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Encyclopedia > Clara Schumann
Clara Schumann
Clara Schumann

Clara Josephine Wieck Schumann (September 13, 1819May 20, 1896) was a German musician, one of the leading pianists of the Romantic era, as well as a composer, and wife of composer Robert Schumann. Clara Schumann This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Clara Schumann This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... 1819 common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... May 20 is the 140th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (141st in leap years). ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... Pianist Claudio Arrau, Carnegie Hall, 1954. ... The era of Romantic music is defined as the period of European classical music that runs roughly from the early 1800s to the first decade of the 20th century, as well as music written according to the norms and styles of that period. ... For others with the same name see Robert Schumann (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Biography

Clara Schumann on 100 Deutsche Mark, Obverse.
Clara Schumann on 100 Deutsche Mark, Obverse.

Clara Schumann was born in Leipzig, Saxony. Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Deutsche Mark (DM, DEM) was the official currency of West and, from 1990, unified Germany. ...   [] (Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk) is the largest city in the federal state of Saxony in Germany with a population of over 504,000. ... The Free State of Saxony (German: Freistaat Sachsen; Sorbian: Swobodny Stat Sakska) is the easternmost federal state of Germany. ...


She trained from the age of five with her father, the well-known piano pedagogue Friedrich Wieck. Prior to beginning her lessons, young Clara had been a late talker, only uttering her first words some time between four and five years old. In fact, she described herself as understanding as little as she spoke and as having disinterest in all that was passing around her, a condition that was not "entirely cured"- as she put it- until she was eight years old.[1] Clara Schumann's pattern of delayed speech and subsequent virtuosity is shared by other famous late-talkers such as fellow pianist Arthur Rubinstein, physicists Albert Einstein and Richard Feynman, and mathematician Julia Robinson among others.[2] A teacher writes on a blackboard in an American college. ... (Johann Gottlob) Friedrich Wieck (August 18, 1785 - October 6, 1873) was a noted German piano and voice teacher, and the father of Clara Wieck Schumann. ... For the 19th century Russian pianist and composer, see Anton Rubinstein Arthur Rubinstein photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1937 Arthur Rubinstein (January 28, 1887 – December 20, 1982) was a Polish pianist who is widely considered as one of the greatest piano virtuosos of the 20th Century. ... Albert Einstein( ) (March 14, 1879 – April 18, 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who is widely considered to have been one of the greatest physicists of all time. ... Richard Phillips Feynman (May 11, 1918 – February 15, 1988; surname pronounced ) was an American physicist known for expanding the theory of quantum electrodynamics, the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, and particle theory. ... Julia Hall Bowman Robinson (December 8, 1919 - July 30, 1985) was an American mathematician, born in Saint Louis, Missouri. ...


Clara Schumann had a brilliant career as a pianist from the age of thirteen up to her marriage. Her marriage to Schumann was opposed by her father. She continued to perform and compose after the marriage even as she raised seven children. An eighth child died in infancy. In the various tours on which she accompanied her husband, she extended her own reputation further than the outskirts of Germany, and it was thanks to her efforts that his compositions became generally known in Europe. Johannes Brahms, at age twenty, met the couple in 1853 and his friendship with Clara Schumann lasted until her death. Brahms helped Schumann through the illness of her husband with a caring that bordered on love. Later that year, she also met violinist Joseph Joachim who became one of her frequent performance partners. Schumann is credited with refining the tastes of audiences through her presentation of works by earlier composers including those of Bach, Mozart, and Beethoven as well as those of Robert Schumann and Brahms. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... A violinist is an instrumentalist who plays the violin. ... Joseph Joachim Joseph Joachim (June 28, 1831 – August 15, 1907) (pronounced YO-a-chim) was a violinist, conductor, composer and teacher. ... Places in which Bach resided throughout his life Johann Sebastian Bach (pronounced ) (21 March 1685 O.S. – 28 July 1750 N.S.) was a prolific German composer and organist whose sacred and secular works for choir, orchestra and solo instruments drew together the strands of the Baroque period and brought... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (IPA: , baptized Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart) (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era. ... 1820 portrait by Joseph Karl Stieler Beethoven redirects here. ...

Clara Schumann, "One of the most soulful and famous pianists of the day", said Edvard Grieg

Clara Schumann often took charge of the finances and general house running due to Robert's inclination to depression and instability. Part of her responsibility included making money, which she did performing --often Robert's music. She continued to play not only for the financial stability, but because she wished not to be forgotten as a pianist. She had grown up performing and desired to continue performing. Robert, while admiring her talent, wanted a traditional wife to bear children and make a happy home, which in his eyes and the eyes of society were in direct conflict with the life of a performer. Furthermore, while she loved touring, Robert hated it and preferred to sit at his piano and compose. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1511x2063, 1605 KB) Source: Modern Music & Musicians, University Society, New York, 1918 This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1511x2063, 1605 KB) Source: Modern Music & Musicians, University Society, New York, 1918 This image is in the public domain in the United States. ...


From the time of her husband's death she devoted herself principally to the interpretation of her husband's works. But when she first visited England in 1856, the critics received Robert's music with a chorus of disapproval. She returned to London in 1865 and continued her visits annually, with the exception of four seasons, until 1882. She also appeared there each year from 1885 to 1888. In 1878 she was appointed teacher of the piano at the Hoch Conservatorium in Frankfurt am Main, a post she held until 1892, and in which she contributed greatly to the improvement of modern piano playing technique. Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Frankfurt am Main [ˈfraŋkfʊrt] is the largest city in the German state of Hessen and the fifth largest city of Germany. ... 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


Schumann played her last public concert in 1891. She died five years later, in 1896, due to complications from a stroke. Besides being remembered for her eminence as a performer of nearly all kinds of pianoforte music, she was an impressive composer. Additionally, she was the authoritative editor of her husband's works for the publishing firm of Breitkopf & Härtel. She was buried at Bonn (Alter Friedhof/old cemetery). A short grand piano, with the top up. ... Breitkopf & Härtel is the worlds oldest music publishing house. ... Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany, located about 20 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia. ...


Music of Clara Schumann

On November 8, 1830, just over age 11, she gave her first public concert a "Musikalische Akademie" played with the Leipzig Gewandhaus orchestra, conducted by Felix Mendelssohn. November 8 is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 53 days remaining. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Felix Mendelssohn at the age of 30 Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and known generally as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3, 1809 – November 4, 1847) was a German composer and conductor of the early Romantic period. ...


She considered herself a performing artist rather than a composer and no longer composed after age thirty-six. It is suggested that this may have been the consequence of the then prevalent negative opinions of women's ability to compose, which she largely believed as her statements show: "I once believed that I possessed creative talent, but I have given up this idea; a woman must not desire to compose --there has never yet been one able to do it. Should I expect to be the one?" This belief influenced her composing, as well as, perhaps, the intimidating geniuses of Brahms and her husband, and, without doubt, the stress her fame placed on her marriage.


However, today her compositions are increasingly performed and recorded. Her works include songs, piano pieces, a piano concerto, a piano trio with violin and cello, choral pieces, and three Romances for violin and piano. Inspired by her husband's birthday, the three Romances were composed in 1853 and dedicated to Joseph Joachim who performed them for George V of Hanover. He declared them a "marvelous, heavenly pleasure." A piano trio is a group of piano and two other instruments, almost always a violin and a cello, or a piece of music written for such a group. ... The violin is a bowed string instrument with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. ... The violoncello, almost always abbreviated to cello, or cello (the c is pronounced as the ch in cheese), is a bowed stringed instrument, the lowest-sounding member of the violin family. ... George V, King of Hanover and 2nd Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale, Georg Friedrich Alexander Karl Ernst August (27 May 1819 – 12 June 1878) was the only son of Ernst August I, King of Hanover and 1st Duke of Cumberland (fifth son of King George III of the United Kingdom...


Quotes

"Clara has composed a series of small pieces, which show a musical and tender ingenuity such as she has never attained before. But to have children, and a husband who is always living in the realm of imagination, does not go together with composing. She cannot work at it regularly, and I am often disturbed to think how many profound ideas are lost because she cannot work them out."

—Robert Schumann in the joint diary of Robert and Clara Schumann.

"Composing gives me great pleasure...there is nothing that surpasses the joy of creation, if only because through it one wins hours of self-forgetfulness, when one lives in a world of sound."

—Clara Schumann.

"I once believed that I possessed creative talent, but I have given up this idea; a woman must not desire to compose — there has never yet been one able to do it. Should I expect to be the one?"

—Clara Schumann at 20.

Works (partial listing)

This is a partial list of recordings in the WorldCat database. WorldCat is the worlds largest bibliographic database, the merged catalogs of over 50,000 OCLC member libraries in over 90 countries. ...

  • 1832· 9 Caprices en forme de valse:
  • 1833· Romance variée (C)
  • 1833· Valses romantiques
  • 1836· 6 Soirées musicales: 1 (a) Toccatina; 2 (F) Notturno; 3 (g) Mazurka; 4 (d) Ballade; 5 (G) Mazurka; 6 (a) Polonaise
  • 1836· Concerto (a): 1 Allegro maestoso; 2 Romanze. Andante non troppo con grazia; 3 Finale. Allegro non troppo; allegro molto
  • 1838· Impromptu (G) "Souvenir de Vienne"
  • 1839· Scherzo #1 (d)
  • 1839· 3 Romances: 1 (e) Andante; 2 (g) Andante; 3 (A) Moderato
  • 1840· Volkslied
  • 1841· 3 songs: 1 Er ist gekommen in Sturm und Regen; 2 Liebst du um Schönheit; 3 Warum willst du and’re Fragen?
  • 1841· Die gute Nacht, die ich dir sage
  • 1842· Scherzo #2 (c)
  • 1842· Sonata (g): 1 Allegro; 2 Adagio con espressione e ben legato; 3 Scherzo; Trio; 4 Rondo
  • 1843· 6 songs: 1 Ihr Bildnis. Ich stand in dunklen Träumen; 2 Sie liebten sich beide; 3 Liebeszauber; 4 Der Mond kommt still gegangen; 5 Ich hab’in deinem Auge; 6 Die stille Lotusblume
  • 1843· 3 songs: • Lorelei
  • 1843· O weh des Scheidens, das er tat
  • 1844· Impromptu (E) Album de gaulois
  • 1845· 4 Pièces fugitives: 1 (F) Larghetto; 2 (a) In poco agitato; 3 (D) Andante espressivo; 4 (G) Scherzo
  • 1845· 3 (Prélude & Fugue)s: (1 (g): 1 prélude; 2 fugue); (2 (B–): 1 prélude; 2 fugue); (3 (d): 1 prélude; 2 fugue)
  • 1846· Piano Trio in G minor: 1 Allegro moderato; 2 Scherzo. Tempo di menuetto; 3 Andante; 4 Allegretto

References

  • Litzmann, Berthold. Clara Schumann: An Artist's Life, page 13. New York: Da Capo Press; 1979. ISBN 0-306-79582-5
  • Sowell, Thomas. The Einstein Syndrome: Bright Children Who Talk Late, pages = 29-60. Basic Books; 2001. ISBN 0-465-08140-1
  • Kamien, Roger. Music: an appreciation. Mcgraw-Hill College; 3rd edition (August 1, 1997) ISBN 0-07-036521-0
  • Machlis, Joseph; Forney, Kristine. The Enjoyment of Music. 8th edition. Norton: New York; 1999.
  • Reich, Nancy B. Clara Schumann, The Artist and The Woman. Cornell University Press. 1985. ISBN 0-8014-9388-9


  Results from FactBites:
 
Robert Schumann - a biography of the classical composer and overview of his works (749 words)
When Schumann was in his teens, his father died and his sister committed suicide in quick succession, events that were to have a deep impact on the young musician.
Schumann maintained his association with the Wiecks and when Clara was of the right age, he sought to marry her but her father forbade it.
Although Clara was extremely talented in her own right as both pianist and composer, her career became secondary to that of her husband's and there are suggestions that Robert's jealousy was a factor in constraining her career.
Essentials of Music - Composers (465 words)
Clara was the wife of Robert Schumann, and one of the most celebrated performers of the century.
After Robert's death in 1856, Clara continued an active concert career while supporting a family of eight, and was a champion of the music of Johannes Brahms, with whom she maintained a lifelong relationship.
Clara Schumann's music is typical for the early Romantic Era.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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