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Encyclopedia > Clark M. Clifford

Clark McAdams Clifford (December 25, 1906October 10, 1998) was a highly influential American lawyer who served Presidents Truman, Kennedy, and Johnson and Jimmy Carter, serving as Secretary of Defense for Johnson. Image of Clark M. Clifford from the Department of Defense website (http://www. ... Image of Clark M. Clifford from the Department of Defense website (http://www. ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 6 days remaining. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... October 10 is the 283rd day of the year (284th in Leap years). ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... A lawyer is a person qualified to give legal advice who advises clients in legal matters and represents them in courts of law and in other forms of dispute resolution. ... Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was the thirty-fourth Vice President (1945) and the thirty-third President of the United States (1945–1953), succeeding to the office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. ... John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to as John F. Kennedy, JFK or Jack Kennedy, was the 35th President of the United States. ... LBJ redirects here. ... For the submarine, see USS Jimmy Carter (SSN-23). ... The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense, concerned with the armed services and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ...

Contents


Early life and career

Clifford was born in Fort Scott, Kansas. He attended college and law school at Washington University, and built a solid reputation practicing law in St. Louis, Missouri between 1928 and 1943. He served as an officer with the United States Navy from 1944 to 1946, reaching the rank of captain and serving as assistant naval aide and then naval aide to President Truman, for whom he became a very trusted personal advisor and friend. Fort Scott is a city located 88 miles (158 km) south of Kansas City, on the Marmaton River. ... Washington University in St. ... Nickname: Gateway City, Gateway to the West, or Mound City Official website: http://stlouis. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for conducting naval operations around the globe. ...


Truman Advisor

In July 1945, Clifford attended the Potsdam Conference near Berlin with President Truman. Following his discharge from the Navy, he remained at Truman's side as White House Counsel from 1946-1950. Attlee, Truman, and Stalin at Potsdam The Potsdam Conference was a conference held at Cecilienhof in Potsdam, Germany (near Berlin), from July 17 to August 2, 1945. ... Berlin is the capital city and a single state of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... The White House Counsel is a staff appointee of the President of the United States. ...


A Man of Influence

After leaving the government in 1950, Clifford practiced law in Washington, but continued to advise Democratic leaders. One of his law clients was Sen. John F. Kennedy, and Clifford tried to assuage Truman's suspicion of Kennedy and his father, Joseph P. Kennedy. In 1960, Clifford was a member of President-elect John F. Kennedy's Committee on the Defense Establishment, headed by Stuart Symington. In May 1961, Kennedy appointed Clifford to the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, which he chaired beginning in April 1963. After President Lyndon B. Johnson took office in November 1963 following Kennedy's assassination, Clifford served frequently as an unofficial counselor and sometimes undertook short-term official duties, including a trip with General Maxwell Taylor in 1967 to Vietnam and other countries in Southeast Asia and the Pacific. John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to as John F. Kennedy, JFK or Jack Kennedy, was the 35th President of the United States. ... Joseph Joe Patrick Kennedy, Sr. ... John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to as John F. Kennedy, JFK or Jack Kennedy, was the 35th President of the United States. ... Categories: Stub | 1901 births | 1988 deaths | United States Senators ... The Presidents Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board (PFIAB) is part of the Executive Office of the President of the United States. ... LBJ redirects here. ... General Maxwell Davenport Taylor (August 26, 1901 – April 19, 1987) was an American soldier and diplomat of the mid-20th century. ...


Secretary of Defense

On January 19, 1968, President Johnson announced his selection of Clifford to succeed Robert McNamara as United States Secretary of Defense. Clifford estimated that, in the year just prior to his appointment, he had spent about half of his time advising the President and the other half working for his law firm. January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... Robert McNamara in 1964 Robert Strange McNamara (born June 9, 1916) is an American business executive and a former United States Secretary of Defense. ... Seal of the United States Department of Defense The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense, concerned with the armed services and The Secretary is appointed by the President with the approval of the Senate, and is a member of the Cabinet. ...

Widely known and respected in Washington and knowledgeable on defense matters, Clifford was generally hailed as a worthy successor to McNamara. Many regarded the new secretary as more of a hawk on Vietnam than McNamara and thought his selection might presage an escalation of the U.S. military effort there. Clifford attempted to allay such fears when, responding to a query about whether he was a hawk (favoring aggressive military action) or a dove (favoring a peaceful resolution to the Vietnam War), he remarked, "I am not conscious of falling under any of those ornithological divisions." Image File history File links Young_clark_clifford. ... Image File history File links Young_clark_clifford. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) United States of America South Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand the Philippines Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) National Liberation Front (Viet Cong) Strength ~1,200,000 (1968) ~420,000 (1968) Casualties South Vietnamese dead: 230,000 South Vietnamese wounded: 300,000 US dead...


The new Secretary did not change the management system McNamara installed at The Pentagon, and for the most part assigned internal administration to Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul H. Nitze. Clifford made no effort to depart from McNamara's policies and programs on such matters as nuclear strategy, NATO, and military assistance, but he favored the Sentinel ABM system, to which McNamara had given only lukewarm backing. Clifford wanted to deploy the system, and supported congressional appropriations for it. One important effect of Sentinel construction, he thought, would be to encourage the Soviet Union to enter arms control talks with the United States. Indeed, before Clifford left office, the Johnson administration made arrangements for negotiations that eventually led to the ABM Limitation Treaty of 1972. A pre-9/11 view of The Pentagon, looking east with the Potomac River and Washington Monument in the distance. ... The United States Deputy Secretary of Defense is the second-highest ranking official in the United States Department of Defense. ... Paul Henry Nitze (January 16, 1907 - October 19, 2004) was a high-ranking United States government official who helped shape Cold War defense policy over the course of numerous presidential administrations. ...


Clifford continued McNamara's highly-publicized Cost Reduction Program, announcing that over $1.2 billion had been saved in FY 1968 as a result of the effort. Faced with a congressionally-mandated reduction of expenditures in FY 1969, Clifford suspended the planned activation of an infantry division and deactivated 50 small ships, 9 naval air squadrons, and 23 Nike-Hercules missile launch sites.


By the time Clifford became secretary, Defense Department work on the FY 1969 budget was complete. It amounted in total obligational authority to $77.7 billion, almost $3 billion more than in FY 1968. The final FY 1970 budget, which Clifford and his staff worked on before they left office after the election of Richard M. Nixon to the Presidency, amounted to $75.5 billion TOA. Order: 37th President Vice President: Spiro Agnew (1969–1973), Gerald R. Ford (1973–1974) Term of office: January 20, 1969 – August 9, 1974 Preceded by: Lyndon B. Johnson Succeeded by: Gerald R. Ford Date of birth: January 9, 1913 Place of birth: Yorba Linda, California Date of death: April 22...


Vietnam

Clifford took office committed to continuing President Johnson's Vietnam policies, and Vietnam policy consumed most of his time. At his confirmation hearing, he told the Armed Services Committee of the United States Senate that the limited objective of the United States was to guarantee to the people of South Vietnam the right of self-determination. He opposed ending the U.S. bombing of North Vietnam at the time, but acknowledged that the situation could change. In fact, on March 31, 1968, just a month after Clifford arrived at the Pentagon, President Johnson, in an effort to get peace talks started, ordered the cessation of bombing north of the 20th parallel, an area comprising almost 80 percent of North Vietnam's land area and 90 percent of its population. In the same address, Johnson announced that he would not be a candidate for reelection in 1968, surprising everyone, Clifford included. Soon the North Vietnamese agreed to negotiations, which began in Paris in mid-May 1968. Later, on October 31, 1968, to encourage the success of these talks, the President, with Clifford's strong support, ordered an end to all bombing in North Vietnam. Armed Services Committee could refer to: U.S. House Committee on Armed Services U.S. Senate Committee on Armed Services This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Seal of the Senate The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the Congress of the United States, the other being the House of Representatives. ... Official language Vietnamese Capital Saigon Last President Duong Van Minh Last Prime Minister Vu Van Mau Area  - Total  - % water 173,809 km² N/A Population  - Total  - Density 19,370,000 (1973 est. ... The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRVN), or less commonly, Vietnamese Democratic Republic (Vietnamese: Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cá»™ng Hòa), also known as North Vietnam, was proclaimed by Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi, September 2nd1945 and was recognized by the Peoples Republic of China and the... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (91st in Leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... A pre-9/11 view of The Pentagon, looking east with the Potomac River and Washington Monument in the distance. ... The Eiffel Tower, the international symbol of the city, with the skyscrapers of La Défense business district 5 km/ 3 mi behind. ... October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 61 days remaining. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ...


Clifford, like McNamara, had to deal with frequent requests for additional troops from military commanders in Vietnam. When he became secretary, the authorized force in Vietnam was 525,000. Soon after moving into his Pentagon office, Clifford convinced Johnson to deny General William Westmoreland's request for an additional 206,000 American troops in Vietnam. General William Westmoreland William Childs Westmoreland (March 26, 1914 – July 18, 2005) was a U.S. Army General who commanded American military operations in the Vietnam War at its peak from 1964 to 1968 and who served as US Army Chief of Staff from 1968 to 1972. ...


At the end of March 1968, however, the president agreed to send 24,500 more troops on an emergency basis, raising authorized strength to 549,500, a figure never reached. Even as he oversaw a continued buildup, Clifford preferred to emphasize the points President Johnson had made in his March 31, 1968 address: that the South Vietnamese army could take over a greater share of the fighting, that the administration would place an absolute limit on the number of U.S. troops in Vietnam, and that it would take steps, including the bombing restrictions, to reduce the combat level. March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (91st in Leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ...


Eventually Clifford moved very close, with Johnson's tacit support, to the views McNamara held on Vietnam just before he left office - no further increases in U.S. troop levels, support for the bombing halt, and gradual disengagement from the conflict. By this time Clifford clearly disagreed with Secretary of State Dean Rusk, who believed, according to The Washington Post, "that the war was being won by the allies" and that it "would be won if America had the will to win it." After he left office, Clifford, in the July 1969 issue of Foreign Affairs, made his views very clear: "Nothing we might do could be so beneficial . . . as to begin to withdraw our combat troops. Moreover . . . we cannot realistically expect to achieve anything more through our military force, and the time has come to begin to disengage. That was my final conclusion as I left the Pentagon...." Clifford received the Presidential Medal of Freedom from Johnson on the President's last day in office, January 20, 1969. David Dean Rusk (February 9, 1909 – December 20, 1994) was the United States Secretary of State from 1961 to 1969 under presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson. ... The Washington Post is the largest and oldest newspaper in Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. ... This article is about a journal. ... The Presidential Medal of Freedom The Presidential Medal of Freedom is one of the two highest civilian awards in the United States, considered the equivalent of the Congressional Gold Medal of Honor. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ...


Although the Johnson Administration ended under the cloud of the Vietnam War, Clifford concluded his short term as Secretary of Defense with his reputation actually enhanced. He got along well with the United States Congress, and this helped him to secure approval of at least some of his proposals. He settled into his duties quickly and efficiently, and capably managed the initial de-escalation of U.S. involvement in Vietnam; indeed, he apparently strongly influenced Johnson in favor of a de-escalation strategy. As he left office to return to his law practice in Washington, Clifford expressed the hope and expectation that international tensions would abate, citing the shift in the Vietnam confrontation from the battlefield to the conference table, and the evident willingness of the Soviet Union to discuss limitations on strategic nuclear weapons. Combatants Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) United States of America South Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand the Philippines Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) National Liberation Front (Viet Cong) Strength ~1,200,000 (1968) ~420,000 (1968) Casualties South Vietnamese dead: 230,000 South Vietnamese wounded: 300,000 US dead... Congress in Joint Session. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ...


Special presidential emissary to India

Clifford's legal practice and lobbying work made him wealthy, and he was considered one of Washington's "superlawyers" due to the reach of his influence and seemingly limitless connections. Clifford's office overlooked the White House, emphasizing his long experience in the capital. Clifford was renowned for his seemingly-effortless charm, style, tact and discretion. The southern side of the White House The White House is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of the United States of America. ...


In 1980, President Jimmy Carter appointed him as special presidential emissary to India. Clifford made waves by threatening the newly-established regime of Ayatolla Khomeini of Iran with war for its intransigence in negotiating the release of the hostages seized from the U.S. embassy in Tehran. For the submarine, see USS Jimmy Carter (SSN-23). ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political and spiritual leader of the 1979 revolution that overthrew Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the then Shah of Iran. ... The only atomic weapons ever used in war - the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan by the United States on August 9, 1945, effectively ending World War II. The bombs over Hiroshima (August 6) and Nagasaki immediately killed over 120,000 people. ... A diplomatic mission is a group of people from one nation state present in another nation state to represent the sending state in the receiving State. ... Map of Iran and surrounding lands, showing location of Tehran View from Jamaran looking southwest toward Elahiyeh, Jordan, and Shemiran districts of Tehran. ...


BCCI

In 1991, Clifford's memoirs Counsel to the President (co-authored with Richard Holbrooke, later U.S. ambassador to the United Nations) were published just as his name was implicated in the unfolding Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI) scandal. United Nations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... BCCI in London was closed by the Bank of England in 1991 after evidence emerged of fraud and money laundering. ...


Clifford served as chairman of First American Bankshares, which grew to become the largest bank in Washington, D.C.. Robert Morgenthau, the district attorney of Manhattan, disclosed that his office had found evidence that the parent company of Clifford's bank was secretly controlled by BCCI. Morgenthau convened a grand jury to determine whether Clifford and his partner, Robert A. Altman (not to be confused with the film director), had deliberately misled federal regulators when the two men assured them that BCCI would have no outside control. This article is the current U.S. Collaboration of the Week. ... Robert M. Morgenthau Robert Morris Morgenthau (born July 31, 1919 in New York City) is currently the District Attorney for New York County. ... A district attorney is, in some U.S. jurisdictions, the title of the local public official who represents the government in the prosecution of criminals. ... The Borough of Manhattan, highlighted in yellow, lies between the East River and the Hudson River. ... A grand jury is a type of common law jury responsible for investigating alleged crimes, examining evidence, and issuing indictments if they believe that there is enough evidence for a trial to proceed. ...


Clifford's predicament worsened when it was disclosed he had made about $6 million in profits from bank stock that he bought with an unsecured loan from BCCI. The grand jury handed up indictments, and the U.S. Justice Department opened its own investigation. Clifford's assets in New York, where he kept most of his investments, were frozen. Profit is what is gained, after costs are accounted for. ... It has been suggested that Lenders be merged into this article or section. ... In the common law legal system, an indictment is a formal charge of having committed a serious criminal offence. ... The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is a Cabinet department in the United States government designed to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the law and to ensure fair and impartial administration of justice for all Americans. ...


The "Report to the Committee on Foreign Relations of the United States Senate," prepared by U.S. senators John Kerry and Hank Brown, noted that a key strategy of "BCCI's successful secret acquisitions of U.S. banks in the face of regulatory suspicion was its aggressive use of a series of prominent Americans," Clifford among them [1]. Clifford, who prided himself on decades of meticulously ethical conduct, summed his predicament up when he sadly told a reporter from the New York Times, "I have a choice of either seeming stupid or venal." Most observers believed the former, and concluded that Clifford had not paid sufficiently close attention to the bank or its management structure. It was an unfortunate end to a distinguished career in public service. John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts. ... George Hanks (Hank) Brown (1940-) was a Republican politician and Senator from Colorado. ...


Indictments against Clifford were set aside because of his failing health. After a final, frail appearance in the 1997 PBS documentary Truman, Clifford died in 1998 from natural causes at age 91. He was buried at Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, Virginia. PBS re-directs here; for alternate uses see PBS (disambiguation) PBS logo The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is a non-profit public broadcasting television service with 349 member TV stations in the United States. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... Arlington National Cemetery, in Arlington, Virginia, is an American military cemetery established during the American Civil War on the grounds of Robert E. Lees home. ... Arlington County is a county located in the U.S. state of Virginia (which calls itself a commonwealth), directly across the Potomac River from Washington, DC. By an act of Congress July 9, 1846, the area south of the Potomac was returned to Virginia effective in 1847 As of 2000...


Dramatic Portrayals

Anthony Howard Goldwyn (born May 20, 1960 in Los Angeles, California) is an American actor. ... HBO (Home Box Office) is a premium cable television network with headquarters in New York City. ... Truman is a 1995 HBO movie starring Gary Sinise as Harry S. Truman. ... Donald McNicol Sutherland, OC (born July 17, 1935) is a prolific Canadian actor with a film career spanning over 40 years. ... HBO (Home Box Office) is a premium cable television network with headquarters in New York City. ...

External links

Preceded by:
Robert McNamara
United States Secretary of Defense
1968–1969
Succeeded by:
Melvin Laird
United States Secretaries of Defense Seal of the United States Department of Defense
Forrestal, Johnson, Marshall, Lovett, Wilson, McElroy, Gates, McNamara, Clifford, Laird, Richardson, Schlesinger, Rumsfeld, Brown, Weinberger, Carlucci, Cheney, Aspin, Perry, Cohen, Rumsfeld

 
 

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