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Encyclopedia > Classical Chinese
Classical Chinese
Characters: 古文
Pinyin: gǔwén
Literal Meaning: "ancient written language"
Literary Chinese
Characters: 文言文
Pinyin: wényánwén
Literal Meaning: "literary language"

Classical Chinese or Literary Chinese is a traditional style of written Chinese based on the grammar and vocabulary of very old forms of Chinese , making it very different from any modern spoken form of Chinese. Classical Chinese was once used for almost all formal correspondence before the 20th century, not only in China but also in Korea, Vietnam and Japan. Among Chinese speakers, classical Chinese has been largely replaced by Vernacular Chinese (baihua), a style of writing that is closer to modern spoken Chinese, while speakers of non-Chinese languages have largely abandoned Classical Chinese in favor of local vernaculars. Pinyin (Chinese: 拼音, pÄ«nyÄ«n) literally means join (together) sounds (a less literal translation being phoneticize, spell or transcription) in Chinese and usually refers to HànyÇ” PÄ«nyÄ«n (汉语拼音, literal meaning: Han language pinyin), which is a system of romanization (phonemic notation and transcription to Roman script) for Standard... Pinyin (Chinese: 拼音, pÄ«nyÄ«n) literally means join (together) sounds (a less literal translation being phoneticize, spell or transcription) in Chinese and usually refers to HànyÇ” PÄ«nyÄ«n (汉语拼音, literal meaning: Han language pinyin), which is a system of romanization (phonemic notation and transcription to Roman script) for Standard... A literary language is a register of a language that is used in writing, and which often differs in lexicon and syntax from the language used in speech. ... The Chinese written language consists of a writing system stretching back nearly 4000 years. ... Grammar is the discovery, enunciation, and study of rules governing the use of language. ... A vocabulary is a set of words known to a person or other entity, or that are part of a specific language. ... Spoken Chinese The Chinese spoken language(s) comprise(s) many regional variants. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Korea refers to South Korea and North Korea together, which were a unified country until 1948. ... Vernacular Chinese (pinyin: báihuà; Wade-Giles: paihua) is a style or register of the written Chinese language essentially modeled after the spoken language and associated with Standard Mandarin. ...


Literary Chinese written for a Japanese audience is known as Kanbun; for a Korean audience, it is known as Hanmun (in characters both are written as 漢文, meaning written language of the Han). Example of Kaeriten Kanbun (漢文, literally Han writing) is Chinese written for a Japanese audience. ... Hanja (lit. ...

Contents


Definitions

While the terms Classical Chinese and Literary Chinese are commonly used interchangeably, this is not strictly accurate. Sinologists generally agree that they are in fact different things. By most academic definitions, Classical Chinese (古文, Pinyin Gǔwén, "Ancient Writing"; or more literally 古典漢語 Gǔdiǎn Hànyǔ "Classical Chinese") refers to the written language of China from the Zhou Dynasty, and especially the Spring and Autumn Period, through the end of the Han Dynasty. Classical Chinese is therefore the language used in many of China's most influential books, such as the Analects of Confucius, the Mencius and the Daodejing. (The language of even older texts, such as the Shijing, is sometimes called Archaic Chinese.) Sinology is the study of China, which usually requires a foreign scholar to have command of the Chinese language. ... Pinyin (Chinese: 拼音, pÄ«nyÄ«n) literally means join (together) sounds (a less literal translation being phoneticize, spell or transcription) in Chinese and usually refers to HànyÇ” PÄ«nyÄ«n (汉语拼音, literal meaning: Han language pinyin), which is a system of romanization (phonemic notation and transcription to Roman script) for Standard... The Zhou Dynasty (周朝; Wade-Giles: Chou Dynasty (also Chow or Jou)) (late 10th century BC or 9th century BC to 256 BC) followed the Shang (Yin) Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty in China. ... The Spring and Autumn Period (Chinese: 春秋時代; pinyin: ) represented an era in Chinese history between 722 BC and 481 BC. The period takes its name from the Spring and Autumn Annals, a chronicle of the period whose authorship was traditionally attributed to Confucius. ... Han commanderies and kingdoms AD 2. ... Engraving of Confucius. ... Mencius (most accepted dates: 372 BC – 289 BC; other possible dates: 385 BC – 303 BC or 302 BC) was born in the State of Zou (鄒國), now forming the territory of the county-level city of Zoucheng (邹城市), Shandong province, only 30 km (18 miles) south of Qufu, the town of Confucius. ... The Tao Te Ching (道德經, Pinyin: Dào Dé Jīng, thus sometimes rendered in recent works as Dao De Jing; archaic pre-Wade-Giles rendering: Tao Teh Ching; roughly translated as The Book of the Way and its Virtue (see dedicated chapter below on translating the title)) is an ancient Chinese... Shī Jīng (詩經), translated variously as the Classic of Poetry, the Book of Songs or the Book of Odes, is the first major collection of Chinese poems. ... Old Chinese, or Archaic Chinese (Simplified Chinese: 上古汉语; Traditional Chinese: 上古漢語; pinyin: ), refers to the Chinese spoken during the Zhou Dynasty (10th century BC – 256 BC). ...


Literary Chinese (文言文, Wényánwén, "Literary Writing", or more colloquially just 文言 Wényán) is the form of written Chinese used from the end of the Han Dynasty to the early 20th century when it was replaced by vernacular written Chinese (Baihua). Literary Chinese diverged more and more from Classical Chinese as the languages of China became more and more disparate and as the Classical written language became less and less representative of the spoken language. At the same time, Literary Chinese was based largely upon the Classical language, and writers frequently borrowed Classical language into their Literary writings. Literary Chinese therefore shows a great deal of similarity to Classical Chinese, even though the similarity decreased over the centuries. Han commanderies and kingdoms AD 2. ... Vernacular Chinese (白话 [白話]; in pinyin: báihuà, literal meaning: Plain Language) is a style of written Chinese which is based on Standard Mandarin. ... Spoken Chinese The Chinese spoken language(s) comprise(s) many regional variants. ...


This situation can be compared to the coexistence of the Latin language and the Latin-derived Romance languages in Europe. The Romance languages continued to evolve, influencing Latin texts of the same period, so that by the Middle Ages, Latin included many usages that would have baffled the Romans. The coexistence of Classical Chinese and the native languages of Korea, Japan, and Vietnam can be compared to the use of Latin in countries that natively speak non-Latin-derived Germanic languages or Slavic languages, as well as the position of Classical Arabic relative to the various regional vernaculars. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The Romance languages, also called Romanic languages or New Latin languages, are a subset of the Italic languages, specifically the descendants of the Latin dialects spoken by the common people in what is known as Latin Europe (Italian/Portuguese/Spanish Europa latina, Catalan Europa llatina, French Europe latine, Romanian Europa... A satellite composite image of Europe // Etymology Picture of Europa, carried away by bull-shaped Zeus. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Roman Forum was the central area around which ancient Rome developed. ... The Germanic languages form one of the branches of the Indo-European (IE) language family. ... The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup of Indo-European languages, have speakers in most of Eastern Europe, in much of the Balkans, in parts of Central Europe, and in the northern part of Asia. ... Classical Arabic is the form of the Arabic language used in the Quran as well as in numerous literary texts from the same period. ...


Pronunciation

Chinese characters are not alphabetic and do not reflect sound changes, and the actual pronunciation of Old Chinese can only be tentatively reconstructed and is unknown outside linguistic circles. As a result, Classical Chinese has no universally fixed way of pronunciation. When reading wenyan, the Chinese characters are generally read with the pronunciations of the reader's own variety of Chinese, such as modern Mandarin or Cantonese. Other varieties of Chinese, such as Southern Min, have a special set of pronunciation used for Classical Chinese, or vocabulary and usage borrowed from Classical Chinese. Korean, Japanese, or Vietnamese readers of Classical Chinese use systems of pronunciation specific to their own languages. For example, Japanese speakers use On'yomi and (more rarely) Kun'yomi, which are the ways kanji, or Chinese characters, are read when they are used to write in Japanese. Kunten, a system that aids Japanese speakers with Classical Chinese word order, was also used. 漢字 hànzì, hanja, kanji… in Traditional Chinese and other languages. ... An alphabet is a complete standardized set of letters — basic written symbols — each of which roughly represents a phoneme of a spoken language, either as it exists now or as it may have been in the past. ... Sound change or phonetic change is a historical process of language change consisting in the replacement of one speech sound or, more generally, one phonetic feature by another in a given phonological environment. ... Old Chinese (formerly called Archaic Chinese) (Simplified Chinese: 上古汉语; Traditional Chinese: 上古漢語; pinyin: ), refers to the Chinese spoken during the Zhou Dynasty (10th century BC – 256 BC). ... Mandarin, or Guanhua (Traditional Chinese: 官話; Simplified Chinese: 官话; pinyin: ; literally official speech), or Beifanghua (Traditional Chinese: 北方話; Simplified Chinese: 北方话; pinyin: â–¶(?)]; literally Northern speech) is a category of related Chinese dialects spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. ... Cantonese (Traditional Chinese: 粵語; Simplified Chinese: 粤语, Cantonese: Yuet6yue5; Mandarin pinyin: Yueyu, Yụet (Guangdong) language) is one of the major dialect groups or languages of the Chinese language or language family. ... Mǐn N n (Chinese: 閩南語), also spelt as Minnan or Min-nan; native name B ; literally means Southern Min or Southern Fujian and refers to the local language/dialect of southern Fujian province, China. ... Japanese writing Kanji 漢字 Kana 仮名 Hiragana 平仮名 Katakana 片仮名 Uses Furigana 振り仮名 Okurigana 送り仮名 Rōmaji ローマ字 Category Kanji ( â–¶(?), literally Han characters) is the name of Chinese characters in the Japanese language. ... Example of Kaeriten Kanbun (漢文, literally Han writing) is Chinese written for a Japanese audience. ...


Since the pronunciation of Old Chinese or other forms of historical Chinese (such as Middle Chinese) have long been lost, characters which once rhymed in poetry often no longer do, or vice versa. Poetry and other rhyme-based writing thus becomes less coherent than the original reading must have been. However, some other modern Chinese dialects adhere more closely to the original pronunciations, as evident by the preservation of rhyme structures. Some Chinese speakers thus believe wenyan literature, especially poetry, sounds better when read with a southern dialect such as Cantonese or Southern Min. Middle Chinese (中古漢語, pinyin: zhōnggǔ Hànyǔ), or Ancient Chinese as used by linguist Bernhard Karlgren, refers to the Chinese language spoken during Northern and Southern Dynasties and the Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties (6th century - 10th century). ... A rhyme is a repetition of identical or similar sounds in two or more different words and is most often used in poetry. ... Spoken Chinese The Chinese spoken language(s) comprise(s) many regional variants. ...


Another phenomenon that is common in reading Classical Chinese is homophony, or words that sound the same. More than 2500 years of sound change separates Classical Chinese from any modern language or dialect, so when reading Classical Chinese in any modern variety of Chinese (especially Mandarin) or in Japanese, Korean, or Vietnamese, many characters which originally had different pronunciations have become homonyms, making it impossible to orally communicate using Classical Chinese. There is a famous Classical Chinese essay written in the early 20th-century by linguist Y. R. Chao called the Lion-Eating Poet in the Stone Den which illustrates this. It is perfectly comprehensible when read, but contains only words that are now pronounced "shi" in Mandarin. In addition, literary Chinese, by its very nature as a written language employing an logographic writing system, can often get away with the use of homophones that even in oral Old Chinese would not have been distinguishable in any way. Homophony is music in which the top line has a dominant melody, and all the voices accompany it with chords in the same rhythm. ... Sound change or phonetic change is a historical process of language change consisting in the replacement of one speech sound or, more generally, one phonetic feature by another in a given phonological environment. ... A homonym is one of a group of two or more words that have the same phonetic form (i. ... Yuen Ren Chao (Traditional Chinese: 趙元任; Pinyin: Zhào Yuánrèn; WG: Chao Yüan-jen; Gwoyeu Romatzyh: Jaw Yuanrenn) (November 3, 1892 - February 25, 1982) was a Chinese linguist and amateur composer who shaped Gwoyeu Romatzyh and the scientific studies, especially the phonology, of the Chinese language. ... This article or section uses Ruby annotation. ... A Chinese logogram A logogram, or logograph, is a single written character which represents a word or a morpheme (a meaningful unit of language). ...


The situation is analogous with some English words that sound the same, such as "meet" and "meat". These two words were pronounced /meːt/ and /mɛːt/ respectively during the time of Chaucer, as evident by spelling. Today they sound the same, but are distinguished by spelling. English spelling is only a few centuries old and is a sound-based system that has kept pace with sound changes to an extent, so such examples are not very common; the Chinese writing system is, by contrast, several thousand years old and logographic, so such examples are commonplace and exist for nearly all characters. The International Phonetic Alphabet. ... Chaucer: Illustration from Cassells History of England, circa 1902 Chanticleer the rooster from an outdoor production of Chanticleer and the Fox at Ashby_de_la_Zouch castle Geoffrey Chaucer (ca. ...


Grammar and Lexicon

Wenyan is distinguished from baihua by the use of different lexical items (i.e., vocabulary) and a style that appears extremely concise and compact to modern Chinese speakers. For example, wenyan rarely uses words composed of two Chinese characters; nearly all words are of one syllable only. This stands directly in contrast with modern Chinese dialects where two-syllable words are normal and very common. There is also a greater number of pronouns present relative to the modern vernacular. In particular, whereas Mandarin has one general character to refer to the first-person pronoun ("I"/"me"), Literary Chinese has several, many of which are used as part of 客套语 (honorific language), and several of which have different grammatical uses (first-person collective, first-person possessive, etc.). A lexicon is usually a list of words together with additional word-specific information, i. ... 漢字 hànzì, hanja, kanji… in Traditional Chinese and other languages. ... This article discusses the unit of speech. ... In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun is a pro-form that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase with or without a determiner, such as you and they in English. ... An honorific is a term used to convey esteem or respect. ...


This phenomenon exists because two-syllable words evolved in Chinese to compensate for sound change: as sound changes occurred, words that originally sounded different begin to be pronounced in the same way, and thus have to be distinguished by other means. (Compare "pen"/"pin", identical in the American South, and distinguished only by saying "ink pen" and "safety pin".) Since wenyan is an imitation of Old Chinese, it has almost none of the two-syllable words present in modern Chinese languages. For the same reason, wenyan is much more ready to drop subjects, verbs, objects, etc. when their meaning is understood or readily inferred; wenyan did not develop a subject inanimate pronoun ("it" used as a subject) until quite late. As a result, a sentence that may take 20 characters in baihua can often be rendered in wenyan in four or five.


There are also differences in lexicon, especially in grammatical particles, as well as in syntax. In linguistics, the term particle is often employed as a useful catch-all lacking a strict definition. ... Syntax, originating from the Greek words συν (syn, meaning co- or together) and τάξις (táxis, meaning sequence, order, arrangement), can be described as the study of the rules, or patterned relations that govern the way the words in a sentence come together. ...


In addition to grammar and vocabulary differences, wenyan can be distinguished by literary and cultural differences: an effort to maintain parallelism and rhythm, even in prose works, and its extensive use of cultural allusions often unfamiliar to modern readers, thereby also contribute to the brief style. Parallelism is a rhetorical device. ...


Classical Chinese grammar and lexicon is also significantly different from that of Literary Chinese. For example, increasing use of 是 (Modern Mandarin shì) as a copula ("to be") rather than as a near demonstrative ("this"), and the appearance of 這 (Modern Mandarin zhè) taking its place as such, is a hallmark of Literary Chinese. Literary also tends to use far more two-character combinations than Classical. The word copula originates from the Latin noun for a link or tie that connects two different things. ... Demonstratives are deictic words that indicate which entities a speaker refers to, and distinguishes those entities from others. ...


Teaching and Use

Wenyan was the primary form used in Chinese literary works until the May Fourth Movement, and was also heavily used in Japan and Korea. Ironically, Classical Chinese was used to write the Hunmin Jeongeum in which the modern Korean alphabet (Hangul) was promulgated and the essay by Hu Shi in which he argued against using Classical Chinese and in favor of baihua. Exceptions to the use of wenyan were vernacular novels such as The Dream of the Red Chamber, which was considered low class at the time. This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Promulgated in September or October 1446, Hunmin Jeongeum (lit. ... Hangul is the native alphabet used to write the Korean language, as opposed to the hanja system borrowed from China. ... Hu Shih (Simplified: 胡适, Traditional: 胡適, Pinyin: Hú Shì), (December 17, 1891-February 24, 1962) was a Chinese philosopher and essayist. ... Dream of the Red Chamber (Chinese: 紅樓夢; pinyin: hóng lóu mèng) or Chronicles of the Stone (Chinese: 石頭記; pinyin: shí tóu jì), written by Cao Xueqin, is one of the greatest masterpieces of Chinese fiction, written in the 18th century during the Qing Dynasty. ...


Today, pure wenyan is occasionally used in formal or ceremonial occasions. The National Anthem of the Republic of China on Taiwan (中華民國國歌, pinyin: zhōnghuá mínguó guógē), for example, is in wenyan. In practice there is a socially accepted continuum between baihua and wenyan. For example, most notices and formal letters are written with a number of stock wenyan expressions (e.g. salutation, closing). Personal letters, on the other hand, are mostly written in baihua, but with some wenyan phrases sometimes, depending on the subject matter, the writer's level of education, etc. Letters (and/or essays) written completely in wenyan today may be considered quaint and old-fashioned by some, and impressive by others. National Anthem of the Republic of China (中華民國國歌, pinyin: zhōnghúa míngúo gúogē), is the current national anthem of the Republic of China on Taiwan. ... Pinyin (Chinese: 拼音, pÄ«nyÄ«n) literally means join (together) sounds (a less literal translation being phoneticize, spell or transcription) in Chinese and usually refers to HànyÇ” PÄ«nyÄ«n (汉语拼音, literal meaning: Han language pinyin), which is a system of romanization (phonemic notation and transcription to Roman script) for Standard...


Most Chinese people with at least a middle school education are able to read basic wenyan, because the ability to read (but not write) wenyan is part of the Chinese middle school and high school curricula and is part of the college entrance examination. Wenyan is taught primarily by presenting a classical Chinese work and including a baihua gloss that explains the meaning of phrases. Tests on classical Chinese are often essentially translation exercises that ask the student to express the meaning of a paragraph in baihua, using multiple choice. Middle school, (Intermediate/Junior high school) covers a period of education that straddles primary education and secondary education, serving as a bridge between the two. ... High school is the name used for the last segment of compulsory education in Australia, Brazil, Canada, Hong Kong, Ireland, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Mauritius, New Zealand, Philippines, South Africa, Singapore, Taiwan (Republic of China), the United Kingdom and the United States. ... In education, a curriculum (plural curricula) is the set of courses and their contents offered by an institution such as a school or university. ...


In addition, many works of literature in wenyan (such as Tang poetry) have major cultural influences. However, even with knowledge of grammar and vocabulary, wenyan can be extremely difficult to decipher, even by educated native speakers of Chinese, because of its heavy use of literary references and allusions as well as its extremely abbreviated style. ... Also the name of a rock band. ... Poetry (ancient Greek: ποιεω (poieo) = I create) is traditionally a written art form (although there is also an ancient and modern poetry which relies mainly upon oral or pictorial representations) in which human language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or instead of, its notional and semantic content. ... The word culture comes from the Latin root colere (to inhabit, to cultivate, or to honor). ... In general, a reference is something that refers or points to something else, or acts as a connection or a link between two things. ... Allusion is a stylistic device in which one implicitly references a related object or circumstance that has occurred or existed in an external context. ...



Chinese: spoken varieties
Categories:

Gan | Hakka | Hui | Jin | Mandarin | Min | Pinghua | Xiang | Wu | Cantonese
Danzhouhua | Shaozhou Tuhua | Xianghua Spoken Chinese The Chinese spoken language(s) comprise(s) many regional variants. ... Gan (赣) is one of the major divisions of spoken Chinese, concentrated in and typical of Jiangxi Province. ... Hakka (Simplified Chinese: 客家话, Traditional Chinese: 客家話, Hakka: Hak-ka-fa/-va, pinyin: Kèjiāhuà) is a Chinese dialect/language spoken predominantly in southern China by the Hakka ethnic group and descendants in diaspora throughout East and Southeast Asia and around the world. ... The Hui (徽) dialects are unrelated to the Hui (回) ethnic group of China. ... Jin (simplified: 晋语; traditional: 晉語; pinyin: jìnyǔ), or Jin-yu, is a subdivision of spoken Chinese. ... Mandarin, or Guanhua (Traditional Chinese: 官話; Simplified Chinese: 官话; pinyin: ; literally official speech), or Beifanghua (Traditional Chinese: 北方話; Simplified Chinese: 北方话; pinyin: â–¶(?)]; literally Northern speech) is a category of related Chinese dialects spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. ... Min (閩方言 in pinyin: min3 fang1 yan2) is a general term for a group of dialects of the Chinese language spoken in the southeastern Chinese province of Fujian as well as by migrants from this province in Guangdong (around Chaozhou-Swatou, and Leizhou peninsula), Hainan, three counties in southern Zhejiang... Pinghua (平話/平话), also Guangxi Nanning, is a subdivision of spoken Chinese. ... Xiang (湘語/湘语), also Hunan, Hunanese, or Hsiang, is a subdivision of spoken Chinese. ... Wu (吳方言 pinyin wú fāng yán; 吳語 pinyin wú yÇ” lumazi wu niu(nyu)) is one of the major divisions of the Chinese language; linguistically, it is better classified as a Sinitic language. ... Cantonese (Traditional Chinese: 粵語; Simplified Chinese: 粤语, Cantonese: Yuet6yue5; Mandarin pinyin: Yueyu, Yụet (Guangdong) language) is one of the major dialect groups or languages of the Chinese language or language family. ... Danzhouhua (hua = language) 儋州話 / 儋州话 is an unclassified Chinese dialect spoken in the area of Danzhou on the island Hainan. ... Shaozhou Tuhua ( 韶州土話 / 韶州土话 ) is an unclassified Chinese language spoken in the border region of the provinces Guangdong, Hunan and Guangxi. ... Chai Xianghua (柴 香華 Chai Shanghwa ) is a fictional character designed for the Soul Series of fighting games. ...

Subcategories of Min: Min Bei | Min Dong | Min Nan | Min Zhong | Pu Xian | Qiong Wen | Shao Jiang
Note: The above is only one classification scheme among many.
The categories in italics are not universally acknowledged to be independent categories.
Comprehensive list of Chinese dialects
Official spoken varieties: Standard Mandarin | Standard Cantonese
Historical phonology: Old Chinese | Middle Chinese | Proto-Min | Proto-Mandarin | Haner
Chinese: written varieties
Official written varieties: Classical Chinese | Vernacular Chinese
Other varieties: Written Vernacular Cantonese

  Results from FactBites:
 
Classical Chinese - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1849 words)
Classical Chinese was once used for almost all formal correspondence before and during the beginning of the 20th century, not only in China but also (during various different periods) in Korea, Japan, and Vietnam.
Literary Chinese is known as Hanmun (漢文) (language of the Han) in Korean; as Kanbun (Kyūjitai: 漢文; Shinjitai: 漢文) (language of the Han) in Japanese; and Chữ nho (字儒) in Vietnamese.
Ironically, Classical Chinese was used to write the Hunmin Jeongeum in which the modern Korean alphabet (Hangul) was promulgated and the essay by Hu Shi in which he argued against using Classical Chinese and in favor of baihua.
Classical Chinese Summary (3305 words)
The dominance of classical Chinese came to an end after the first Opium War (1840–1842) as intellectuals began to see the classical/vernacular gap as a hindrance to greater literacy and called for the replacement of classical Chinese with the modern spoken language in education and media as part and parcel of the modernization of China.
Classical Chinese was once used for almost all formal correspondence before the 20th century, not only in China but also in Korea, Japan, and Vietnam.
Literary Chinese written for a Korean audience is known as Hanmun; for a Japanese audience, it is known as Kanbun (in characters both are written as 漢文, meaning written language of the Han); and for a Vietnamese audience, it is Chữ nho (字儒).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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