origin: de: Niederlande (Holland) Current location (city): de: London Current location (gallery): de: Kenwood House, Lord... Vermeer redirects here. ...

### "Early romantic guitar" or "Guitar during the Classical music era"

The earliest extant six string guitar was built in 1779 by Gaetano Vinaccia (1759 - after 1831) [2] [3] in Naples, Italy. The Vinaccia family of luthiers is known for developing the mandolin. This guitar has been examined and does not show tell-tale signs of modifications from a double-course guitar. [4] The authenticity of guitars allegedly produced before the 1790s is often in question. This also corresponds to when Moretti's 6-string method appeared, in 1792. The Classical period in Western music occurred from about 1730 through 1820, despite considerable overlap at both ends with preceding and following periods, as is true for all musical eras. ... 1779 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Alternate uses: See Naples (disambiguation) Naples (Italian Napoli, Neapolitan Napule, from Greek &#925;&#941;&#945;-&#928;&#972;&#955;&#953;&#962;, latinised in Neapolis) is the largest town in southern Italy, capital of Campania region. ... This article is about the musical instrument. ...

### Contemporary classical guitar

Contemporary concert guitars occasionally follow the Smallman design which replaces the fan braces with a much lighter balsa brace attached to the back of the sound board with carbon fiber. The balsa brace has a honeycomb pattern and allows the (now much thinner) sound board to support more vibrational modes. This leads to greater volume and longer sustain.

## Repertoire

A guitar recital may include a variety of works, e.g. works written originally for the lute or vihuela by composers such as John Dowland (b. England 1563) and Luis de Narváez (b. Spain c. 1500), and also music written for the harpsichord by Domenico Scarlatti (b. Italy 1685), for the baroque lute by Sylvius Leopold Weiss (b. Germany 1687), for the baroque guitar by Robert de Visée (b. France c. 1650) or even Spanish-flavored music written for the piano by Isaac Albéniz (b. Spain 1860) and Enrique Granados (b. Spain 1867). The most important composer who did not write for the guitar but whose music is often played on guitar is Johann Sebastian Bach (b. Germany 1685) whose works for solo violin and solo cello as well as those written for baroque lute have proved to be highly adaptable for the guitar. Indeed, they have become core repertoire for guitarists. John Dowland (1563 â€“ February 20, 1626) was an English composer, singer, and lutenist. ... Luis de NarvÃ¡ez (Granada c. ... Giuseppe Domenico Scarlatti (October 26, 1685 â€“ July 23, 1757) was an Italian composer who spent much of his life in Spain and Portugal. ... Sylvius Leopold Weiss. ... Robert de VisÃ©e (c. ... Isaac AlbÃ©niz Isaac Manuel Francisco AlbÃ©niz (IPA: ) (May 29, 1860 â€“ May 18, 1909) was a Spanish pianist and composer best known for his piano works based on Spanish folk music. ... Enrique Granados Enrique Costanzo Granados y CampiÃ±a (July 27, 1867 â€“ March 24, 1916) was a Spanish pianist and composer of classical music; he is commonly considered to be a representative of musical Nationalism, and as such his music is in a uniquely Spanish style. ... â€œBachâ€ redirects here. ...

Of the music written originally for guitar the earliest important composers are from the classical period and include Fernando Sor (b. Spain 1778) and Mauro Giuliani (b. Italy 1781) both of whom wrote in a style strongly influenced by Viennese classicism. In the nineteenth century guitar composers such as Johann Kaspar Mertz (b. Slovakia, Austria 1806) were strongly influenced by the dominance of the piano. It is not until the end of the century that the guitar began to emerge with its own unique atmosphere. Francisco Tárrega (b. Spain 1852) was central to this, sometimes incorporating some stylized aspects flamenco, which has Moorish influences, into his romantic miniatures. This was part of the phenomenon of musical nationalism that was part of the wider European mainstream in the late nineteenth century. The aforementioned piano composers Albéniz and Granados were central to this movement and their evocation of the guitar was so successful that guitarists have largely appropriated their music for piano to the guitar. Guitarists who were active at that time, such as Angel Barrios (Spain, 1882 - 1964) contributed to the incorporation of flamenco style (e.g. the Phrygian mode) and flamenco guitar techniques such as rasgueado. Fernando Sor Fernando Sor (baptized Joseph Fernando Macari Sors or JosÃ© Fernando Macarurio Sors February 14, 1778 â€“ July 10, 1839) was a Spanish guitarist and composer, born in Barcelona. ... Mauro Giuliani Mauro Giuliani (July 27, 1781 â€“ May 8, 1829) was an Italian guitarist and composer, and is reckoned by many to be one of the leading guitar virtuosos of the 19th century. ... Johann Kaspar Mertz (August 17, 1806 - October 14, 1856) was an Austrian-based guitarist and composer, born in Pressburg, now Bratislava, Slovakia. ... Francisco TÃ¡rrega (Francisco de AsÃ­s TÃ¡rrega y Eixea) (November 21, 1852 â€” December 15, 1909) was a Spanish composer, and one of the most influential guitarists the world has ever known. ... Due to historical confusion, Phrygian mode can refer to two very different musical modes or diatonic scales. ... Visit the Guitar Portal Rasgueado (also called Rajeo or Rasgeo in Flamenco) is a guitar technique employed in classical and flamenco styles of guitar playing, allowing rhythmically precise, and often rapid, strumming patterns to be created. ...

With the twentieth century and the wide-ranging performances of artists such as Andrés Segovia and Agustin Barrios-Mangore the guitar began to regain some of the popularity it had lost to the harpsichord and piano in the eighteenth century. It again became a popular instrument, but not always in its classical version. The steel-string and electric guitars, integral to the rise of rock and roll in the post-WWII era, became more widely played in North America and the English speaking world. The classical guitar also became widely popular again. Barrios composed many excellent works and brought into the mainstream the characteristics of Latin American music, as did the Brazilian composer Heitor Villa-Lobos. Andrés Segovia commissioned many works from Spanish composers such as Federico Moreno Torroba and Joaquin Rodrigo, Italians such as Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco and Latin American composers such as Manuel M. Ponce of Mexico, Agustin Barrios-Mangore of Paraguay, Leo Brouwer of Cuba, Antonio Lauro of Venezuela, Enrrique Solares of Guatemala. Julian Bream of Great Britain managed to get nearly every British composer from William Walton to Benjamin Britten to Peter Maxwell Davies to write significant works for guitar. Bream's collaborations with tenor Peter Pears also resulted in song-cycles by Britten, Lennox Berkeley and others. There are also significant works by composers such as Hans Werner Henze of Germany. AndrÃ©s Torres Segovia, marquÃ©s de SalobreÃ±a (21 February 1893 â€“ 3 June 1987) was a Spanish classical guitarist, and later nobleman, born in Linares, Spain who is considered to be the father of the modern classical guitar movement by most modern music scholars. ... Agustín Barrios (1885 - 1944), who later added the name Mangoré, was a Paraguayan guitarist and composer. ... Heitor Villa-Lobos (March 5, 1887 - November 17, 1959) was a Brazilian composer, possibly the best-known classical composer born in South America. ... Federico Moreno Torroba (1891-1982) was a Spanish composer, born in Madrid. ... Joaquín Rodrigo (22 November 1901 &#8211; 6 July 1999) was a Spanish composer, and virtuoso pianist, of classical music. ... Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco (April 3, 1895 â€“ March 16, 1968) was an Italian Jewish composer. ... Manuel M. Ponce Born: 8 December 1882, Fresnillo, Zacatecas (Mexico). ... Agustín Barrios (1885 - 1944), who later added the name Mangoré, was a Paraguayan guitarist and composer. ... Leo Brouwer (born March 1, 1939) is a Cuban composer, guitarist and conductor. ... Antonio Lauro Antonio Lauro (born August 3, 1917 in Ciudad BolÃ­var, Venezuela, died April 18, 1986 in Caracas) was a Venezuelan composer, considered to be one of the foremost South American composers of the 20th century. ... Madame Villa-Lobos and Julien Bream at the presentation of the Villa-Lobos Gold Medal, officially awarded to Julian Bream in 1976. ... Sir William Turner Walton, OM (March 29, 1902â€“March 8, 1983) was a British composer whose style was influenced by the works of Stravinsky, Sibelius and jazz. ... Edward Benjamin Britten, Baron Britten, OM CH (November 22, 1913 Lowestoft, Suffolk - December 4, 1976 Aldeburgh, Suffolk) was a British composer, conductor, and pianist. ... Sir Peter Maxwell Davies, CBE (b. ... Sir Peter Neville Luard Pears (June 22, 1910 â€“ April 3, 1986) was an English tenor and life-long partner of the composer Benjamin Britten. ... A song cycle is a group of songs designed to be performed in sequence as a single entity. ... Lennox is an historic mormaerdom, earldom and then dukedom, in Stirling, Scotland. ... Hans Werner Henze (born July 1, 1926 in GÃ¼tersloh, Westphalia, Germany) is a composer well known for his left-wing political beliefs. ...

## Classical guitar making

This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ...

## Physical characteristics

The classical guitar is distinguished by a number of characteristics:

• It is an acoustic instrument. The sound of the plucked string is amplified by the soundboard of the guitar which acts as a resonator.
• It has six strings; however, a few classical guitars have eight or more strings to expand the bass range, and to expand the repertoire of the guitar.
• The three treble strings are made from nylon, as opposed to the metal strings found on other acoustic guitars. Nylon strings also have a much lower tension than steel strings, as do the predecessors to nylon strings, gut strings (made from ox gut). The lower three strings ('bass strings') are wound with metal, commonly silver plated copper.
• Because of the low tension of the strings the neck can be made entirely of wood, not requiring a steel truss rod.
• The interior bracing of the sound board can be lighter, due to the low tension of the strings. This can allow for more complex tonal qualities. A common classical guitar bracing pattern is the fan bracing. A center spruce brace is glued on the inside of the soundboard along the center line of the guitar to just before the bridge. Additional braces fan out on ether side of the first brace.
• A typical modern six-string classical guitar has a width of 48-54 mm at the nut, compared to around 42 mm for a modern electric guitar design. The classical fingerboard is normally flat and without inlays (Some have dot inlays on the side of the neck at the 5th and 7th frets), whereas the steel string fingerboard has a slight radius and inlays.
• Classical guitarists use their dominant hand fingers to pluck the strings. Players shape their fingernails, much the way a clarinetist will shape their reed to achieve a desired tone.
• Strumming is a less common technique in classical guitar, and is often referred to by the Spanish term "rasgueo", or for strumming patterns "rasgueado", and utilises the backs of the fingernails. Rasgueado is integral to Flamenco guitar.
• Tuning pegs (or "keys") at the head the fingerboard of a classical guitar point backwards (towards the player when the guitar is in playing position; perpendicular to the plane of the fretboard). This is in contrast to a traditional steel-string guitar design, in which the tuning pegs point outward (up and down from playing position; parallel to the plane of the fretboard).

The sounding board is the largest part of a string musical instruments body. ... A string is a vibrating element used on many musical instruments, such as the violin, guitar, harp, and piano. ... For other uses of this word, see nylon (disambiguation). ... Tension is a reaction force applied by a stretched string (rope or a similar object) on the objects which stretch it. ... Flamenco is a Spanish musical genre with strong, rhythmic undertones and is often accompanied with a similarly impassioned style of dance characterized by its powerful yet graceful execution, as well as its intricate hand and footwork. ... The fingerboard, also known as a fretboard, is a part of most stringed instruments. ... The fingerboard, also known as a fretboard, is a part of most stringed instruments. ...

### Parts of the guitar

Parts of typical classical guitars, numbered
2. 2 Nut
4. 4 Fretwires
5. 5 Truss rod (not shown)
6. 7 Neck and 20 fretboard
7. 8 Heel
8. 9 Body
9. 12 Bridge
10. 14 Bottom deck
11. 15 Face (top deck)
12. 16 Body sides
13. 17 Sound hole, with Rosette inlay
14. 18 Strings
15. 19 Bridge saddle (Bridge nut)
16. 20 The Fretboard

Image File history File links Acoustic_guitar_parts. ... Typical headstock of an electric guitar This article is about part of a stringed instrument. ... The machine heads on a Squier Stratocaster electric guitar. ... The neck of a guitar showing the first four frets. ... Schematic section of electric guitar neck Truss rod is a device to stabilize and adjust profile of guitar neck. ... The neck is the part of certain string instruments that projects from the main body and is the base of the fingerboard, where the fingers are placed to stop the strings at different pitches. ... The fingerboard, also known as a fretboard, is a part of most stringed instruments. ... A cello with f-holes A guitar with a round hole A sound hole is a hole in the upper sounding board of a string musical instrument. ... Rosettes can refer for: A small, circular, device that can be awarded with medals (see: Rosette (decoration)). A type of plant with their leaves at an upset stem in a typical form. ... The strings of a harp A string is the vibrating element which is the source of vibration in string instruments, such as the guitar, harp, piano, and members of the violin family. ...

#### Frets

Frets are the metal strips (usually nickel alloy or stainless steel) embedded along the fingerboard and placed at points that divide the length of string mathematically. The strings' vibrating length is determined when the strings are pressed down behind the frets. Each fret produces a different pitch and each pitch spaced a half-step apart on the 12 tone scale. The ratio of the widths of two consecutive frets is the twelfth root of two $sqrt[12]{2}$, whose numeric value is about 1.059463. The twelfth fret divides the string in two exact halves and the 24th fret (if present) divides the string in half yet again. Every twelve frets represents one octave. This arrangement of frets results in equal tempered tuning. For more on fret spacing, see the Strings and Tuning section. Fretted guitar fingerboard Fretless violin fingerboard The fingerboard, (also known as a fretboard on fretted instruments), is a part of most stringed instruments. ... A ratio is a quantity that denotes the proportional amount or magnitude of one quantity relative to another. ... The Twelfth root of two is a quantity representing the frequency ratio between any two consecutive notes of a modern chromatic scale in equal temperament. ... An equal temperament is a musical temperament â€” that is, a system of tuning intended to approximate some form of just intonation â€” in which an interval, usually the octave, is divided into a series of equal steps (equal frequency ratios). ... For other uses, see Guitar (disambiguation). ...

Frets are placed at fractions of the length of a string (the string midpoint is at the 12th fret; one-third the length of the string reaches from the nut to the 7th fret, the 7th fret to the 19th, and the 19th to the saddle; one-quarter reaches from nut to fifth to twelfth to twenty-fourth to saddle). This feature is helpful when playing harmonics. In acoustics and telecommunication, the harmonic of a wave is a component frequency of the signal that is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency. ...

Frets are usually the first permanent part to wear out on a heavily played guitar. They can be re-shaped to a certain extent and can be replaced as needed. Frets are available in several different gauges, depending on the type of guitar and the player's requirements.

#### Truss rod

The truss rod is an adjustable metal rod that runs along the inside of the neck, adjusted by a hex nut or an allen-key bolt usually located either at the headstock (under a cover) or just inside the body of the guitar, underneath the fretboard (accessible through the sound hole). Most classical guitars do not have truss rods, as the nylon strings do not put enough tension on the neck for one to be needed. The truss rod counteracts the immense amount of tension the strings place on the neck, bringing the neck back to a straighter position. The truss rod can be adjusted to compensate for changes in the neck wood due to changes in humidity or to compensate for changes in the tension of strings. Tightening the rod will curve the neck back and loosening it will return it forward. Adjusting the truss rod affects the intonation of a guitar as well as affecting the action (the height of the strings from the fingerboard). Some truss rod systems, called "double action" truss systems, will tighten both ways, allowing the neck to be pushed both forward and backward (most truss rods can only be loosened so much, beyond which the bolt will just come loose and the neck will no longer be pulled backward).

#### Neck

A classical guitar's frets, fretboard, tuners, headstock, and truss rod, all attached to a long wooden extension, collectively comprise its neck. The wood used to make the fretboard will usually differ from the wood in the rest of the neck. The bending stress on the neck is considerable, particularly when heavier gauge strings are used (see Strings and tuning), and the ability of the neck to resist bending (see Truss rod) is important to the guitar's ability to hold a constant pitch during tuning or when strings are fretted. The rigidity of the neck with respect to the body of the guitar is one determinant of a good instrument versus a poor one. The shape of the back of the neck can also vary, from a gentle "C" curve to a more pronounced "V" curve. The neck is the part of certain string instruments that projects from the main body and is the base of the fingerboard, where the fingers are placed to stop the strings at different pitches. ...

#### Neck joint or 'heel'

This is the point at which the neck meets the body of the guitar. In the traditional Spanish neck joint the neck and block are one piece with the sides inserted into slots cut in the block. Other necks are built separately and joined to the body either with a dovetail joint, mortise or flush joint. These joints are ussually glued and can be reinforced with mechanical fasteners. Recently many manufacturers use bolt on fasteners. Bolt on neck joints were once associated only with less expensive instruments but now some top manufacturers and hand builders are using variations of this method. Some people believed that the Spanish style one piece neck/block and glued dovetail necks have better sustain, but testing has failed to confirm this. While most traditional Spanish style builders use the one piece neck/heel block, Fleta a prominent Spanish builder used a dovetail joint due to the influence of his early training in violin making. One reason for the introduction of the mechanical joints was to make it easier to repair necks. This is more of a problem with steel string guitars than with nylon strings which have about half the string tension. This is why nylon string guitars often don't include a truss rod either.

#### Body

The body of a classical guitar is a resonating chamber which projects the vibrations of the body through a sound hole, allowing the acoustic guitar to be heard without amplification. The sound hole is normally a round hole in the top of the guitar (under the strings), though some may have different placement, shapes or multiple holes.

As an instrument's maximum volume is determined by how much air it can move.

#### Binding, purfling and kerfing

The top, back and rim of a classical guitar body are very thin (1-2 mm), so a flexible piece of wood called kerfing (because it is often scored, or kerfed to allow it to bend with the shape of the rim) is glued into the corners where the rim meets the top and back. This interior reinforcement provides 5 to 20 mm or solid gluing area for these corner joints.

During final construction, a small section of the outside corners is carved or routed out and then filled binding material on the outside corners and decorative strips of material next to the binding, which are called purfling. This binding serves to seal off the endgrain of the top and back. Binding and purfling materials are generally made of either wood or high quality plastic materials.

#### Bridge

The main purpose of the bridge on a classical guitar is to transfer the vibration from the strings to the soundboard, which vibrates the air inside of the guitar, thereby amplifying the sound produced by the strings. The bridge holds the strings in place on the body. Also, the position of the saddle, usually a strip of bone or plastic across the bridge upon which the strings rest, determines the distance to the nut (at the top of the fingerboard). This distance defines the positions of the harmonic nodes for the strings over the fretboard, and is the basis of intonation. Intonation refers to the property that the actual frequency of each string at each fret matches what those frequencies should be according to music theory. Because of the physical limitations of fretted instruments, intonation is at best approximate; thus, the guitar's intonation is said to be tempered. The twelfth, or octave, fret resides directly under the first harmonic node (half-length of the string), and in the tempered fretboard, the ratio of distances between consecutive frets is approximately 1.06 (see "Frets" above).

## Tuning

Main article: Guitar tuning

A variety of different tunings are used. The most common by far, known as "standard tuning" (EADGBE), is as follows: Wikibooks Guitar has a page on the topic of Tuning the Guitar Guitar tuning is any of several techniques of pitch adjustment on the individual strings of a guitar in order to achieve a prescribed arrangement of notes from the open (unfretted) strings. ...

• sixth (lowest tone) string: E (a minor thirteenth below middle C—82.4 Hz)
• fifth string: A (a minor tenth below middle C—110 Hz)
• fourth string: D (a minor seventh below middle C—146.8 Hz)
• third string: G (a perfect fourth below middle C—196.0 Hz)
• second string: B (a minor second below middle C—246.92 Hz)
• first (highest tone) string: E (a major third above middle C—329.6 Hz)

A guitar using this tuning can tune to itself by the fact the 5th fret on one string is the same note as the next open string i.e. a 5th fret note on the 6th string is the same note as the 5th string, apart from between the third and second string, where the 4th fret note on the third string equals the second string. Standard tuning has evolved to provide a good compromise between simple fingering for many chords and the ability to play common scales with minimal left hand movement. There are also a variety of commonly used alternate tunings - most of which are just common chord shapes that can be played open or made by moving the capo. Fingering for an open-position C Major chord (with the 5th, a G note, in the bass) played on a six-string acoustic guitar. ... Wikibooks Guitar has a page on the topic of Tuning the Guitar Guitar tuning is any of several techniques of pitch adjustment on the individual strings of a guitar in order to achieve a prescribed arrangement of notes from the open (unfretted) strings. ... For other uses, see Capo (disambiguation). ...

## Multi-string classical guitar

Main article: Multi-string classical guitar

A Multi-string classical guitar is a classical guitar with more than 6 strings, usually between 7 and 10. A Multi-string classical guitar is a musical instrument with more than 6 strings, usually between 7, 8, and 10. ...

## Classical electric guitar

Gibson guitars marketed a new hybrid in 1982. Developed with guitarist Chet Atkins and Kentucky luthier Hascal Haile, the Chet Atkins CEC (Cutaway Electric Classical) merged solid-body electric guitar with classical guitar, resulting in a nylon-string instrument that could be played at high volumes in large auditoriums without feedback; classical guitarists have given the innovation little credence. Chet Atkins Chester Burton Chet Atkins (June 20, 1924 â€“ June 30, 2001) was an influential guitarist and record producer. ...

## Bibliography

• Summerfield, Maurice, The Classical Guitar: Its Evolution, Players and Personalities since 1800 - 5th Edition, Blaydon : Ashley Mark Publishing Company, 2002.
• Various, Classical Guitar Magazine, Blaydon : Ashley Mark Publishing Company, monthly publication first published in 1982.
• Wade, Graham, Traditions of the Classical Guitar, London : Calder, 1980.
• Antoni Pizà: Francesc Guerau i el seu temps (Palma de Mallorca: Govern de les Illes Balears, Conselleria d'Educació i Cultura, Direcció General de Cultura, Institut d'Estudis Baleàrics, 2000) ISBN 84-89868-50-6

This is a classical guitar bibliography. ...

## References

Results from FactBites:

 Classical Guitar: Artists & Performers - 1000 Great Guitar Sites on the Web (1521 words) The Spaniard Fernando Sor (1778-1839) was one of the greatest of the composers for the classical guitar. It was, to bring Guitar studies to every university in the world, have the guitar played throughout the world, on every major stage, just as the piano and violin were, and lastly, to pass on his love of the guitar to generations to follow. Julian Bream Proclaimed by many students of classical music as the premier guitar and lute virtuoso of the 20th century, Julian Bream was born in London in 1933.
 Classical guitar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3083 words) The classical guitar's most characteristic physical feature is the use of nylon strings (which have, largely, supplanted the use of gut strings), although since the mid 1990s carbon fiber or composite treble strings have gained popularity for their nylon-like sound and significantly better reliability. The main purpose of the bridge on a classical guitar is to transfer the vibration from the strings to the soundboard, which vibrates the air inside of the guitar, thereby amplifying the sound produced by the strings. Music written specifically for the classical guitar dates from the addition of the sixth string (the baroque guitar normally had five pairs of strings) in the late 18th century.
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