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Encyclopedia > Clarinet
Clarinet
Classification
Playing range
Written range:
Related instruments
Musicians
Two soprano clarinets: a B♭ clarinet (left, with capped mouthpiece) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). These use the Oehler system of keywork.
Two soprano clarinets: a B♭ clarinet (left, with capped mouthpiece) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). These use the Oehler system of keywork.

The clarinet is a musical instrument in the woodwind family. The name derives from adding the suffix -et meaning little to the Italian word clarino meaning a particular type of trumpet, as the first clarinets had a strident tone similar to that of a trumpet. The instrument has an approximately cylindrical bore, and uses a single reed. Picture taken by: John Mittler Original at: 777Life. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified for the purpose of making music. ... A wind instrument is a musical instrument that contains some type of resonator (usually a tube), in which a column of air is set into vibration by the player blowing into (or over) a mouthpiece set at the end of the resonator. ... A woodwind instrument is an instrument in which sound is produced by blowing against an edge or by a vibrating with air a thin piece of wood known as a reed. ... A single-reed instrument uses only one reed to produce sound. ... In music, the range of a musical instrument is the distance from the lowest to the highest pitch it can play. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified for the purpose of making music. ... The saxophone (colloquially referred to as sax) is a conical-bored musical instrument usually considered a member of the woodwind family. ... Tárogató The tárogató (Romanian: taragot) refers to two different woodwind instruments, both of them Hungarian. ... For other uses, see Oboe (disambiguation). ... The chalumeau ( chalumeaux) is a wind instrument, the immediate ancestor of the clarinet. ... A clarinetist (also spelled clarinettist) is a musician who plays the clarinet. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (457x1200, 74 KB) Bb- and A-Clarinet, German System (with Mouthpiece on the Bb-Clar) self made Photo by Mezzofortist (The owner of the instruments agreed with the GDFL) File links The following pages link to this file: Clarinet Oehler system... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (457x1200, 74 KB) Bb- and A-Clarinet, German System (with Mouthpiece on the Bb-Clar) self made Photo by Mezzofortist (The owner of the instruments agreed with the GDFL) File links The following pages link to this file: Clarinet Oehler system... The Oehler system is a system for clarinet keys developed by Oskar Oehler. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified for the purpose of making music. ... A woodwind instrument is a musical instrument in which sound is produced by blowing through a mouthpiece against an edge or by a vibrating reed, and in which the pitch is varied by opening or closing holes in the body of the instrument. ... Trumpeter redirects here. ... The bore of a wind instrument is its interior chamber that defines a flow path through which air travels and is set into vibration to produce sounds. ... A single-reed instrument uses only one reed to produce sound. ...


Clarinets actually comprise a family of instruments of differing sizes and pitches. It is the largest such instrument family, with more than a dozen types. Of these many are rare or obsolete, and music written for them is usually played on one of the more common size instruments. The unmodified word clarinet usually refers to the B♭ soprano clarinet, by far the most common clarinet. (See "Clarinet family"). A family of musical instruments is a grouping of several different but related sizes or types of instruments. ... The soprano clarinets are a sub-family of the clarinet family. ... The clarinet family is a musical instrument family including the well-known Bâ™­ clarinet, the slightly less familiar Eâ™­, A, and bass clarinets, and other clarinets. ...


A person who plays the clarinet is called a clarinetist or clarinettist. A clarinetist (also spelled clarinettist) is a musician who plays the clarinet. ...

Contents

Characteristics of the instrument

Tone

The cylindrical bore is largely responsible for the clarinet's distinctive timbre, which varies between its three main registers. It has a very wide compass, spanning some 3-1/2 octaves. The tone quality can vary greatly with the musician, the music, the style of clarinet, and the reed. The German (Oehler system) clarinet generally has a darker tone quality than the French (Boehm system), which typically has a lighter, brighter tone quality. The differences in instruments and geographical isolation of players in different countries led to the development, from the last part of the 18th century on, of several different schools of clarinet playing. The most prominent of these schools were the German/Viennese traditions and the French school, centered around the clarinetists of the Conservatoire de Paris. Increasingly, through the proliferation of recorded music, examples of many different styles of clarinet playing have become available to developing clarinetists. The modern clarinetist has an eclectic palette of "acceptable" tone qualities to choose from. In music, timbre, or sometimes timber, (from Fr. ... In music, a register is the relative height or range of a note, set of pitches or pitch classes, melody, part, instrument or group of instruments. ... The Oehler system is a system for clarinet keys developed by Oskar Oehler. ... The Boehm system for the clarinet is a system of clarinet keywork, developed by Hyacinthe Klosé. The name is somewhat deceptive; the system was inspired by Theobald Boehms system for the flute, but differs from it (necessarily, since the clarinet overblows at the twelfth rather than the flutes... Facade of the Conservatory (CNSMDP) designed by Christian de Portzamparc on the boulevard de la Villette. ...


The A clarinet and B♭ clarinet have nearly the same bore, and use the same mouthpiece. Orchestral players often use both A and B♭ instruments in the same concert, but use only one mouthpiece (and often the same barrel), which they swap between the two as needed (see 'usage' below). The A and the B♭ instruments have nearly identical tonal quality, although the A will generally have a slightly warmer sound.


The tone of the E♭ clarinet is brighter than that of the lower clarinets and can be heard through even loud orchestral textures. Eâ™­ clarinet with Oehler system keywork. ...


The bass clarinet has a characteristically deep, mellow sound. The alto clarinet is similar in sound to the bass, and the basset horn has a tone quality similar to the A clarinet. The bass clarinet is a musical instrument of the clarinet family. ... The alto clarinet is a wind instrument of the clarinet family. ... The basset-horn is a musical instrument, a member of the clarinet family. ...


Range

Clarinets have the largest pitch range of any common woodwind, rivalled only by the bassoon. The intricate key organization that makes this range possible can make playability of some passages awkward. The bottom of the clarinet’s written range is defined by the keywork on each particular instrument; standard keywork schemes allow a low E, E♭, or C. The actual lowest concert pitch depends on the transposition of the instrument in question. The bassoon is a woodwind instrument in the double reed family that typically plays music written in the bass and tenor registers and occasionally even higher. ... A transposing instrument is a musical instrument whose music is written at a pitch different from concert pitch. ...


Nearly all soprano and piccolo clarinets have keywork enabling them to play the E below middle C (E3 in scientific pitch notation) as their lowest written note, though some B♭ clarinets go down to E♭3 to enable them to match the range of the A clarinet. In the case of the B♭ soprano clarinet, the concert pitch of the lowest note is D3, a whole tone lower than the written pitch. Most alto and bass clarinets have an additional key to allow a (written) E♭3. Modern professional-quality bass clarinets generally have additional keywork to C3. Among the less commonly encountered members of the clarinet family, contra-alto and contrabass clarinets may have keywork to E♭3, D3, or C3; the basset clarinet and basset horn generally go to low C3. The soprano clarinets are a sub-family of the clarinet family. ... The piccolo clarinets are members of the clarinet family, much smaller and higher pitched than the more familiar soprano clarinets. ... This article or section may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to be clearer or more simplified. ... The musical interval of a major second — also called a whole-tone — is the relationship between the first note (the root or tonic) and the second note in a major scale (and also a minor scale). ...


Defining the top end of a clarinet’s range is difficult, since many advanced players can produce notes well above the highest notes commonly found in method books. The “high G” two octaves plus a perfect fifth above middle C (G6) is routinely encountered in the standard soprano clarinet literature through the nineteenth century. The C above that (C7) is attainable by most advanced players and is shown on many fingering charts.


The range of a clarinet can be divided into three distinct registers. The lowest register, consisting of the notes up to the written B♭ above middle C (B♭4), is known as the chalumeau register (named after the instrument that was the clarinet's immediate ancestor). This register is the easiest to play and is the first learned by beginning players. The top four notes of this register are known as the throat tones. The chalumeau ( chalumeaux) is a wind instrument, the immediate ancestor of the clarinet. ...


The middle register is termed the clarino (sometimes clarion) register[1] and spans just over an octave (from written B above middle C (B4) to the C two octaves above middle C (C6)); it is the dominant range for most members of the clarinet family and is audible above the brass while playing forte. The top or altissimo register consists of the notes above the written C two octaves above middle C (C6). “Fortissimo” redirects here. ... Altissimo is a technique utilized on woodwind instruments such as the saxophone and clarinet wherein the musician blows overtones that are generally above the normal range of the instrument. ...


Unlike other woodwinds, all three registers have characteristically different sounds. The chalumeau register is rich and relatively quiet. The clarino register is bright and sweet, like a trumpet heard from afar ("clarino" means trumpet and is the root word for "clarinet"). The altissimo register can be piercing and sometimes shrill, though the differences in tone between all three ranges can be diminished with the experience of the player.


Construction and acoustics

The Construction of a Clarinet

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (530x716, 23 KB) Summary The construction of a clarinet. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (530x716, 23 KB) Summary The construction of a clarinet. ...

Materials

Clarinet bodies have been made from a variety of materials including wood, plastic, hard rubber, metal, resin, and ivory.[2] The vast majority of clarinets used by professional musicians are made from African hardwood, often grenadilla, rarely (because of diminishing supplies) Honduran rosewood and sometimes even cocobolo. Historically other woods, notably boxwood, were used. For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... Ebonite is one of the earliest forms of plastic. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Beech is a typical temperate zone hardwood For the record label, see Hardwood Records. ... Grenadilla is a name given to a number of different African black woods, most commonly Dalbergia melanoxylon (sometimes known as Mpingo). ... This article is about a variety of timber. ... Cocobolo is a hardwood from Central America yielded by two to four closely related species of the genus Dalbergia. ... This article is about the box tree. ...


Most modern inexpensive instruments are made of plastic resin, such as ABS. These materials are sometimes called "resonite", which is Selmer's trademark name for its particular type of plastic. Monomers in ABS polymer ABS plastic pipes in use in a wet basement of a paper mill, in Sault Ste. ... The Selmer Company was a manufacturer of musical instruments started in Paris, France in the early 1900s. ...


Metal soprano clarinets were popular in the early twentieth century, until plastic instruments supplanted them; metal construction is still used for the bodies of some contra-alto and contrabass clarinets, and for the necks and bells of nearly all alto and larger clarinets.


Ivory was used for a few 18th century clarinets, but it tends to crack and does not keep its shape well.


Buffet Crampon's Greenline clarinets are made from a composite of wood powder and carbon fiber.[3] Such instruments are less affected by humidity than wooden instruments, but are heavier. Hard rubber, such as ebonite, has been used for clarinets since the 1860s, although few modern clarinets are made of it. Clarinet designers Alastair Hanson and Tom Ridenour are strong advocates of hard rubber.[4] Hanson Clarinets of England manufactures clarinets using a grenadilla compound reinforced with ebonite, known as 'BTR' (bithermal reinforced) grenadilla. This material is also not affected by humidity, and the weight is the same as that of a wood clarinet. Buffet Crampon is a manufacturer of high-quality woodwind instruments including oboes, flutes, saxophones, and bassoons. ... Ebonite is one of the earliest forms of plastic. ...


Mouthpieces are generally made of ebonite, although some inexpensive mouthpieces may be made of plastic. Other materials such as wood, ivory, metal, and glass have also been used. The mouthpiece of a woodwind instrument is that part of the instrument which is placed partly in the players mouth. ...


Reed

The instrument uses a single reed made from the cane of Arundo donax, a type of grass. Reeds may also be manufactured from synthetic materials. The ligature fastens the reed to the mouthpiece. When air is blown through the opening between the reed and the mouthpiece facing, the reed vibrates and produces the instrument's sound. Alto and tenor saxophone reeds. ... Binomial name Arundo donax L. Arundo donax L. (Giant Reed) is a tall perennial reed, native to fresh waters in the Mediterranean region. ... Two Selmer C85 120 mouthpieces with ligatures. ...


While a few clarinetists make their own reeds, most buy manufactured reeds, though many players make adjustments to these reeds to improve playability. Clarinet reeds come in varying degrees of hardness, generally indicated on a scale from one (soft) through five (hard). This numbering system is not standardized, varying between reed manufacturers. Reed hardness and mouthpiece characteristics work together to determine ease of playability, pitch stability, and tonal characteristics.


Acoustics

The body of a modern soprano clarinet is equipped with numerous tone holes of which seven (six front, one back) are covered by the fingertips and the rest are opened or closed using a complicated set of keys. These tone holes allow every note of the chromatic scale to be produced. (On bass and larger clarinets, some alto clarinets, and a few soprano clarinets, some or all of the finger holes are replaced by key-covered holes.) The most common system of keys was named the Boehm System by its designer Hyacinthe Klosé in honour of the flute designer Theobald Boehm, but is not the same as the Boehm System used on flutes. The other main system of keys is called the Oehler system and is used mostly in Germany and Austria (see History). Related is the Albert system used by some jazz, klezmer, and eastern European folk musicians. The Albert and Oehler systems are both based on the earlier Mueller system. A tone hole is an opening in the body of a woodwind instrument that when covered, can alter the pitch of the sound produced. ... Hyacinthe Elanore Klosé (1808-1880) was a French clarinet player and professor at the Conservatoire de Paris who decided to use Theobald Boehm’s flute keywork innovations as a basis for improving the clarinet. ... â™  This article is about the family of musical instruments. ... Theobald Boehm (April 9, 1794- November 25, 1881) was a Bavarian inventor and musician, who perfected the modern flute and its improved fingering system, which has not changed since his time. ... The Boehm System is a system of fingerings, created by inventor and flautist Theobald Boehm in the 1830s which was originally used on the flute and then on a variety of woodwind instruments, including the clarinet, bass clarinet and saxophone. ... The Oehler system is a system for clarinet keys developed by Oskar Oehler. ... Two soprano clarinets: a Bâ™­ clarinet (left, with capped mouthpiece) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). ... The Albert system was the system of clarinet keywork developed by Albert. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Klezmer (from Yiddish כּלי־זמיר, etymologically from Hebrew kli zemer כלי זמר, musical instrument) is a musical tradition which parallels Hasidic and Ashkenazic Judaism. ... Ivan Mueller (also spelt Iwan Müller) was a Russian-born clarinetist and inventor who at the beginning of the 19th century was responsible for a major step forward in the development of the clarinet, the air-tight pad. ...


The bore of the instrument has a basically cylindrical shape, being roughly the same diameter for most of the length of the tube. There is a subtle hourglass shape, with its thinnest part at the junction between the upper and lower joint. This hourglass figure is not visible to the naked eye, but helps in the resonance of the sound. The diameter of the bore affects characteristics such as the stability of the pitch of a given note, or, conversely, the extent to which a note can be 'bent' in the manner required in jazz and other styles of music. The bell is at the bottom of the instrument and flares out to improve the tone of the lowest notes. For other uses, see Hourglass (disambiguation). ... Acoustic resonance is an important consideration for instrument builders as most acoustic instruments use resonators, such as the strings and body of a violin, the length of tube in a flute, and the shape of a drum membrane. ...


The fixed reed and fairly uniform diameter of the clarinet give the instrument an acoustical behavior approximating that of a cylindrical stopped pipe. Covering or uncovering the tone holes varies the effective length of the pipe, changing the resonant frequencies of the enclosed air column and hence the pitch of the sound that is produced. A clarinetist moves between the chalumeau and clarino registers through use of the register key, or speaker key: clarinetists call the change from chalumeau register to clarino register "the break". The register key, when pressed, causes the clarinet to produce the note a twelfth higher, corresponding to the instrument's third harmonic. The clarinet is therefore said to overblow at the twelfth. (By contrast, nearly all other woodwind instruments overblow at the octave, or do not overblow at all; the rackett is the next most common Western instrument that overblows at the twelfth like the clarinet.) A clarinet must therefore have holes and keys for nineteen notes (an octave and a half, from bottom E to B♭) in its lowest register to play a chromatic scale. This overblowing behavior explains both the clarinet's great range and its complex fingering system. The fifth and seventh harmonics are also available, sounding a further sixth and fourth (actually a very flat diminished fifth) higher respectively; these are the notes of the altissimo register. This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Acoustic resonance is an important consideration for instrument builders as most acoustic instruments use resonators, such as the strings and body of a violin, the length of tube in a flute, and the shape of a drum membrane. ... Pitch is the perceived fundamental frequency of a sound. ... The register key is a key on a clarinet which is used to play in the second register; that is, it raises the pitch of most first-register notes by a twelfth (19 semitones) when pressed. ... In music theory, the term interval describes the difference in pitch between two notes. ... Pitched musical instruments are usually based on a harmonic oscillator such as a string or a column of air. ... Overblowing is producing a different note in a wind instrument by forcing air harder. ... The Renaissance Rackett is a double-reed Wind instrument related to the Bassoon. ...


The highest notes on a clarinet can have a piercing quality and can be difficult to tune precisely. Different individual instruments can be expected to play differently in this respect. This becomes critical if a number of instruments are required to play a high part in unison. Fortunately for audiences, disciplined players can use a variety of fingerings to introduce slight variations into the pitch of these higher notes. It is also common for high melody parts to be split into close harmony to avoid this issue.


Since approximately 1850, clarinets have been nominally tuned according to 12-tone equal-temperament. Older clarinets were nominally tuned to meantone, and a skilled performer can use his or her embouchure to considerably alter the tuning of individual notes. Special fingerings may be used to play quarter tones and other microtonal intervals.[5] (Fritz Schüller of Markneukirchen, Germany built a quarter tone clarinet, with two parallel bores of slightly different whose tone holes are operated using the same keywork and a valve to switch from one bore to the other.) Equal temperament is a scheme of musical tuning in which an interval, usually the octave, is divided into a series of equal steps (equal frequency ratios), forming an equal division of the octave. ... Meantone temperament is a system of musical tuning. ... The embouchure is the use of facial muscles and the shaping of the lips to the mouthpiece of a wind instrument. ... A quarter tone is an interval half as wide (aurally, or logarithmically) as a semitone, which is half a whole tone. ... 19 scale piano Microtonal music is music using microtones — intervals of less than an equally spaced semitone, or as Charles Ives put it, the notes between the cracks of the piano. ... Markneukirchen is a town in the Vogtlandkreis district, in the Free State of Saxony, Germany. ... Quarter tone clarinet by Fritz Schüller (1883-1977) of Markneukirchen A quarter tone clarinet is an experimental clarinet designed to play music using quarter tone intervals. ...


Components of a modern soprano clarinet

A Boehm system soprano clarinet is shown in the photos illustrating this section. However, all modern clarinets have similar components.

Clarinet Reed, Mouthpiece, and Ligature
Clarinet Reed, Mouthpiece, and Ligature

The reed is attached to the mouthpiece by the ligature; and the top half-inch or so of this assembly is held in the player’s mouth. (German clarinetists often wind a string around the mouthpiece and reed instead of using a ligature.) The formation of the mouth around the mouthpiece and reed is called the embouchure. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 147 KB)[edit] Summary [edit] Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 147 KB)[edit] Summary [edit] Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... A reed is a thin strip of material which vibrates to make music. ... The mouthpiece of a woodwind instrument is that part of the instrument which is placed partly in the players mouth. ... Two Selmer C85 120 mouthpieces with ligatures. ... A reed is a thin strip of material which vibrates to make music. ... The mouthpiece of a woodwind instrument is that part of the instrument which is placed partly in the players mouth. ... Two Selmer C85 120 mouthpieces with ligatures. ... The embouchure is the use of facial muscles and the shaping of the lips to the mouthpiece of a wind instrument. ...


The reed is on the underside of the mouthpiece, pressing against the player's bottom lip, while the top teeth normally contact the top of the mouthpiece (some players roll the upper lip under the top teeth to form what is called a ‘double-lip’ embouchure). Adjustments in the strength and configuration of the embouchure change the tone and intonation (tuning). It is not uncommon for clarinetists to employ methods to soften the pressure on both the upper teeth and inner lower lip by attaching pads to the top of the mouthpiece or putting (temporary) padding on the front lower teeth, commonly from folded paper.

Barrel of a B♭ soprano Clarinet

Next is the short barrel; this part of the instrument may be extended in order to fine-tune the clarinet. As the pitch of the clarinet is fairly temperature sensitive some instruments have interchangeable barrels whose lengths vary slightly. Additional compensation for pitch variation and tuning can be made by increasing the length of the instrument by pulling out the barrel, particularly common in group playing in which clarinets are tuned to other instruments (such as in an orchestra). Some performers employ a plastic barrel with a thumbwheel that enables the barrel length to be altered. On basset horns and lower clarinets, the barrel is usually replaced by a curved metal neck. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 139 KB)[edit] Summary [edit] Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 139 KB)[edit] Summary [edit] Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... For other uses, see Orchestra (disambiguation). ...

Upper Joint of a Boehm-System Clarinet
Upper Joint of a Boehm-System Clarinet

The main body of most clarinets is divided into the upper joint whose holes and most keys are operated by the left hand, and the lower joint with holes and most keys operated by the right hand. (Some clarinets have a single joint. On some basset horns and larger clarinets the two joints are held together with a screw clamp and are usually not disassembled for storage.) The left thumb operates both a tone hole and the register key. Interestingly, on some models of clarinet, such as many Albert system clarinets, and increasingly some higher-end Boehm system clarinets, the register key is a 'wraparound' key, with the key on the back of the clarinet and the pad on the front. As well as the slightly exotic look this lends to the clarinet, advocates of the wraparound register key advocate improved sound, as well as the benefit that it is harder for condensation to accumulate in the tube beneath the pad. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 162 KB)[edit] Summary [edit] Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 162 KB)[edit] Summary [edit] Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... The Albert system was the system of clarinet keywork developed by Albert. ... The Boehm system for the clarinet is a system of clarinet keywork, developed by Hyacinthe Klosé. The name is somewhat deceptive; the system was inspired by Theobald Boehms system for the flute, but differs from it (necessarily, since the clarinet overblows at the twelfth rather than the flutes...

Lower Joint of a Boehm-System Clarinet
Lower Joint of a Boehm-System Clarinet

The cluster of keys at the bottom of the upper joint (protruding slightly beyond the cork of the joint) are known as the trill keys and are operated by the right hand. These give the player alternative fingerings which make it easy to play ornaments and trills that would otherwise be awkward. The entire weight of the smaller clarinets is supported by the right thumb behind the lower joint on what is called the thumb-rest. Basset horns and larger clarinets are supported with a neck strap or a floor peg. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 180 KB)[edit] Summary [edit] Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 180 KB)[edit] Summary [edit] Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... The trill is a musical ornament consisting of a rapid alternation between two adjacent notes of a scale (compare mordent and tremolo). ...


Finally, the flared end is known as the bell. Contrary to popular belief, the bell does not amplify the sound; rather, it improves the uniformity of the instrument's tone for the lowest notes in each register.

Bell of a B♭ soprano clarinet
Bell of a B♭ soprano clarinet

For the other notes the sound is produced almost entirely at the tone holes and the bell is irrelevant. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 136 KB)[edit] Summary [edit] Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 136 KB)[edit] Summary [edit] Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ...


On basset horns and larger clarinets, the bell curves up and forward, and is usually made of metal. The basset-horn is a musical instrument, a member of the clarinet family. ...


Usage and repertoire of the clarinet

Use of multiple clarinets

The modern orchestral standard of using soprano clarinets in both B♭ and A has to do partly with the history of the instrument, and partly with acoustics, aesthetics and economics. Before about 1800, due to the lack of airtight pads (see History), practical woodwinds could have only a few keys to control accidentals (notes outside their diatonic home scales). Because clarinets overblow at the twelfth rather than the octave, they need keys to control more notes in each register than oboes, flutes, or bassoons do. Clarinets with few keys cannot easily play chromatically, limiting any such instrument to a few closely related key signatures. For example, an eighteenth–century clarinet in C could be played in F, C, G, (and their relative minors) with good intonation, but with progressive difficulty as the key moved away from this range. In contrast, for octave-overblowing instruments, a single instrument in C with few keys could much more readily be played in any key. Modern Oboe The Oboe is a musical instrument of the woodwind family. ... This article pertains to the musical instrument. ... The bassoon is a woodwind instrument in the double reed family that typically plays music written in the bass and tenor registers and occasionally even higher. ...


Therefore by using three clarinets — in A, B♭ and C — early 19th century music, which rarely strayed into the remote keys (five or six sharps or flats), could be played as follows: music in 5 to 2 sharps (B major to D major concert pitch) on A clarinet (D major to F major for the player), music in 1 sharp to 1 flat (G to F) on C clarinet, and music in 2 flats to 4 flats (B♭ to A♭) on the B♭ clarinet (C to B♭). Difficult key signatures and numerous accidentals were thus largely avoided.


With the invention of the airtight pad, and as key technology improved and more keys were added to woodwinds, the need for clarinets in multiple musical keys was reduced. However, the use of more than one instrument in different keys persisted, with the three instruments in C, B♭ and A all used as specified by the composer.


The lower-pitched clarinets sound more "mellow" (less bright), and the C clarinet – being the highest and therefore brightest of the three – eventually fell out of favour. The other two clarinets could cover its range and their sound was considered better. While the clarinet in C began to fall out of general use around 1850, some composers continued to write C parts, e.g. Bizet Symphony in C (1855), Tchaikovsky 2nd Symphony (1872), Smetana Vltava (1874), Brahms 4th Symphony (1885), and Richard Strauss deliberately reintroduced it to take advantage of its brighter tone, e.g. Der Rosenkavalier (1911) et seq.


While technical improvements and an equal-tempered scale reduced the need for two clarinets, the technical difficulty of playing in remote keys remains and the A has remained a standard orchestral instrument. In addition, by the late 19th century the orchestral clarinet repertoire contained so much music for clarinet in A that the disuse of this instrument was not practical. Attempts were made to standardise to the B♭ instrument between 1930 and 1950 (e.g. tutors of the period recommended, with examples and studies, learning the routine transposition of orchestral A parts on the B♭ clarinet, including famous solos written for A clarinet, and some manufacturers provided a low E♭ on the B♭ instrument to match the range of the A clarinet.), but this did not succeed in the orchestral sphere.


Similarly there have been E♭ and D instruments in the upper soprano range, B♭, A, and C instruments in the bass range, and so forth; but over time the E♭ and B♭ instruments have become predominant.


Classical music

A pair of Boehm-System Soprano Clarinets – one in B♭ and one in A.
A pair of Boehm-System Soprano Clarinets – one in B♭ and one in A.

In classical music, clarinets are part of standard orchestral instrumentation, which frequently includes two clarinetists playing individual parts — each player usually equipped with a pair of standard clarinets in B♭ and A (see above) and it is quite common for clarinet parts to alternate between B♭ and A instruments several times over the course of a movement. Clarinet sections grew larger during the last few decades of the 19th century, often employing a third clarinetist, an E♭ or a bass clarinet. In the 20th century, composers such as Igor Stravinsky, Richard Strauss, Gustav Mahler and Olivier Messiaen enlarged the clarinet section on occasion to up to nine players, employing many different clarinets including the E♭ or D soprano clarinets, basset horn, bass clarinet and/or contrabass clarinet. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (650x867, 975 KB)[edit] Summary [edit] Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (650x867, 975 KB)[edit] Summary [edit] Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... This article is about Western art music from 1000 AD to the present. ... For other uses, see Orchestra (disambiguation). ... Igor Stravinsky. ... This article is about the German composer of tone-poems and operas. ... Mahler redirects here. ... Olivier Messiaen It has been suggested that List of students of Olivier Messiaen be merged into this article or section. ... The basset-horn is a musical instrument, a member of the clarinet family. ... The bass clarinet is a musical instrument of the clarinet family. ... The contrabass clarinet is the largest common member of the clarinet family. ...


This practice of using a variety of clarinets to achieve colouristic variety was common in 20th century music and continues today. However, many clarinetists and conductors prefer to play parts originally written for obscure instruments such as the C or D clarinets on B♭ or E♭ clarinets, which are often of better quality and more prevalent and accessible. 20th century classical music, the classical music of the 20th century, was extremely diverse, beginning with the late Romantic style of Sergei Rachmaninoff, Impressionism of Claude Debussy and Maurice Ravel, and continuing through the Neoclassicism of middle-period Igor Stravinsky, and ranging to such distant sound-worlds as the complete...


The clarinet is widely used as a solo instrument. The relatively late evolution of the clarinet (when compared to other orchestral woodwinds) has left a considerable amount of solo repertoire from the Classical, Romantic and Modern periods but few works from the Baroque era. A number of clarinet concertos have been written to showcase the instrument, with the concerti by Mozart, Copland and Weber being particularly well known. The Classical period in Western music occurred from about 1730 through 1820, despite considerable overlap at both ends with preceding and following periods, as is true for all musical eras. ... The expression romantic music and the homophone phrase Romantic music have two essentially different meanings. ... Modern music is music that is part of either the movement of musical modernism or the era of 20th century music, or is contemporary music. ... Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750. ... A clarinet concerto is a concerto for clarinet and orchestra (or concert band). ... “Mozart” redirects here. ... Aaron Copland Aaron Copland (November 14, 1900 – December 2, 1990) was an American composer of concert and film music, as well as an accomplished pianist. ... Carl Maria von Weber Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst, Freiherr von Weber (November 18, 1786 in Eutin, Holstein – June 5, 1826 in London, England) was a German composer, conductor, pianist and critic, one of the first significant composers of the Romantic school. ...


Many works of chamber music have also been written for the clarinet. Particularly common combinations are: Chamber music is a form of classical music, written for a small group of instruments which traditionally could be accommodated in a palace chamber. ...

  • Trio d'anches, or trio of reeds consists of oboe, clarinet, and bassoon.
  • Wind octet, consists of pairs of oboes, clarinets, bassoons, and horns.
  • Clarinet, violin, piano
  • Clarinet, viola, piano
  • Clarinet, violoncello, piano

A clarinet sonata is piece of music in sonata form for clarinet, often with piano accompaniment. ... A string instrument (or stringed instrument) is a musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... The bass clarinet is a musical instrument of the clarinet family. ... The resident string quartet of the Library of Congress in 1963 A string quartet is a musical ensemble of four string instruments—usually two violins, a viola and cello—or a piece written to be performed by such a group. ... A wind quintet, also sometimes known as a woodwind quintet, is a group of five wind players (most commonly flute, oboe, clarinet, horn and bassoon). ... French horn redirects here. ... For the Anne Rice novel, see Violin (novel). ... For other uses, see Viola (disambiguation). ... Alternate meaning: Cello web browser A cropped image to show the relative size of a cello to a human (Uncropped Version) The cello (also violoncello or cello) is a stringed instrument and part of the violin family. ...

Concert bands

In wind bands, clarinets are a particularly central part of the instrumentation, occupying the same space (and often playing the same parts) in bands that the strings do in orchestras. Bands usually include several B♭ clarinets, divided into sections each consisting of 2–3 clarinetists playing the same part. There is almost always an E♭ clarinet part and a bass clarinet part, usually doubled. Alto, contra-alto, and contrabass clarinets are sometimes used as well, and very rarely a piccolo A♭ clarinet. A concert band, also called wind band, symphonic band, symphonic winds, wind orchestra, wind symphony, or wind ensemble, is a performing ensemble consisting of several members of the woodwind instrument family, brass instrument family and percussion instrument family. ...


Jazz

Dr Michael White (front right) plays clarinet at a jazz funeral in Treme, New Orleans, Louisiana.
Dr Michael White (front right) plays clarinet at a jazz funeral in Treme, New Orleans, Louisiana.

The clarinet was a central instrument in early jazz starting in the 1910s and remaining popular in the United States through the big band era into the 1940s. Larry Shields, Ted Lewis, Jimmie Noone and Sidney Bechet were influential in early jazz. The B♭ soprano was the most common instrument, but a few early jazz musicians such as Louis Nelson Delisle and Alcide Nunez preferred the C soprano, and many New Orleans jazz brass bands have used E♭ soprano. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (678x630, 107 KB) Musicians at Jazz funeral in Treme, New Orleans. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (678x630, 107 KB) Musicians at Jazz funeral in Treme, New Orleans. ... Michael White (left) at the funeral for Danny Barker. ... NOLA redirects here. ... A big band is a type of musical ensemble associated with playing jazz music and which became popular during the Swing Era from the early 1930s until the late 1940s, although there are many big-bands around nowadays. ... Lawrence J. Larry Shields (September 13, 1893 - November 21, 1953) was an early jazz clarinetist. ... Theodore Leopold Friedman, better known as Ted Lewis (June 6, 1890-August 25, 1971), was an American entertainer, bandleader, singer, and musician. ... Jimmie Noone (sometimes spelled Jimmy Noone) (April 23, 1895 – April 19, 1944) was an early jazz clarinetist. ... Sidney Bechet Sidney Bechet (May 14, 1897 – May 14, 1959) was a jazz saxophonist, clarinetist, and composer. ... Alcide Nunez (March 17, 1884 - September 2, 1934) was an early jazz clarinetist. ...


Swing clarinetists such as Benny Goodman, Artie Shaw, and Woody Herman led successful and popular big bands and smaller groups from the 1930s onward. With the decline of the big bands' popularity in the late 1940s, the clarinet faded from its prominent position in jazz, though a few players (Buddy DeFranco, Eric Dolphy, Jimmy Giuffre, Perry Robinson, Theo Jorgensmann and others) used clarinet in bebop and free jazz. Benny Goodman, born Benjamin David Goodman[1] , (May 30, 1909 – June 13, 1986) was an American jazz musician and virtuoso clarinetist, known as King of Swing, Patriarch of the Clarinet, The Professor, and Swings Senior Statesman. // Goodman was born in Chicago, the ninth of twelve children of poor Jewish... Artie Shaw (May 23, 1910, New York, New York – December 30, 2004, Thousand Oaks, California) is considered to be one of the best jazz musicians of his time. ... Woodrow Charles Herman (May 16, 1913 – October 29, 1987), better known as Woody Herman, was an American jazz clarinetist, alto and soprano saxophonist, singer, and big band leader. ... For the music genre, see Pop music. ... Buddy DeFranco (born 1923) is a jazz clarinet player. ... Eric Allan Dolphy (June 20, 1928 – June 29, 1964) was a jazz musician who played alto saxophone, flute and bass clarinet. ... James Peter Giuffre (born in Dallas, Texas, 1921) is an American jazz saxophone and clarinet player. ... Perry Morris Robinson (born September 17, 1938 in New York City) is a Free Jazz clarinet player, and the son of composer and folk singer Earl Robinson. ... Theo Jörgensmann (born 1948 in Bottrop) is a jazz and free-improvising bassett clarinet player and composer. ... This article is about the genre of music, for the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles character see Bebop and Rocksteady. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ...


During the 1950s and 1960s, Britain underwent a surge in the popularity of traditional jazz. During this period, a British clarinetist named Acker Bilk became popular, founding his own ensemble in 1956. Bilk had a string of successful records including the most popular, Stranger on the Shore, a tune now synonymous with Acker Bilk himself. Trad jazz, short for traditional jazz is a music genre popular in Britain and Australia from the 1940s onward through the 1950s and which still has enthusiasts today. ... Acker Bilk (often referred to as Mr. ... The hit record of Stranger on the Shore on Columbia Records DB 4750 Stranger on the Shore is a piece for clarinet written by Acker Bilk for his young daughter and originally named Jenny after her. ...


Back in the U.S., the instrument has seen something of a resurgence since the 1980s, with Eddie Daniels, Don Byron, and others playing the clarinet in more contemporary contexts. The instrument remains common in Dixieland music; Pete Fountain is one of the best known performers in this genre. Bob Wilber, active since the 1950s, is a more eclectic jazz clarinetist, playing in a number of classic jazz styles. Eddie Daniels (born 19 October 1941) is a prolific American musician. ... Tuskegee Experiments, 1992 Don Byron (born November 8, 1958 in New York City) is a composer and jazz clarinet player. ... Dixieland music is a style of jazz which developed in New Orleans at the start of the 20th century, and was spread to Chicago and New York City by New Orleans bands in the 1910s. ... Pete Fountain (born July 3, 1930) is a New Orleans clarinetist. ... Bob Wilber (born 15 March 1928), is an internationally recognized American jazz clarinetist, saxophonist and band leader. ...


Filmmaker Woody Allen is a notable jazz clarinet enthusiast, and performs New Orleans-style jazz regularly with his quartet in New York. Woody Allen (born Allen Stewart Konigsberg; December 1, 1935) is a three-time Academy Award-winning American film director, writer, actor, jazz musician, comedian and playwright. ...


Rock and pop

In Rock and Pop music, the clarinet is used very rarely. Some examples are:


All Kinds of Everything by Dana took the instrument to the top of the pop charts in 1970. All Kinds Of Everything was the winning song in the Eurovision Song Contest 1970, sung in English by Dana representing Ireland in Amsterdam. ... // Given names: Dana, Catholic singer, pop singer, 1970 Eurovision Song Contest winner Dana (Korean singer), a South Korean pop singer who is part of girl group TSZX the Grace Dana International, Eurovision Song Contest winner and Israeli transsexual singer DJ Lady Dana, a Dutch DJ Dana Perino, White House Press...


The Beatles used a clarinet trio on their song When I'm Sixty-Four, from the album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. The White Album, see The Beatles (album). ... When Im Sixty-Four is a love song by The Beatles, written by Paul McCartney[1][2] (but co-credited to John Lennon) and released in 1967 on their album Sgt. ... For other uses, see Sgt. ...


Jerry Martini plays clarinet on Sly and the Family Stone's "Dance to the Music". Jerry Martini (born October 1, 1943 in Colorado) is an American musician, best known for being the saxophonist for the popular and influential psychedelic soul/funk band Sly & the Family Stone. ... Sly & the Family Stone were an American rock band from San Francisco, California. ... Dance to the Music is a 1968 hit single by the influential soul/rock/funk band Sly & the Family Stone for the Epic/CBS Records label. ...


John Helliwell with the band Supertramp sometimes uses the clarinet. John Anthony Helliwell is the saxophonist and occasional keyboardist for the rock band Supertramp John Helliwell was born in Todmorden, Yorkshire, England on February 15, 1945. ... This article is about the band. ...


Patti Smith uses clarinet on her albums Twelve, Trampin' and Peace and Noise (song "Spell"). Patricia Lee (Patti) Smith (born December 30, 1946) is an American musician, singer, and poet. ... Twelve is the tenth album by American singer-songwriter Patti Smith. ... Trampin is the ninth album by American singer-songwriter Patti Smith. ... Peace and Noise is the seventh album by American singer-songwriter Patti Smith. ...


Radiohead employed a clarinet for Life in a Glasshouse from the album Amnesiac. Radiohead are an English alternative rock band from Oxfordshire. ... Life in a Glasshouse is a song by British rock band Radiohead on the album Amnesiac. ... Amnesiac is the fifth studio album by the English band Radiohead. ...


Other genres

Clarinets also feature prominently in much Klezmer music, which requires a very distinctive style of playing. This folk genre makes much use of quarter-tones, making a different embouchure (mouth position) necessary. Some klezmer musicians prefer Albert system clarinets. Klezmer (from Yiddish כּלי־זמיר, etymologically from Hebrew kli zemer כלי זמר, musical instrument) is a musical tradition which parallels Hasidic and Ashkenazic Judaism. ...


The popular Brazilian music style choro often uses a clarinet. Prominent contemporary players include Paquito D'Rivera. Choro, also called chorinho, is a Brazilian popular music style. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


The clarinet is prominent in Bulgarian wedding music, an offshoot of Roma/Romani traditional music. Ivo Papazov is a well-known clarinetist in this genre. Ivo Papazov (Bulgarian: ) (born 16 February 1952 in Kardzhali), nicknamed Ibryama (Bulgarian: ), is a Bulgarian clarinetist. ...


In Greece the clarinet (usually referred to as "κλαρίνο" - "clarino") is prominent in the traditional music of the country, especially central and northwest Greece (Thessaly and Epirus). It has a unique sound due to the integration of it with zurna, the dominant (double-reed) woodwind before clarinet arrived to the country. Many Greeks regard the clarinet as a native instrument. Traditional dance music, wedding music and laments include a clarinet soloist and quite often improvisations. Petroloukas Chalkias is a famous clarinetist in this genre. Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... The name Epirus, from the Greek Ήπειρος meaning continent may refer to: // Epirus (region) - a historical and geographical region of the southwestern Balkans, straddling modern Greece and Albania Epirus (periphery) - one of the thirteen peripheries (administrative divisions) of Greece. ... For other meanings, see Zurna (disambiguation) and Surna (disambiguation) The Zurna (also called Surnay, birbynÄ—, lettish horn, surla, sornai, zournas, zurma) is an Anatolian woodwind instrument. ...


The instrument is equally famous in Turkey, especially the soprano clarinet in G. The soprano clarinet crossed via Turkey to Arabic music, where it is widely used in Arabic pop, especially if the intention of the arranger is to imitate the Turkish style or if the arranger is himself a Turk. Arabic music includes several genres and styles of music ranging from Arab classical to Arabic pop music and from secular to sacred music. ... Arabic pop music or Arab pop is a subgenre of Arabic music. ...


Groups of clarinets

Groups of clarinets playing together have become increasingly popular among clarinet enthusiasts in recent years. Common forms are:

  • Clarinet choir, which features a large number of clarinets playing together, usually involves a range of different members of the clarinet family (see Extended family of clarinets). The homogeneity of tone across the different members of the clarinet family produces an effect with some similarities to a human choir.
  • Clarinet quartet, usually three B♭ sopranos and one B♭ bass, but also sometimes four B♭ sopranos.

Clarinet choirs and quartets often play arrangements of both classical and popular music, in addition to a body of literature specially written for a combination of clarinets by composers such as Arnold Cooke, Alfred Uhl, Lucien Caillet and Václav Nelhýbel. This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Two soprano clarinets: a Bâ™­ clarinet (left, with capped mouthpiece) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Arnold Atkinson Cooke (November 4, 1906 - August 13, 2005), was a British composer. ... Alfred Uhl was an Austrian composer, living from 1909 to 1993 who wrote extensively for clarinet with educational material and works that are still common repetoire today. ... Lucien Caillet (May 27, 1897 - January 3, 1985) was an American composer, conductor, arranger and clarinetist. ... Václav Nelhýbel (September 24, 1919 – March 22, 1996) is a Czech-American composer, mainly of works for student performers. ...


Extended family of clarinets

Main article: Clarinet family

There is a family of many differently-pitched clarinet types, some of which are very rare. The following are the most important sizes: The clarinet family is a musical instrument family including the well-known Bâ™­ clarinet, the slightly less familiar Eâ™­, A, and bass clarinets, and other clarinets. ... A family of musical instruments is a grouping of several different but related sizes or types of instruments. ... The clarinet family is a musical instrument family including the well-known Bâ™­ clarinet, the slightly less familiar Eâ™­, A, and bass clarinets, and other clarinets. ...

Experimental EEE♭ and BBB♭ Octocontra-alto and Octocontrabass clarinets have also been built. The piccolo clarinets are members of the clarinet family, much smaller and higher pitched than the more familiar soprano clarinets. ... The soprano clarinets are a sub-family of the clarinet family. ... Eâ™­ clarinet with Oehler system keywork. ... The basset-horn is a musical instrument, a member of the clarinet family. ... The basset-horn is a musical instrument, a member of the clarinet family. ... The alto clarinet is a wind instrument of the clarinet family. ... The bass clarinet is a musical instrument of the clarinet family. ... A contra-alto clarinet made by the clarinet-making company Selmer. ... The contrabass clarinet is the largest common member of the clarinet family. ... The term subcontrabass clarinet refers to any clarinet with range lower than that of the contrabass clarinet. ...


Clarinets other than the standard B♭ and A soprano clarinets are sometimes known as harmony clarinets.


There have also been soprano clarinets in C, A, and B♭ with curved barrels and bells marketed under the names Saxonette, Claribel, and Clariphon. A saxonette is a woodwind musical instrument and a member of the clarinet family. ...


History

4-key boxwood clarinet, ca. 1760.
4-key boxwood clarinet, ca. 1760.

The clarinet developed from a Baroque instrument called the chalumeau. This instrument was similar to a recorder, but with a single reed mouthpiece similar to that of the modern clarinet and a cylindrical bore. Lacking a register key, it was played mainly in its fundamental register, with a limited range of about one and a half octaves. It had eight finger holes, like a recorder, plus two keys for its two highest notes. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (299x1650, 159 KB)[edit] Summary [edit] Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (299x1650, 159 KB)[edit] Summary [edit] Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750. ... The chalumeau ( chalumeaux) is a wind instrument, the immediate ancestor of the clarinet. ... Various recorders The recorder is a woodwind musical instrument of the family known as fipple flutes or internal duct flutes — whistle-like instruments which include the tin whistle and ocarina. ...


Around the turn of the 18th century the chalumeau was modified by converting one of its keys into a register key to produce the first clarinet. This development is usually attributed to a German instrument maker named Johann Christoph Denner, though some have suggested his son Jacob Denner was the inventor. This instrument played well in the middle register with a loud, strident tone, so it was given the name clarinetto meaning "little trumpet" (from clarino + -etto). Early clarinets did not play well in the lower register, so chalumeaux continued to be made to play the low notes and these notes became known as the chalumeau register. As clarinets improved, the chalumeau fell into disuse. Johann Christoph Denner (August 13, 1655–April 20, 1707), was a famous woodwind instrument maker of the Baroque era, to whom the invention of the clarinet in 1690 is attributed. ...


The original Denner clarinets had two keys, and could play a chromatic scale, but various makers added more keys to get improved notes, easier fingerings, and a slightly larger range. The classical clarinet of Mozart's day typically had eight finger holes and five keys. The chromatic scale is a scale with twelve pitches, each a semitone or half step apart. ... “Mozart” redirects here. ...


Clarinets were soon accepted into orchestras. Later models had a mellower tone than the originals. Mozart (d. 1791) liked the sound of the clarinet (he considered its tone the closest in quality to the human voice) and wrote much music for it, and by the time of Beethoven (c. 1800–1820), the clarinet was a standard fixture in the orchestra. “Beethoven” redirects here. ...


The next major development in the history of clarinet was the invention of the modern pad. Early clarinets covered the tone holes with felt pads. Because these leaked air, the number of pads had to be kept to a minimum, so the clarinet was severely restricted in what notes could be played with a good tone. In 1812, Ivan Mueller, a Russian-born clarinetist and inventor, developed a new type of pad which was covered in leather or fish bladder. This was completely airtight, so the number of keys could be increased enormously. He designed a new type of clarinet with seven finger holes and thirteen keys. This allowed the clarinet to play in any key with near equal ease. Over the course of the 19th century, many enhancements were made to Mueller's clarinet, such as the Albert system and the Baermann system, all keeping the same basic design. The Mueller clarinet and its derivatives were popular throughout the world. Ivan Mueller (also spelt Iwan Müller) was a Russian-born clarinetist and inventor who at the beginning of the 19th century was responsible for a major step forward in the development of the clarinet, the air-tight pad. ...


The final development in the modern design of the clarinet used in most of the world today was introduced by Hyacinthe Klosé in 1839. He devised a different arrangement of keys and finger holes which allow simpler fingering. It was inspired by the Boehm System developed by Theobald Boehm, a flute maker who had invented the system for flutes. Klosé was so impressed by Boehm's invention that he named his own system for clarinets the Boehm system, although it is different from the one used on flutes. This new system was slow to catch on because it meant the player had to relearn how to play the instrument. To ease this transition, Klose wrote a series of exercises for the clarinet, designed to teach his fingering system. Gradually, however, it became the standard and today the Boehm system is used everywhere in the world except Germany and Austria. These countries still use a direct descendant of the Mueller clarinet known as the Oehler system clarinet. Also, some contemporary Dixieland and Klezmer players continue to use Albert system clarinets, as the simpler fingering system can allow for easier slurring of notes. At one time the reed was held on using string, but now the practice exists primarily in Germany and Austria, where the tone is preferred over that produced with the ligatures that are more popular in the rest of the world. Hyacinthe Elanore Klosé (1808-1880) was a French clarinet player and professor at the Conservatoire de Paris who decided to use Theobald Boehm’s flute keywork innovations as a basis for improving the clarinet. ... The Boehm System is a system of fingerings, created by inventor and flautist Theobald Boehm in the 1830s which was originally used on the flute and then on a variety of woodwind instruments, including the clarinet, bass clarinet and saxophone. ... Theobald Boehm (April 9, 1794- November 25, 1881) was a Bavarian inventor and musician, who perfected the modern flute and its improved fingering system, which has not changed since his time. ... The Boehm system for the clarinet is a system of clarinet keywork, developed by Hyacinthe Klosé. The name is somewhat deceptive; the system was inspired by Theobald Boehms system for the flute, but differs from it (necessarily, since the clarinet overblows at the twelfth rather than the flutes... The Oehler system is a system for clarinet keys developed by Oskar Oehler. ... The Albert system was the system of clarinet keywork developed by Albert. ...


See also

The following are lists of makers of clarinets, clarinet mouthpieces, clarinet ligatures, and clarinet reeds. ... The double clarinet (or zummara) is a Middle Eastern musical instrument consisting of two parallel cane or bamboo pipes, with five or six holes each. ... Quarter tone clarinet by Fritz Schüller (1883-1977) of Markneukirchen A quarter tone clarinet is an experimental clarinet designed to play music using quarter tone intervals. ... This is an alphabetical list of jazz clarinetists for whom Wikipedia has articles. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Sadie, Stanley (1984). New Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments. Macmillan Press, 391. 
  2. ^ Rendall, F. Geoffrey (1971). The Clarinet (Third Edition), 11–15. 
  3. ^ Greenline Clarinets. Buffet Crampon. Retrieved on 2007-03-16.
  4. ^ Materials. Hanson Clarinets. Retrieved on 2007-06-22.; Ridenour, Tom. The Grenadilla Myth. Retrieved on 2007-03-16.
  5. ^ Heaton, Roger. "The Contemporary Clarinet". doi:10.2277/0521476682.  In Lawson (ed.), Colin (1995). The Cambridge Companion to the Clarinet. Cambridge University Press, 174–175. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

References

  • Nicholas Bessaraboff, Ancient European Musical Instruments. Boston: Harvard University Press, 1941.
  • Jack Brymer, Clarinet. (Yehudi Menuhin Music Guides) Hardback and paperback, 296 pages, Kahn & Averill. ISBN 1-871082-12-9
  • David Pino, The Clarinet and Clarinet Playing. Providence: Dover Pubns, 1998, 320 p.; ISBN 0-486-40270-3
  • F. Geoffrey Rendall, The Clarinet. Second Revised Edition. London: Ernest Benn Limited, 1957.
  • Cyrille Rose, Artistic Studies, Book 1. ed. David Hite. San Antonio: Southern Music, 1986.
  • Nicholas Shackleton, "Clarinet", Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (accessed 21 February 2006), grovemusic.com (subscription access).
  • Buffet Crampon Greenline website
  • Jennifer Ross, "Clarinet", "Ohio: Hardcover Printing Press, 1988.
  • Fabrizio Meloni, Il Clarinetto, ill., 299 pages, Zecchini Editore, zecchini.com Italy, 2002, ISBN 88-87203-03-2.

Second Edition, shelved The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is an encyclopedic dictionary of music and musicians and is regarded as the most authoritative reference source on the subject in the English language. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

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Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiversity logo Wikiversity is a Wikimedia Foundation beta project[1], devoted to learning materials and activities, located at www. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... The clarinet family is a musical instrument family including the well-known Bâ™­ clarinet, the slightly less familiar Eâ™­, A, and bass clarinets, and other clarinets. ... The piccolo clarinets are members of the clarinet family, much smaller and higher pitched than the more familiar soprano clarinets. ... Eâ™­ clarinet with Oehler system keywork. ... The soprano clarinets are a sub-family of the clarinet family. ... A saxonette is a woodwind musical instrument and a member of the clarinet family. ... Quarter tone clarinet by Fritz Schüller (1883-1977) of Markneukirchen A quarter tone clarinet is an experimental clarinet designed to play music using quarter tone intervals. ... The basset-horn is a musical instrument, a member of the clarinet family. ... Two clarinettes damour. ... The basset-horn is a musical instrument, a member of the clarinet family. ... The alto clarinet is a wind instrument of the clarinet family. ... The bass clarinet is a musical instrument of the clarinet family. ... A contra-alto clarinet made by the clarinet-making company Selmer. ... The contrabass clarinet is the largest common member of the clarinet family. ... The term subcontrabass clarinet refers to any clarinet with range lower than that of the contrabass clarinet. ... The term subcontrabass clarinet refers to any clarinet with range lower than that of the contrabass clarinet. ... The Albert system was the system of clarinet keywork developed by Albert. ... The Boehm system for the clarinet is a system of clarinet keywork, developed by Hyacinthe Klosé. The name is somewhat deceptive; the system was inspired by Theobald Boehms system for the flute, but differs from it (necessarily, since the clarinet overblows at the twelfth rather than the flutes... The Mazzeo system is a key system used for clarinets. ... The Oehler system is a system for clarinet keys developed by Oskar Oehler. ... A clarinetist (also spelled clarinettist) is a musician who plays the clarinet. ... Heinrich Joseph Bärmann (also spelt Baermann) (1784-1847) was a clarinet virtuoso of the Romantic era who is generally considered as being not only an outstanding performer of his time, but highly influential in the creation of several composers compositions. ... Knight Walter Boeykens January 6, 1938 Bornem, Belgium is a Belgian conductor and a world renowned clarinetist. ... Jack Brymer OBE (27 January 1915 - 15 September 2003), born in South Shields, was a British clarinetist. ... James Campbell (b. ... Henry Lazarus (1 January 1815 - 1895) was the leading British clarinet virtuoso of the 19th century. ... Sabine Meyer is a German classical clarinetist. ... David Shifrin is an American classical clarinetist. ... Anton Stadler (1753 - 1812) was a clarinet and basset horn player for whom Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart wrote both his Quintet_for_Clarinet_and_Strings and Clarinet Concerto. ... Milenko Mima Stefanović (born February 19, 1930 in Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro) is the most famous Serbian clarinettist. ... Richard Stoltzman (born 1942) is an American clarinetist. ... This is an alphabetical list of jazz clarinetists for whom Wikipedia has articles. ... Woody Allen (born Allen Stewart Konigsberg; December 1, 1935) is a three-time Academy Award-winning American film director, writer, actor, jazz musician, comedian and playwright. ... Buddy DeFranco (born 1923) is a jazz clarinet player. ... Eric Allan Dolphy (June 20, 1928 – June 29, 1964) was a jazz musician who played alto saxophone, flute and bass clarinet. ... Pete Fountain (born July 3, 1930) is a New Orleans clarinetist. ... Benny Goodman, born Benjamin David Goodman[1] , (May 30, 1909 – June 13, 1986) was an American jazz musician and virtuoso clarinetist, known as King of Swing, Patriarch of the Clarinet, The Professor, and Swings Senior Statesman. // Goodman was born in Chicago, the ninth of twelve children of poor Jewish... Artie Shaw (May 23, 1910, New York, New York – December 30, 2004, Thousand Oaks, California) is considered to be one of the best jazz musicians of his time. ... The following are lists of makers of clarinets, clarinet mouthpieces, clarinet ligatures, and clarinet reeds. ... Amati-Denak is a manufacturer of wind and percussion instruments, parts, and accessories. ... Arioso is a manufacturer of woodwind instruments. ... E. K. Blessing is a manufacturer of wind instruments and accessories. ... Buffet Crampon is a manufacturer of high-quality woodwind instruments including oboes, flutes, saxophones, and bassoons. ... Johann Christoph Denner (August 13, 1655–April 20, 1707), was a famous woodwind instrument maker of the Baroque era, to whom the invention of the clarinet in 1690 is attributed. ... Benedikt Eppelsheim is a world-renowned German manufacturer of high- and low-voiced saxophones, the soprillo and tubax, which are available exclusively from him. ... Stephen Fox is a clarinet maker based in Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada. ... Heinrich Grenser (full name Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Grenser) was a musical instrument maker. ... Howarth of London is a company specialising in the manufacture and retail of woodwind instruments and associated accessories. ... Jupiter Band Instruments, Inc. ... Leblanc, Inc. ... Ivan Mueller (b. ... Life-size statue of Adolphe Sax outside his birthplace in Dinant, Belgium. ... The Selmer Company was a manufacturer of musical instruments started in Paris, France in the early 1900s. ... The headquarters of Yamaha Corporation Yamaha redirects here. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... A clarinet concerto is a concerto for clarinet and orchestra (or concert band). ... A clarinet sonata is piece of music in sonata form for clarinet, often with piano accompaniment. ... A clarinet-violin-piano trio is a chamber musical ensemble made up of one clarinet, one violin, and one piano, or the name of a piece written for such a group. ... A single-reed instrument uses only one reed to produce sound. ... The aulochrome is a new woodwind instrument invented by Belgian François Louis in 2001. ... The heckel-clarina, also known as clarina or patent clarina, is a very rare woodwind instrument, invented and manufactured by Wilhelm Heckel in Wiesbaden-Biebrich, Germany. ... A musician playing a heckelphone-clarinet. ... The Octavin is a woodwind instrument with a conical bore and a single reed. ... The saxophone (colloquially referred to as sax) is a conical-bored musical instrument usually considered a member of the woodwind family. ... Tárogató The tárogató (Romanian: taragot) refers to two different woodwind instruments, both of them Hungarian. ... The Xaphoon (also known as Maui Xaphoon or Bamboo Sax) is a single-reed keyless bamboo wind instrument. ... The chalumeau ( chalumeaux) is a wind instrument, the immediate ancestor of the clarinet. ... Albogues The albogue is a single-reed clarinet coming from Spain, especially from Madrid (gaita serrana), Asturias (turullu), Castile and Andalusia (gaita gastoreña). It is simillar to a hornpipe, like the Welsh pibgorn and the Basque alboka. ... The alboka is a double clarinet coming from the Basque region of Northern Spain. ... Diplica The diplica is an ancient, clarinet-like, single-reed instrument which was played in different forms in many parts of Croatia, but now survives only in the Baranja region. ... The Highland Hornpipe is a musical instrument that can be played similarly to a chanter on a Highland Bagpipe, although it is usually tuned an octave lower than a bagpipe chanter. ... The launeddas, triple clarinet or triplepipe is a typical Sardinian woodwind instrument, consisting of three pipes. ... A Pibgorn is a reed instrument from Wales. ... Phenylketonuria fee-nil-kee-ton-yur-ee-aah+ (PKU) is a human genetic disorder that occurs in about 1 in 15,000 births, but the incidence varies widely in different human populations from 1 in 4,500 births among the Irish to fewer than one in 100,000 births among... The sipsi is a Turkish woodwind instrument. ... Zhaleika (Жалейка in Russian, a. ... The arghul, also spelled argul, arghoul, arghool, argol or yarghul (Palestine), is a traditional Arabic musical instrument. ... The double clarinet (or zummara) is a Middle Eastern musical instrument consisting of two parallel cane or bamboo pipes, with five or six holes each. ... The mijwiz is a traditional musical instrument of ancient Egypt and the Levant. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia4U - Clarinet - Encyclopedia Article (971 words)
The clarinet (sometimes historically spelled clarionet) is a musical instrument in the woodwind family.
The clarinet was invented in Nuremberg, Germany on January 14, 1690.
Clarinets are usually pitched in the key of B flat or A, although there are other harmony clarinets in the keys of C, Eb, D, and Ab.
Clarinet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3750 words)
The tone of the E♭ clarinet is quite a bit brighter than any other member of the widely-used clarinet family and is known for its distinctive ability to cut through even loud orchestral textures; this effect was utilized by such 20th century composers such as Mahler, Copland, Shostakovich, and Stravinsky.
Clarinet choirs and quartets often play arrangements of both classical and popular music, in addition to a body of literature specially written for a combination of clarinets by composers such as Arnold Cooke, Alfred Uhl, Lucien Caillet and Vaclav Nehlybel.
The latter and the clarinet in G often occurred as clarinette d'amour in the mid-18th century.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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