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Encyclopedia > Civilization
Central New York City. Cities are a major hallmark of human civilization.
Central New York City. Cities are a major hallmark of human civilization.
The ruins of Machu Picchu, "the Lost City of the Incas," has become the most recognizable symbol of the Inca civilization.
The ruins of Machu Picchu, "the Lost City of the Incas," has become the most recognizable symbol of the Inca civilization.

Civilization (British English also civilisation) is a kind of human society or culture; specifically, a civilization is usually understood to be a complex society characterized by the practice of agriculture and settlement in cities. Compared with less complex cultures, members of a civilization are organized into a diverse division of labour and an intricate social hierarchy. The term civilization is often used as a synonym for culture in both popular and academic circles.[1] Every human being participates in a culture, defined as "the arts, customs, habits... beliefs, values, behavior and material habits that constitute a people's way of life".[2] Civilizations can be distinguished from other cultures by their high level of social complexity and organization, and by their diverse economic and cultural activities. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2303x3454, 4434 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Civilization ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2303x3454, 4434 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Civilization ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... Picture of Machu Picchu taken in the morning. ... Picture of Machu Picchu taken in the morning. ... Machu Picchu (Quechua: Machu Pikchu Old Peak) is a pre-Columbian Inca city located at 2,430 m (7,970 ft) altitude[1] on a mountain ridge above the Urubamba Valley in Peru, about 70 km (44 mi) northwest of Cusco. ... For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ... British English (BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere in the Anglophone world. ... For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... In anthropology and archaeology, a complex society is a social formation that is otherwise described as a formative or developed state (i. ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... Division of labour is the specialisation of cooperative labour in specific, circumscribed tasks and roles, intended to increase efficiency of output. ... Social hierarchy, a multi-tiered pyramid-like social or functional structure having an apex as the centralization of power. ...


The term civilization has been defined and understood in a number of ways different from the standard definition. Sometimes it is used synonymously with the broader term culture. Civilization can also refer to society as a whole. To nineteenth-century English anthropologist Edward Burnett Tylor, for example, civilization was "the total social heredity of mankind;"[3] in other words, civilization was the totality of human knowledge and culture as represented by the most "advanced" society at a given time.[4] Civilization can be used in a normative sense as well: if complex and urban cultures are assumed to be superior to other "savage" or "barbarian" cultures, then "civilization" is used as a synonym for "superiority of certain groups." In a similar sense, civilization can mean "refinement of thought, manners, or taste".[5] However, in its most widely used definition, civilization is a descriptive term for a relatively complex agricultural and urban culture. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ... Edward Burnett Tylor. ... In philosophy, normative is usually contrasted with positive, descriptive or explanatory when describing types of theories, beliefs, or statements. ... For other uses, see Barbarian (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Etymology

The word Civilisation comes from the Latin word civilis, the adjective form of civis, meaning a "citizen" or "townsman" governed by the law of his city. For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ... The word citizen may refer to: A person with a citizenship Citizen Watch Co. ...


In the 6th century, the Roman Emperor Justinian oversaw the consolidation of Roman civil law. The resulting collection is called the Corpus Juris Civilis. In the 11th century, professors at the University of Bologna, Western Europe's first university, rediscovered Corpus Juris Civilis, and its influence began to be felt across Western Europe. In 1388, the word civil appeared in English meaning "of or related to citizens".[6] In 1704, civilisation began to mean "a law which makes a criminal process into a civil case." Civilisation was not used in its modern sense to mean "the opposite of barbarism" — as contrasted to civility, meaning politeness or civil virtue — until the 18th century. The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Justinian I, depicted on a contemporary coin Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus or Justinian I (May 11, 483–November 13/14, 565), was Eastern Roman Emperor from AD August 1, 527 until his death. ... For other uses of civil law, see civil law. ... Justinian I depicted on a mosaic in the church of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy The Corpus Juris Civilis (Body of Civil Law) is the modern name[1] for a collection of fundamental works in jurisprudence, issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian I, Byzantine Emperor. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... For the food product, see Bologna sausage. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... Events Beginning of prosecution of Lollards in England The Battle of Otterburn between England and Scotland A Chinese army under Xu Da sacks Karakorum Births September 14 - Claudius Claussön Swart, Danish geographer September 29 - Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence, second son of Henry IV of England (d. ... Events Building of the Students Monument in Aiud, Romania. ... The term criminal law, sometimes called penal law, refers to any of various bodies of rules in different jurisdictions whose common characteristic is the potential for unique and often severe impositions as punishment for failure to comply. ... For other uses, see Barbarian (disambiguation). ...


According to Emile Benveniste (1954[7]), the first occurrence in English of civilisation in its modern sense may be found in Adam Ferguson's An Essay on the History of Civil Society (Edinburg, 1767 - p.2): Emile Benveniste (1902 - 1976) was a French linguist best known for his work on Indo-European languages and his work expanding the linguistic paradigm established by Ferdinand de Saussure. ... Adam Ferguson, also known as Ferguson of Raith (June 20, 1723 (O.S.) - February 22, 1816) was a philosopher and historian of the Scottish Enlightenment. ...

Not only the individual advances from infancy to manhood, but the species itself from rudeness to civilization.

Before Benveniste's inquiries, the New English Dictionary quoted James Boswell's conversation with Samuel Johnson concerning the inclusion of Civilisation in Johnson's dictionary: The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a comprehensive multi-volume dictionary published by the Oxford University Press. ... James Boswell, 9th Laird of Auchinleckand 1st Baronet (October 29, 1740 - May 19, 1795) was a lawyer, diarist, and author born in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... For other persons named Samuel Johnson, see Samuel Johnson (disambiguation). ...

On Monday, March 23 (1772), I found him busy, preparing a fourth edition of his folio Dictionary... He would not admit civilization, but only civility. With great deference to him I thought civilisation, from to civilise, better in the sense opposed to barbarity than civility, as it is better to have a distinct word for each sense, than one word with two senses, which civility is, in his way of using it.

Benveniste demonstrated that previous occurrences could be found, which explained the quick adoption of Johnson's definition. In 1775 the dictionary of Ast defined civilisation as "the state of being civilized; the act of civilising"[7], and the term was frequently used by Adam Smith in An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776)[7]. Beside Smith and Ferguson, John Millar also used it in 1771 in his Observations concerning the distinction of ranks in society[7]. For other persons named Adam Smith, see Adam Smith (disambiguation). ... An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations is the magnum opus of Adam Smith, published in 1776. ...


As the first occurrence of civilisation in French was found by Benveniste in the Marquis de Mirabeau's L'Ami des hommes ou traité de la population (written in 1756 but published in 1757), Benveniste's query was to know if the English word derived from the French, or if both evolved independently — a question which needed more researches. According to him, the word civilisation may in fact have been used by Ferguson as soon as 1759[7]. Portrait of Mirabeau Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau (often referred to simply as Mirabeau; March 9, 1749 – April 2, 1791) was a French writer, popular orator and statesman. ...


Furthermore, Benveniste notes that, contrasted to civility, a static term, civilisation conveys a sense of dynamism. He thus writes that...

It was not only a historical view of society; it was also an optimist and resolutely non theological interpretation of its evolution which asserted itself, sometimes at the insu of those who proclaimed it, and even if some of them, and first of all Mirabeau, still counted religion as the first factor of 'civilisation.[8][7]

Characterising civilization

26th century BC Sumerian cuneiform script in Sumerian language, listing gifts to the high priestess of Adab on the occasion of her election. One of the earliest examples of human writing.
26th century BC Sumerian cuneiform script in Sumerian language, listing gifts to the high priestess of Adab on the occasion of her election. One of the earliest examples of human writing.

Social scientists such as V. Gordon Childe have named a number of traits that distinguish a civilization from other kinds of society.[9] Civilizations have been distinguished by their means of subsistence, types of livelihood, settlement patterns, forms of government, social stratification, economic systems, literacy, and other cultural traits. Gifts from the High and Mighty of Adab to the High Priestess, on the occasion of her election to the temple MS in Sumerian language on creamy stone, Sumer, 26th century BC, 1 tablet, 9,2x9,2x1,2 cm, 6+6 columns, 120 compartments of cuneiform script by an expert... Gifts from the High and Mighty of Adab to the High Priestess, on the occasion of her election to the temple MS in Sumerian language on creamy stone, Sumer, 26th century BC, 1 tablet, 9,2x9,2x1,2 cm, 6+6 columns, 120 compartments of cuneiform script by an expert... (27th century BC - 26th century BC - 25th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC – Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period. ... Sumer (or Shumer, Sumeria, Shinar, native ki-en-gir) formed the southern part of Mesopotamia from the time of settlement by the Sumerians until the time of Babylonia. ... Cuneiform redirects here. ... Sumerian ( native tongue) was the language of ancient Sumer, spoken in Southern Mesopotamia from at least the 4th millennium BCE. It was gradually replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language in the beginning of the 2nd millenium BCE, but continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific... The city of Adab (modern site Bismaya), between Telloh and Nippur (modern-day Iraq), was important in the Ur III period but declined afterwards. ... Write redirects here. ... Vere Gordon Childe (April 14, 1892 - October 19, 1957) was an Australian archaeologist, perhaps best known for his excavation of the unique Neolithic site of Skara Brae in Orkney and for his Marxist views which informed his thinking about prehistory. ... The traditional definition of literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write, or the ability to use language to read, write, listen, and speak. ...


All human civilizations have depended on agriculture for subsistence. Growing food on farms results in a surplus of food, particularly when people use intensive agricultural techniques such as irrigation and crop rotation. Grain surpluses have been especially important because they can be stored for a long time. A surplus of food permits some people to do things besides produce food for a living: early civilizations included artisans, priests and priestesses, and other people with specialized careers. A surplus of food results in a division of labour and a more diverse range of human activity, a defining trait of civilizations. Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... Satellite image of circular crop fields in Haskell County, Kansas in late June 2001. ... The word grain has several meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. ... Food caches, Hooper Bay, Alaska, 1929. ... An artisan, also called a craftsman,[1] is a skilled manual worker who uses tools and machinery in a particular craft. ... This article is about religious workers. ...


Civilizations have distinctly different settlement patterns from other societies. The word civilization is sometimes defined as "a word that simply means 'living in cities'".[10] Non-farmers gather in cities to work and to trade.


Compared with other societies, civilizations have a more complex political structure, namely the state. State societies are more stratified than other societies; there is a greater difference among the social classes. The ruling class, normally concentrated in the cities, has control over much of the surplus and exercises its will through the actions of a government or bureaucracy. Morton Fried, a conflict theorist, and Elman Service, an integration theorist, have classified human cultures based on political systems and social inequality. This system of classification contains four categories: For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... The term ruling class refers to the social class of a given society that decides upon and sets that societys political policy. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... Morton H. Fried was a prominent anthropologist of the twentieth century. ... In sociology, conflict theory states that the society or organization functions so that each individual participant and its groups struggle to maximize their benefits, which inevitably contributes to social change such as changes in politics and revolutions. ... Elman Service was a cultural anthropologist. ... Social inequality refers to disparities in the distribution of material wealth in a society. ...

  • Hunter-gatherer bands, which are generally egalitarian.
  • Horticultural/pastoral societies in which there are generally two inherited social classes;chief and commoner.
  • Highly stratified structures, or chiefdoms, with several inherited social classes: king, noble, freemen, serf and slave.
  • Civilizations, with complex social hierarchies and organized, institutional governments.[citation needed]

Economically, civilizations display more complex patterns of ownership and exchange than less organized societies. Living in one place allows people to accumulate more personal possessions than nomadic people. Some people also acquire landed property, or private ownership of the land. Because many people in civilizations do not grow their own food, they must trade their goods and services for food in a market system. Early civilizations developed money as a universal medium of exchange for these increasingly complex transactions. In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal or level) is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals from birth. ... Horticulture (Latin: hortus (garden plant) + cultura (culture)) are classically defined as the culture or growing of garden plants. ... Pastoralism is a form of farming, such as agriculture and horticulture. ... A chiefdom is any community led by an individual known as a chief. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Commerce be merged into this article or section. ... Look up Market in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Money (disambiguation). ...

Ten Indus scripts discovered near the northern gate of Dholavira 5000 years ago
Ten Indus scripts discovered near the northern gate of Dholavira 5000 years ago

Writing, developed first by people in Sumer, is considered a hallmark of civilization and "appears to accompany the rise of complex administrative bureaucracies or the conquest state."[11] Traders and bureaucrats relied on writing to keep accurate records. Aided by their division of labor and central government planning, civilizations have developed many other diverse cultural achievements. These include organized religion, development in the arts, and countless new advances in science and technology. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Dholavira, an ancient metropolitan city, and locally known as Kotada Timba Prachin Mahanagar Dholavira, is one of the largest and most prominent archaeological sites in India, belonging to the Indus Valley Civilization. ... Write redirects here. ... Sumer (or Å umer; Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR [1]) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in lower Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term... The Arts is a broad subdivision of culture, comprised of many expressive disciplines. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ...


Civilization as a cultural identity

"Civilization" can also describe the culture of a complex society, not just the society itself. Every society, civilization or not, has a specific set of ideas and customs, and a certain set of items and arts, that make it unique. Civilizations have even more intricate cultures, including literature, professional art, architecture, organized religion, and complex customs associated with the elite. Civilization is such in nature that it seeks to spread, to have more, to expand, and the means by which to do this. For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ...


Nevertheless, some tribes or peoples remained uncivilized even to this day (2007). These cultures are called by some "primitive," a term that is regarded by others as pejorative. "Primitive" implies in some way that a culture is "first" (Latin = primus), and as all cultures are contemporaries today's so called primitive cultures are in no way antecedent to those we consider civilized. Many anthropologists use the term "non-literate" to describe these peoples. In the USA and Canada, where people of such cultures were the original inhabitants before being displaced by European settlers, they use the term "First Nations." Generally, these people do not have hierarchical governments, organized religion, writing systems or money. The little hierarchy that exists, for example respect for the elderly, is mutual and not instituted by force, rather by a mutual reciprocal and customary agreement. A specialised monopolising government does not exist, or at least the civilized version of government which most of us are familiar with. Primitive - A band from St. ... Protohistoric archaeology refers to the study of regions or periods using archaeological methods where only a partial or very limited historic record is available. ... First Nations is a Canadian term of ethnicity which refers to the aboriginal peoples located in what is now Canada, and their descendants who are neither Inuit nor Métis. ...


The civilized world has been spread by invasion, conversion and trade, and by introducing agriculture, writing and religion to non-literate tribes. Some tribes may willingly adapt to civilized behaviour. But civilization is also spread by force: if a tribe does not wish to use agriculture or accept a certain religion it is often forced to do so by the civilized people, and they usually succeed due to their more advanced technology, and higher population densities. Civilization often uses religion to justify its actions, claiming for example that the uncivilized are "primitive," savages, barbarians or the like, which should be subjugated by civilization. Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... In general, conversion is the transformation of one thing into another. ... It has been suggested that Commerce be merged into this article or section. ...


It has been difficult for the uncivilized world to mount any counter-assault on civilization since that would mean complying to civilization's standards and concepts of advanced violence (war). Guerilla struggles have been waged, and American Indians fought a long and bitter struggle against Anglo-American invaders of their lands, who successively violated treaties signed with them, supposedly protecting their territories from European invaders. In other cases they have needed to become civilized in order to engage in any sort of war. are you looking for the political definition of guerilla war? Guerilla War is a video game by SNK. It is an overhead shooter. ... Native Americans redirects here. ... English Americans (occasionally known as Anglo-Americans) are citizens of the United States whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in England. ...


Thus, the intricate culture associated with civilization has a tendency to spread to and influence other cultures, sometimes assimilating them into the civilization (a classic example being Chinese civilization and its influence on Korea, Japan, Vietnam, and so forth), all of them sharing the fact that they belong to an East Asian civilization, sharing Confucianism, Mahayana Buddhism, a "Mandarin" class an educated understanding of Chinese ideograms and much else. Many civilizations are actually large cultural spheres containing many nations and regions. The civilization in which someone lives is that person's broadest cultural identity. A female of African descent living in the United States has many roles that she identifies with. However, she is above all a member of "Western civilization." In the same way, a male of Kurdish ancestry living in Iran is above all a member of "Islamic civilization." This article is about the Korean civilization. ... A Mandarin was a bureaucrat in imperial China. ... Languages Predominantly American English Religions Protestantism (chiefly Baptist and Methodist); Roman Catholicism; Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ... For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... ...


Whereas the etiology of civilization is Latin or Roman, defined above as the application of justice by "civil" means, one must also examine and reflect upon Jewish or Hebrew civilization - the history of a people running separate but parallel to, Egyptian, Greek and Roman "civilizations." To the contrary, a Hebrew "civilization" is defined not as an expression or extension of the subjective trappings of culture and society, but rather as a human society and/or culture being an expression of objective moral and ethical moorings as they are known, understood and applied in accordance with the Mosaic Covenant. A "human" civilization, in Hebrew terms for instance, may contrast sharply with conventional notions about "civilization." A "human" civilization, therein, would be an expression and extension of the two most basic pillars of human "civilization." These two pillars are, honest standardised weights and measures and a moral and healthy constitution. Everything else, whether technology, science, art, music, etc., is by this definition considered as commentary. Indeed, to the degree the surface terrain of a human society, i.e., culture is "civilized," is to the degree the internal terrain (characteristics, personality or substance) of the people and leadership must also have been inoculated by, and inculcated with a moral foundation. The Biblically described Sodom, for instance, while being a society comprised of people with a culture, would by Jewish or Biblical standards of "civility" have been uncivilized. And while the Roman sentiment is largely focused upon how justice must "appear" to be done in a "civil" manner, the Hebrew or Biblical approach to justice, in principle, is never limited to subjective pretenses or appearance, but more importantly, justice must be predicated upon objective principles. Ultimately, there is no true or lasting "civility" for any man in the absence of moral composure.


Many historians have focused on these broad cultural spheres and have treated civilizations as single units. One example is early twentieth-century philosopher Oswald Spengler,[12] even though he uses the German word "Kultur," "culture," for what we here call a "civilization." He said that a civilization's coherence is based around a single primary cultural symbol. Civilizations experience cycles of birth, life, decline and death, often supplanted by a new civilization with a potent new culture, formed around a compelling new cultural symbol. Oswald Arnold Gottfried Spengler (Blankenburg am Harz May 29, 1880 – May 8, 1936, Munich) was a German historian and philosopher, although his studies ranged throughout mathematics, science, philosophy, history, and art. ...


This "unified culture" concept of civilization also influenced the theories of historian Arnold J. Toynbee in the mid-twentieth century. Toynbee explored civilization processes in his multi-volume A Study of History, which traced the rise and, in most cases, the decline of 21 civilizations and five "arrested civilizations." Civilizations generally declined and fell, according to Toynbee, because of moral or religious decline, rather than economic or environmental causes. Arnold Joseph Toynbee (April 14, 1889 - October 22, 1975) was a British historian whose twelve-volume analysis of the rise and fall of civilizations, A Study of History, 1934-1961, was a synthesis of world history, a metahistory based on universal rhythms of rise, flowering and decline. ... A Study of History is the 12-volume magnum opus of British historian Arnold J. Toynbee, finished in 1961. ...


Samuel P. Huntington similarly defines a civilization as "the highest cultural grouping of people and the broadest level of cultural identity people have short of that which distinguishes humans from other species." Besides giving a definition of a civilization, Huntington has also proposed several theories about civilizations, discussed below. This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Civilizations as complex systems

Another group of theorists, making use of systems theory, look at civilizations as complex systems or networks of cities that emerge from pre-urban cultures, and are defined by the economic, political, military, diplomatic, and cultural interactions between them. This article is about society beginnings. ... Systems theory is an interdisciplinary field of science. ... Complex systems have a number of properties, some of which are listed below. ...


For example, urbanist Jane Jacobs defines cities as the economic engines that work to create large networks of people. The main process that creates these city networks, she says, is "import replacement". Import replacement is the process by which peripheral cities begin to replace goods and services that were formerly imported from more advanced cities. Successful import replacement creates economic growth in these peripheral cities, and allows these cities to then export their goods to less developed cities in their own hinterlands, creating new economic networks. So Jacobs explores economic development across wide networks instead of treating each society as an isolated cultural sphere. Jane Jacobs Jane Jacobs, OC, O.Ont (May 4, 1916 – April 25, 2006) was an American-born Canadian urbanist, writer and activist. ...


Systems theorists look at many types of relations between cities, including economic relations, cultural exchanges, and political/diplomatic/military relations. These spheres often occur on different scales. For example, trade networks were, until the nineteenth century, much larger than either cultural spheres or political spheres. Extensive trade routes, including the Silk Road through Central Asia and Indian Ocean sea routes linking the Roman Empire, Persian Empire, India, and China, were well established 2000 years ago, when these civilizations scarcely shared any political, diplomatic, military, or cultural relations. The first evidence of such long distance trade is in the ancient world. During the Uruk phase Guillermo Algaze has argued that trade relations connected Egypt, Mesopotamia, Iran and Afghanistan.[13] Resin found later in the Royal Tombs of Ur it is suggested was traded northwards from Mozambique. The Silk Road extending from Southern Europe through Arabia, Egypt, Persia, India till it reaches China. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Persia redirects here. ...


Many theorists argue that the entire world has already become integrated into a single "world system", a process known as globalization. Different civilizations and societies all over the globe are economically, politically, and even culturally interdependent in many ways. There is debate over when this integration began, and what sort of integration – cultural, technological, economic, political, or military-diplomatic – is the key indicator in determining the extent of a civilization. David Wilkinson has proposed that economic and military-diplomatic integration of the Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations resulted in the creation of what he calls the "Central Civilization" around 1500 BC.[14] Central Civilization later expanded to include the entire Middle East and Europe, and then expanded to a global scale with European colonization, integrating the Americas, Australia, China and Japan by the nineteenth century. According to Wilkinson, civilizations can be culturally heterogeneous, like the Central Civilization, or relatively homogeneous, like the Japanese civilization. What Huntington calls the "clash of civilizations" might be characterized by Wilkinson as a clash of cultural spheres within a single global civilization. Others point to the Crusades as the first step in globalization. The more conventional viewpoint is that networks of societies have expanded and shrunk since ancient times, and that the current globalized economy and culture is a product of recent European colonialism. Unlike former sociological theories, which presented general models of social change with particular focus at the societal level, world-systems theory (or world system perspective) explores the role and relationships between societies (and the subsequent changes produced by them). ... The rise of multinational corporations and outsourcing have played a crucial part in globalization. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ...


The future of civilizations

Political scientist Samuel Huntington[15] has argued that the defining characteristic of the 21st century will be a clash of civilizations. According to Huntington, conflicts between civilizations will supplant the conflicts between nation-states and ideologies that characterized the 19th and 20th centuries. Samuel Phillips Huntington (born April 18, 1927) is a political scientist known for his analysis of the relationship between the military and the civil government, his investigation of coup detats, and his thesis that the central political actors of the 21st century will be civilizations rather than nation-states. ... Cover of The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order The Clash of Civilizations is a theory, proposed by political scientist Samuel P. Huntington, that peoples cultural and religious identities will be the primary source of conflict in the post-Cold War world. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ...


Currently, world civilization is in a stage that has created what may be characterized as an industrial society, superseding the agrarian society that preceded it. Some futurists believe that civilization is undergoing another transformation, and that world society will become an informational society. In sociology, industrial society refers to a society with a modern societal structure. ... An agrarian society is one that is based on agriculture as its prime means for support and sustenance. ... In sociology, informational society refers to a post-modern type of society. ...


Some environmental scientists see the world entering a Planetary Phase of Civilization, characterized by a shift away from independent, disconnected nation-states to a world of increased global connectivity with worldwide institutions, environmental challenges, economic systems, and consciousness.[16][17] In an attempt to better understand what a Planetary Phase of Civilization might look like in the current context of declining natural resources and increasing consumption, the Global scenario group used scenario analysis to arrive at three archetypal futures: Barbarization, in which increasing conflicts result in either a fortress world or complete societal breakdown; Conventional Worlds, in which market forces or Policy reform slowly precipitate more sustainable practices; and a Great Transition, in which either the sum of fragmented Eco-Communalism movements add up to a sustainable world or globally coordinated efforts and initiatives result in a new sustainability paradigm.[18] The Planetary Phase of Civilization is a concept defined by the Global scenario group (GSG), an environmental organization that specializes in scenario analysis and forecasting. ... The Global Scenario Group (GSG) was a team of environmental scholars, headed by Paul Raskin, who used scenario analysis to analyze future paths for world development in the face of environmental pressures and crises. ... Scenario analysis is a process of analyzing possible future events by considering alternative possible outcomes (scenarios). ... “Policy Reform” in addition to its more general meanings, has been used to refer to a future scenario which relies on government action to correct economic market failures and to stimulate the technological investment necessary for sustainable development and the creation of a truly sustainable planetary society. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


The Kardashev scale classifies civilizations based on their level of technological advancement, specifically measured by the amount of energy a civilization is able to harness. The Kardashev scale makes provisions for civilizations far more technologically advanced than any currently known to exist. (see also: Civilizations and the Future, Space civilization) Kardashev scale projections ranging from 1900 to 2100. ... Type 0, 1, 2, & 3 Civilizations In the book entitled, Hyperspace, theorical physicist Michio Kaku mentioned about four kinds of civilizations: Type 0 This civilization harnesses the crudest forms of energy from a planet. ... A space civilization is a civilization that have the ability to travel in space. ...


The fall of civilizations

There have been many explanations put forward for the collapse of civilization. For a related concept in sociology, see Social disintegration. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into societal collapse. ...


Edward Gibbon's massive work "The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire" began an interest in the Fall of Civilizations, that had begun with the historical divisions of Petrarch[8] between the Classical period of Ancient Greece and Rome, the succeeding Medieval Ages, and the Renaissance. For Gibbon:- Edward Gibbon (1737–1794). ... The History of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, a major literary achievement of Eighteenth Century, was written by the British historian, Edward Gibbon. ... From the c. ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ...


"The decline of Rome was the natural and inevitable effect of immoderate greatness. Prosperity ripened the principle of decay; the cause of the destruction multiplied with the extent of conquest; and, as soon as time or accident had removed the artificial supports, the stupendous fabric yielded to the pressure of its own weight. The story of the ruin is simple and obvious; and instead of inquiring why the Roman Empire was destroyed, we should rather be surprised that it has subsisted for so long."[Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, 2nd ed., vol. 4, ed. by J. B. Bury (London, 1909), pp. 173-174.] Gibbon suggested the final act of the collapse of Rome was the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks in 1453 AD. This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkish people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ...


Theodor Mommsen in his "History of Rome", suggested Rome collapsed with the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and he also tended towards a biological analogy of "genesis," "growth," "senescence," "collapse" and "decay." Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen (November 30, 1817–November 1, 1903) was a Danish/German classical scholar, historian, jurist, journalist, politician, archaeologist[1] and writer[2], generally regarded as the greatest classicist of the 19th century. ... For other uses, see History of Rome (disambiguation). ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ...


Oswald Spengler, in his "Decline of the West" rejected Petrarch's chronological division, and suggested that there had been only eight "mature civilizations." Growing cultures, he argued, tend to develop into imperialistic civilizations which expand and ultimately collapse, with democratic forms of government ushering in plutocracy and ultimately imperialism. Oswald Arnold Gottfried Spengler (Blankenburg am Harz May 29, 1880 – May 8, 1936, Munich) was a German historian and philosopher, although his studies ranged throughout mathematics, science, philosophy, history, and art. ... The Decline of the West (German: Der Untergang des Abendlandes) is a two-volume work by Oswald Spengler, the first volume of which was published in the summer of 1918. ... From the c. ... A plutocracy is a form of government where the states power is centralized in an affluent social class. ... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ...


Arnold J. Toynbee in his "A Study of History" suggested that there had been a much larger number of civilizations, including a small number of arrested civilizations, and that all civilizations tended to go through the cycle identified by Mommsen. The cause of the fall of a civilization occurred when a cultural elite became a parasitic elite, leading to the rise of internal and external proletariats. Arnold Joseph Toynbee (April 14, 1889 - October 22, 1975) was a British historian whose twelve-volume analysis of the rise and fall of civilizations, A Study of History, 1934-1961, was a synthesis of world history, a metahistory based on universal rhythms of rise, flowering and decline. ... A Study of History is the 12-volume magnum opus of British historian Arnold J. Toynbee, finished in 1961. ... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ...


Joseph Tainter in "The Collapse of Complex Societies" suggested that there were diminishing returns to complexity, due to which, as states achieved a maximum permissible complexity, they would decline when further increases actually produced a negative return. Tainter suggested that Rome achieved this figure in the 2nd Century AD. Joseph Tainter is a U.S. anthropologist and historian whose best-known work is The Collapse of Complex Societies. ... For a related concept in sociology, see Social disintegration. ... In economics, diminishing returns is the short form of diminishing marginal returns. ... Complexity in general usage is the opposite of simplicity. ...


Jared Diamond in his recent book "Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed" suggests five major reasons for the collapse of 41 studied cultures. Jared Mason Diamond (b. ... Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed cover Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed is a 2005 English-language book by University of California, Los Angeles geography professor Jared M. Diamond. ...

Peter Turchin in his Historical Dynamics and Andrey Korotayev et al. in their Introduction to Social Macrodynamics, Secular Cycles, and Millennial Trends suggest a number of mathematical models describing collapse of agrarian civilizations. For example, the basic logic of Turchin's "fiscal-demographic" model can be outlined as follows: during the initial phase of a sociodemographic cycle we observe relatively high levels of per capita production and consumption, which leads not only to relatively high population growth rates, but also to relatively high rates of surplus production. As a result, during this phase the population can afford to pay taxes without great problems, the taxes are quite easily collectible, and the population growth is accompanied by the growth of state revenues. During the intermediate phase, the increasing overpopulation leads to the decrease of per capita production and consumption levels, it becomes more and more difficult to collect taxes, and state revenues stop growing, whereas the state expenditures grow due to the growth of the population controlled by the state. As a result, during this phase the state starts experiencing considerable fiscal problems. During the final pre-collapse phases the overpopulation leads to further decrease of per capita production, the surplus production further decreases, state revenues shrink, but the state needs more and more resources to control the growing (though with lower and lower rates) population. Eventually this leads to famines, epidemics, state breakdown, and demographic and civilization collapse (Peter Turchin. Historical Dynamics. Princeton University Press, 2003:121–127). This article is about the process of deforestation in the environment. ... Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University, USA. Erosion is the displacement of solids (soil, mud, rock, and so forth) by the agents of wind, water, ice, or movement in response to gravity. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... International trade is the exchange of goods and services across international boundaries or territories. ... Peter Turchin, is a world known specialist in population dynamics and mathematical modeling of historical dynamics. ... Andrey Korotayev (born in 1961) is an anthropologist, economic historian, and sociologist. ... Social cycle theories are one of the earliest social theories in sociology. ... Theoretical Human population increase from 10,000 BC – 2000 AD. Population growth is the change in population over time, and can be quantified as the change in the number of individuals in a population per unit time. ... Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ...


Peter Heather argues in his book The Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History of Rome and the Barbarians[19] that this civilization did not end for moral or economic reasons, but due to the fact that centuries of contact with barbarians across the frontier generated its own nemesis by making them a much more sophisticated and dangerous adversary. The fact that Rome needed to generate ever greater revenues to equip and re-equip armies that were for the first time repeatedly defeated in the field, led to the dismemberment of the Empire. Although this argument is specific to Rome, it can also be applied to the Asiatic Empire of the Egyptians, to the Han and Tang dynasties of China, to the Muslim Abbasid Caliphate, and others. Peter Heather is a teacher at Worcester College, University of Oxford who is considered a leading authority on the barbarians of the Roman era. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire, that overthrew the Umayyid caliphs. ...


Bryan Ward-Perkins, in his book The Fall of Rome and the End of Civilization[20] shows the real horrors associated with the collapse of a civilization for the people who suffer its effects, unlike many revisionist historians who downplay this. The collapse of complex society meant that even basic plumbing disappeared from the continent for 1,000 years. Similar Dark Age collapses are seen with the Late Bronze Age collapse in the Eastern Mediterranean, the collapse of the Maya, on Easter Island and elsewhere. Bryan Ward-Perkins is an archaeologist and historian of the later Roman Empire and early Middle Ages, with a particular focus on the transitional period between those two eras, an historical sub-field also known as Late Antiquity. ... The Greek Dark Ages (ca. ... The Bronze Age collapse is the name of the Dark Age period of history of the Ancient Middle East extending between the collapse of the Mycenaean kingdoms, the Hittite Empire in Anatolia and Syria, and the Egyptian Empire in Syria and Palestine between 1206 and 1150 BC, down to the... This article is about the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ... Rapa Nui redirects here. ...


Arthur Demarest argues in Ancient Maya: The Rise and Fall of a Rainforest Civilization[21], using a holistic perspective to the most recent evidence from archaeology, paleoecology, and epigraphy, that no one explanation is sufficient but that a series of erratic, complex events, including loss of soil fertility, drought and rising levels of internal and external violence led to the disintegration of the courts of Mayan kingdoms which began a spiral of decline and decay. He argues that the collapse of the Maya has lessons for civilization today. Paleoecology uses data from fossils and subfossils to reconstruct the ecosystems of the past. ...


Jeffrey A. McNeely has recently suggested that "A review of historical evidence shows that past civilizations have tended to over-exploit their forests, and that such abuse of important resources has been a significant factor in the decline of the over-exploiting society."[22]


Thomas Homer-Dixon in "The Upside of Down: Catastrophe, Creativity, and the Renewal of Civilization", considers that the fall in the energy return on investments; the energy expended to energy yield ratio, is central to limiting the survival of civilizations. The degree of social complexity is closely linked, he suggests, to the amount of disposable energy environmental, economic and technological systems allow. When this amount falls civilizations either have to access new high energy sources or they will collapse. Thomas Homer-Dixon is the Director of the Trudeau Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies at the University of Toronto, and Associate Professor in the Department of Political Science at the University of Toronto. ... We dont have an article called Eroi Start this article Search for Eroi in. ...


Negative views of civilization

Civilization has been criticized from a variety of viewpoints and for a variety of reasons. Some critics have objected to all aspects of civilization; others have argued that civilization brings a mixture of good and bad effects.


The best known opponents of civilization are people who have voluntarily chosen to live outside it. These include hermits and religious ascetics who, in many different times and places, have attempted to eliminate the influence of civilization over their lives in order to concentrate on spiritual matters. Monasteries represent an effort by these ascetics to create a life somewhat apart from their mainstream civilizations. In the 19th century, Transcendentalists believed civilization was shallow and materialistic, so they wanted to build a completely agrarian society, free from the oppression of the city. For other uses, see Hermit (disambiguation). ... The word ascetic derives from the ancient Greek term askesis (practice, training or exercise). ... Monasticism (from Greek: monachos — a solitary person) is the religious practice in which one renounces worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ... Transcendentalism was a group of new ideas in literature, religion, culture, and philosophy that emerged in New England in the early-to mid-19th century. ...


Civilizations have shown an inclination towards conquest and expansion. When civilizations were formed, more food was produced and the society's material possessions increased, but wealth also became concentrated in the hands of the powerful. Depletion of local resources also increased dependence upon more distant resources so compelling expansion, by either invasion or trade with neighbouring peoples. The communal way of life among tribal people gave way to aristocracy and hierarchy. As hierarchies are able to generate sufficient resources and food surpluses capable of supplying standing armies, civilizations were capable of conquering neighbouring cultures that made their livings in different ways. In this manner, civilizations began to spread outward from Eurasia across the world some 10,000 years ago - and are finishing the job today in the remote jungles of the Amazon and New Guinea. Aristocrat redirects here. ... A hierarchy (in Greek: , derived from — hieros, sacred, and — arkho, rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things or people, where each element of the system (except for the top element) is a subordinate to a single other element. ... An army comprises all of a nations land-based military forces or a specific large military force. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... The Neolithic Revolution is the term for the first agricultural revolution, describing the transition from nomadic hunting and gathering communities and bands, to agriculture and settlement, as first adopted by various independent prehistoric human societies, in numerous locations on most continents between 10-12 thousand years ago. ... This article is about the river. ...


Many environmentalists criticize civilizations for their exploitation of the environment. Through intensive agriculture and urban growth, civilizations tend to destroy natural settings and habitats. This is sometimes referred to as "dominator culture". Proponents of this view believe that traditional societies live in greater harmony with nature than civilizations; people work with nature rather than try to subdue it. The sustainable living movement is a push from some members of civilization to regain that harmony with nature. The historic Blue Marble photograph, which helped bring environmentalism to the public eye. ... Sustainable living might best be defined as a lifestyle that could, hypothetically, be sustained unmodified for many generations without exhausting any natural resources. ...


Primitivism is a modern philosophy totally opposed to civilization. Primitivists accuse civilizations of restricting human potential, oppressing the weak, and damaging the environment. They wish to return to a more primitive way of life which they consider to be in the best interests of both nature and human beings. Leading proponents are John Zerzan and Derrick Jensen, whereas a critic is Roger Sandall. Theory Issues Culture By region Lists Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Anarcho-primitivism is an anarchist critique of the origins and progress of civilization. ... John Zerzan (born 1943) is an American anarchist and primitivist philosopher and author. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Roger Sandall is an essayist and commentator on cultural relativism and is best known as the author of The Culture Cult. ...


However, not all critics of past and present civilization believe that a primitive way of life is better. Some have argued that a third alternative exists, which is neither primitive nor "civilized" in the current sense of the word. This may be described as a radically different form of civilization. Karl Marx, for instance, argued that the beginning of civilization was the beginning of oppression and exploitation, but also believed that these things would eventually be overcome and communism would be established throughout the world. He envisioned communism not as a return to any sort of idyllic past, but as a leap forward to a new stage of civilization. Conflict theory in the social sciences also views present civilization as being based on the domination of some people by others, but makes no moral judgements on the issue. Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... For other uses, see Oppression (disambiguation). ... Exploitation means many different things. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... In sociology, conflict theory states that the society or organization functions so that each individual participant and its groups struggle to maximize their benefits, which inevitably contributes to social change such as changes in politics and revolutions. ...


Among Eastern schools of thought, Taoism was one of the first to reject the Confucian concern for civilization. Taoism (or Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical traditions and concepts. ... Confucianism (儒家 Pinyin: rújiā The School of the Scholars), sometimes translated as the School of Literati, is an East Asian ethical, religious and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of Confucius. ...


Given the current problems with the sustainability of industrial civilization, some, like Derrick Jensen, who posits civilization to be inherently unsustainable, argue that we need to move towards a social form of "post-civilization" as different from civilization as the latter was with pre-civilized peoples. Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Problems with the term "civilization"

As discussed above, "civilization" has a number of meanings, and its use can lead to confusion and misunderstanding.


However, "civilization" can be a highly connotative word. It might bring to mind qualities such as superiority, humaneness, and refinement. Indeed, many members of civilized societies have seen themselves as superior to the "barbarians" outside their civilization. Connotation is a subjective cultural and/or emotional coloration in addition to the explicit or denotative meaning of any specific word or phrase in a language, i. ... For other uses, see Barbarian (disambiguation). ...


Many anthropologists backed a theory called unilineal evolution. They believed that people naturally progress from a simple state to a superior, civilized state. John Wesley Powell, for example, classified all societies as Savage, Barbarian, and Civilized; the first two of his terms would shock most anthropologists today. The early 20th century saw the first cracks in this world view within Western Civilization: Joseph Conrad's 1902 novel "Heart of Darkness," for example, told a story set in the Congo Free State, in which the most savage and uncivilized behavior was initiated by a white European. This hierarchical world view was dealt further serious blows by the atrocities of World War I and World War II and so on. Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... John Wesley Powell, second Director of the USGS. Served from 1881-1894. ... For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ... // Joseph Conrad (born Teodor Józef Konrad NaÅ‚Ä™cz-Korzeniowski, 3 December 1857 – 3 August 1924) was a Polish-born novelist who spent most of his adult life in Britain. ... For other uses, see Heart of Darkness (disambiguation). ... Capital Boma Government Monarchy Ruler and owner Leopold II of Belgium Historical era New Imperialism  - Established 1885  - Annexation by Belgium 15 November, 1908 The Congo Free State was a corporate state privately controlled by Leopold II, King of the Belgians through a dummy non-governmental organization, the Association Internationale Africaine. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Today, multilinial views of cultural evolution are the norm within the social sciences, as is a greater level cultural relativism, the view that complex societies are not by nature superior, more humane, or more sophisticated than less complex or technologically advanced groups. This view of relativism has its roots in the writings of Franz Boas. Multilineal evolution is a 20th century social theory about the evolution of societies and cultures. ... The social sciences are groups of academic disciplines that study the human aspects of the world. ... Cultural relativism is the principle that beliefs and activities should be interpreted in terms of his or her own culture. ... Franz Boas Franz Boas (July 9, 1858 – December 21, 1942[1]) was one of the pioneers of modern anthropology and is often called the Father of American Anthropology. Born in Germany, Boas worked for most of his life in North America. ...


A minority of scholars reject the relativism of Boas and mainstream social science. English biologist John Baker, in his 1974 book Race, gives about 20 criteria that make civilizations superior to non-civilizations. Baker tries to show a relation between the cultures of civilizations and the biological disposition of their creators. Dr. John Randal Baker F.R.S. (1900-1984) was a biologist, physical anthropologist, and professor at the University of Oxford (where he was the Emeritus Reader in Cytology) in the mid-twentieth century. ...


Many postmodernists, and a considerable proportion of the wider public, argue that the division of societies into 'civilized' and 'uncivilized' is arbitrary and meaningless. On a fundamental level, they say there is no difference between civilizations and tribal societies; that each simply does what it can with the resources it has. In this view, the concept of "civilization" has merely been the justification for colonialism, imperialism, genocide, and coercive acculturation. Postmodernity (also called post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is a term used by philosophers, social scientists, art critics and social critics to refer to aspects of contemporary art, culture, economics and social conditions that are the result of the unique features of late 20th century and early 21st century... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ...


On the other hand, critics of this view argue that there are real differences between civilizations and tribal or hunter-gatherer societies. The modes of social organization, they say, are fundamentally altered in complex, urban societies that gather large amounts of unrelated people together into cities. Additionally, it is argued that the complex division of labor and specialized economic activities that characterize civilizations produce better standards of living for their inhabitants. Division of labour is the breakdown of labour into specific, circumscribed tasks for maximum efficiency of output in the context of manufacturing. ...


For all of the above reasons, many scholars today avoid using the term "civilization" as a stand-alone term; they prefer to use urban society or intensive agricultural society, which are much less ambiguous, more neutral-sounding terms. "Civilization" however remains in common academic use when describing specific societies, such as "Mayan Civilization." This article is about the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ...


Development of early civilizations

African and Eurasian civilizations of the "Old World"

The earliest known civilizations (as defined in the traditional sense) developed from proto-civilized cultures in Mesopotamia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in modern-day Iraq, the Nile valley of Egypt, while other civilizations arose in Elam in modern-day Iran, (Especially those parts considered to be the "Fertile Crescent"), the Mehrgarh and Sindhu Valley region of modern-day Pakistan and Northwest India, and the parallel development of Chinese civilizations in the Huang He River (Yellow River) and Yangtze River valleys of China, and on the island of Crete and in Mycenaean Greece in the Aegean Sea, Persia in modern-day Iran, as well as the Olmec civilization and the Caral civilization in modern day Mexico and Peru. The inhabitants of these areas built cities, created writing systems, learned to make pottery and use metals, domesticated animals, and created complex social structures with class systems. Proto-civilized cultures developed as a late stage of the Neolithic Revolution, and pioneered many of the features later associated with civilizations. The oldest granary yet found, for instance, dates back to 9500 BC and is located in the Jordan Valley. The earliest known settlement in Jericho (9th millennium BC) was a Pre-Pottery Neolithic A culture that eventually gave way to more developed settlements later, which included in one early settlement (8th millennium BC) mud-brick houses surrounded by a stone wall, having a stone tower built into the wall. In this time there is evidence of domesticated emmer wheat, barley and pulses and hunting of wild animals. However, there are no indications of attempts to form communities (early civilizations) with surrounding peoples. Nevertheless, by the 6th millennium BC we find what appears to be an ancient shrine and cult, which would likely indicate intercommunal religious practices in this era. Findings include a collective burial (with not all the skeletons completely articulated, jaws removed, faces covered with plaster, cowries used for eyes). Other finds from this era include stone and bone tools, clay figurines and shell and malachite beads. Despite considerable urban development in the Early and Middle Bronze Ages, these sites only became part of the fully civilized world around 1500 to 1200 BC when the pre-literate sites of Jericho and other cities of Canaan had become vassals of the Egyptian empire. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x2454, 989 KB) This map shows the location and extent of the Fertile Crescent, a region in the Middle East incorporating Ancient Egypt, the Levant, and Mesopotamia where civilisation started. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x2454, 989 KB) This map shows the location and extent of the Fertile Crescent, a region in the Middle East incorporating Ancient Egypt, the Levant, and Mesopotamia where civilisation started. ... This map shows the extent of the Fertile Crescent. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ... This map shows the extent of the Fertile Crescent. ... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... The history of China is told in traditional historical records that refer as far back as the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ... For other Yellow Rivers, see Yellow River (disambiguation). ... For other Yellow Rivers, see Yellow River (disambiguation). ... The Yangtze River or Chang Jiang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), or Drichu in Tibetan (Tibetan: འབ; Wylie: bri chu) is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the world, after the Nile in Africa, and the Amazon in South America. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... A clay tablet with writing in Linear B from Mycenae. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Monument 1, one of the four Olmec colossal heads at La Venta. ... Editor: The name of the first andean civilization is Caral, and not Norte Chico. Caral civilization was defined for the first time by Ruth Shady in 1997, after the Sacred City of Caral. ... The Neolithic Revolution is the term for the first agricultural revolution, describing the transition from nomadic hunting and gathering communities and bands, to agriculture and settlement, as first adopted by various independent prehistoric human societies, in numerous locations on most continents between 10-12 thousand years ago. ... Granary at Thiruparaithurai, Kumbakonam (old temple town), built around 1600-1634 A granary is a storehouse for threshed grain or animal feed. ... See 1 E11 s for more remote dates. ... The Jordan River runs along the border between the West Bank and the Kingdom of Jordan Northern part of the Great Rift Valley as seen from space (NASA) The Jordan River Road sign In spring The Jordan River (Hebrew: נהר הירדן nehar hayarden, Arabic: نهر الأردن nahr al-urdun) is a river in Southwest... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colonialism. ... The Taking of Jericho, by Jean Fouquet Near central Jericho, November 1996 Jericho (Arabic  , Hebrew  , ʼArīḥā; Standard YÉ™riḥo Tiberian YÉ™rîḫô / YÉ™rîḥô; meaning fragrant.[1] Greek Ἱεριχώ) is a town in Palestine, located within the Jericho Governorate, near the Jordan River. ... Europe and surrounding areas in the 9th millennium BC. Blue areas are covered in ice. ... The Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (short PPNA) represents the early neolithic in the Levantine and upper Mesopotamian region of the Fertile Crescent. ... In the 8th millennium BC, agriculture becomes widely practiced in the Fertile Crescent and Anatolia. ... For other uses, see House (disambiguation). ... Binomial name triticum dicoccoides Emmer Grain is an ancient grain officially known as Triticum dicoccoides. ... For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... The Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) defines pulses as annual leguminous crops yielding from one to 12 grains or seeds of variable size, shape and colour within a pod. ... A community is a social group of organisms sharing an environment, normally with shared interests. ... During the 6th millennium BC, agriculture spreads from the Balkans to Italy and Eastern Europe and from Mesopotamia to Egypt. ... Eastern Orthodox shrine Buddhist shrine just outside Wat Phnom. ... This article does not discuss cult in its original meaning. ... Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Species See text. ... (Redirected from 1500 BC) Centuries: 17th century BC - 16th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1550s BC 1540s BC 1530s BC 1520s BC 1510s BC - 1500s BC - 1490s BC 1480s BC 1470s BC 1460s BC 1450s BC Events and Trends Stonehenge built in Wiltshire, England The element Mercury has been... (Redirected from 1200 BC) Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC 1210s BC - 1200s BC - 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC Events and Trends 1204 BC - Theseus, legendary King of Athens is deposed after... The Taking of Jericho, by Jean Fouquet Near central Jericho, November 1996 Jericho (Arabic  , Hebrew  , ʼArīḥā; Standard YÉ™riḥo Tiberian YÉ™rîḫô / YÉ™rîḥô; meaning fragrant.[1] Greek Ἱεριχώ) is a town in Palestine, located within the Jericho Governorate, near the Jordan River. ... // [[Image:]] Map of Canaan For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... Look up vassal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In Anatolia, the first urban complex has been identified at Çatalhöyük, having many of the characteristics found in later cities and towns in the Near East. It has been hypothesized that this culture came to an end when nearby forests were depleted of timber, a fate similar to that of the Anasazi in America. At Mersin, an early fortress has been identified guarding the Cicilian Gates trade route through the Taurus Mountains. At Hamoukar in Syria, evidence of an early battle has been found circa 4,500 BC, with those benefiting from the struggle being members of the Uruk culture from Southern Iraq. From Uruk comes the Epic of Gilgamesh, one of the eariest known literary works, which pairs the beastial Enkidu with the demigod king Gilgamesh in a story reflecting civilization's advent. Whilst civilization at Hamoukar and nearby Tell Brak previously had been independent from Southern Iraq, henceforth Southern Iraq developed more rapidly with a higher population density. Excavations at the South Area of Çatal Höyük Çatalhöyük (also Çatal Höyük and Çatal Hüyük, or any of the three without diacritics; çatal is Turkish for fork, höyük for mound) was a very large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern... Ancient Pueblo People, or Ancestral Puebloans is the preferred term for the group of peoples often known as Anasazi who are the ancestors of the modern Pueblo peoples. ... This article is about the city of Mersin, see Mersin Province, (named İçel province until 2002), for information about the surrounding area. ... The Cicilian Gates has been called a Corridor of History[1]. North West of Adana, the Cilician Gates is one of the three passes through the snow covered Taurus Mountains (some peaks more than 11,000 feet above sea level), which connect the Anatolian plateau, with an elevation of about... DirektaÅŸ, Yedi Göller (Seven Lakes), Ala DaÄŸlar. ... Hamoukar is a large archaeological site located in a remote part of northeastern Syria near the Iraqi border, in the Jazira region in the Al Hasakah governorate. ... Uruk (Sumerian Unug, Biblical Erech, Greek Orchoë and Arabic وركاء Warka), was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates, on the line of the ancient Nil canal, in a region of marshes, about 140 miles (230 km) SSE from Baghdad. ... The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from Babylonia and is among the earliest known literary works. ... Enkidu (𒂗𒆠𒆕 EN.KI.DU3 Enkis creation) appears in Sumerian mythology as a mythical wild-man raised by animals. ... For other uses, see Gilgamesh (disambiguation). ... Nagar was an ancient pre-Akkadian and Akkadian city on the Khabur River in northeastern Syria which is now represented by the mound named Tell Brak. ...


It is also important to note various literate and pre-literate civilizations and proto-civilizations developed in southern Sahel, Sudan and East African regions prior to European contact (eg. See Ghana Empire, Mali Empire, Songhai Empire, Great Zimbabwe, Munhumutapa Empire). Oral history is an account of something passed down by word of mouth from one generation to another. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... Not to be confused with the modern country Ghana. ... Extent of the Mali Empire (ca. ... The Songhai Empire, (ca. ... Great Zimbabwe is the name given to the remains of stone, sometimes referred to as the Great Zimbabwe Ruins, of an ancient Southern African city, located at in present-day Zimbabwe which was once the centre of a vast empire known as the Munhumutapa Empire (also called Monomotapa or Mwene... The Empire of Great Zimbabwe also called Munhu mu tapa or Mwene Mutapa or Manhumutapa or Monomotapa or Mutapa was a medieval kingdom (c. ...


Sumer 3500–2334 BC

Further information: The legacy of ancient Sumer

The Mesopotamian civilization of Sumer is officially believed to have begun around 4000-3500 BC, and although some claim it ended in 2334 BC with the rise of Akkad, the following Ur III period saw a Sumerian renaissance. This period came to an end with Amorite and Elamite invasions, after which Sumerian retained its importance only as a written language (similar to Latin in the Middle Ages). It is generally recognized that Sumer, in what is now Iraq, was the world's first civilization. Sumer (or Šumer; Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR [1]) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in lower Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term... Sumer (or Šumer; Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR [1]) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in lower Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term... For the Egyptian writer, see Abbas Al-Akkad. ... The third dynasty of Ur reinstalled Sumerian rule after several centuries of Akkadian and Gutian kings (Sumerian Renaissance). ... For the language, see Amorite language. ... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


Eridu was the oldest Sumerian site, settled during the proto-civilized Ubaid period. Situated several miles southwest of Ur, Eridu was the southernmost of a conglomeration of early temple-cities, in Sumer, southern Mesopotamia, with the earliest of these settlements carbon dating to around 5000 BC. By the 4th millennium BC, in Nippur we find, in connection with a sort of ziggurat and shrine, a conduit built of bricks, in the form of an arch. Sumerian inscriptions written on clay also appear in Nippur. By 4000 BC an ancient Elamite city of Susa, in Mesopotamia, also seems to emerge from earlier villages. Whilst Elam originally adopted their own script from an early age they adapted the Sumerian cuneiform script to their own language. The earliest recognizable cuneiform dates to no later than about 3500 BC. Other villages that began to spring up around this time in the Ancient Near East (Middle East) were greatly impacted and shifted rapidly from a proto-civilized to a fully civilized state (eg. Ebla, Mari and Asshur). Eridu (or Eridug) was an ancient city seven miles southwest of Ur . ... The tell (mound) of Ubaid near Ur in southern Iraq has given its name to the prehistoric culture which represents the earliest settlement on the alluvial plain of southern Mesopotamia. ... For other uses, see Ur (disambiguation). ... Eridu (or Eridug) was an ancient city seven miles southwest of Ur . ... Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ... Sumer (or Å umer; Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR [1]) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in lower Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... For other uses, see Hamlet (disambiguation). ... (6th millennium BC – 5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – other millennia) Events 4713 BC – The epoch (origin) of the Julian Period described by Joseph Justus Scaliger occurred on January 1, the astronomical Julian day number zero. ... The 4th millennium BC saw major changes in human culture. ... The city of Nippur (Sumerian Nibru, Akkadian Nibbur) (now it is in Afak town,Al Qadisyah Governorate) was one of the most ancient (some historians date it back to 5262 B.C. [1][2]) of all the Babylonian cities of which we have any knowledge, the special seat of the... Dur-Untash, or Choqa Zanbil, built in 13th century BC by Untash Napirisha and located near Susa, Iran is one of the worlds best-preserved ziggurats. ... Eastern Orthodox shrine Buddhist shrine just outside Wat Phnom. ... A conduit is a general term for a means of conveying something from one location to another or between persons. ... For other uses, see Brick (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Arch (disambiguation). ... Sumer (or Å umer; Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR [1]) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in lower Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... (5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC - other millennia) Events City of Ur in Mesopotamia (40th century BC). ... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Masouleh village, Gilan Province, Iran. ... Cuneiform script The Cuneiform script is one of the earliest known forms of written expression. ... (36th century BC - 35th century BC - 34th century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) Events ? - Formation of the Sahara Desert 3450 (?) - Stage IId of the Naqada culture in Egypt Significant persons Inventions, discoveries, introductions ? _ Irrigation in Egypt ? - First use of Cuneiform (script) Categories... Overview map of the Ancient Near East The term Ancient Near East or Ancient Orient encompasses the early civilizations predating Classical Antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, Iraq, Turkey), during the time roughly spanning the Bronze Age from the rise... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Ebla is not to be confused with Elba. ... Mari may refer to: Ethnic Mari El, a republic of Russian Federation Mari language, Finno-Ugric language Mari people, a Volga-Finnic people People Mari (composer), a video game music composer Mari (singer), a female vocalist Saint Mari, a Christian saint Other Mari (goddess), the main divinity of pre-Christian... The word Asshur can mean: Asshur (אַשּׁוּר), son of Shem, the son of Noah. ...


Sindhu (Indus) Valley and the Bharatiya(Indian) subcontinent.

Ancient Lothal as envisaged by the Archaeological Survey of India.
Ancient Lothal as envisaged by the Archaeological Survey of India.
See also: Indus Valley Civilization

The earliest-known farming cultures in the world emerged in ancient India. These people domesticated wheat, barley, cow, sheep, goat and other cattle. Pottery was in use by the 8th millennium BC. The oldest granary yet found in this region was the Mehrgarh in the Indus Valley, which dates from 7000 BC. Image File history File links Lothal_conception. ... Image File history File links Lothal_conception. ... The Archaeological Survey of India is an Indian government agency in the Department of Culture that is responsible for archaeological studies and the preservation of cultural monuments. ... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... COW is an acronym for a number of things: Can of worms The COW programming language, an esoteric programming language. ... Species See text. ... This article is about the domestic species. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... Unfired green ware pottery on a traditional drying rack at Conner Prairie living history museum. ... In the 8th millennium BC, agriculture becomes widely practiced in the Fertile Crescent and Anatolia. ... Granary at Thiruparaithurai, Kumbakonam (old temple town), built around 1600-1634 A granary is a storehouse for threshed grain or animal feed. ... Mehrgarh was an ancient settlement in South Asia and is one of the most important sites in archaeology for the study of the earliest neolithic settlements in that region. ... The Indus (सिन्‍धु नदी) (known as Sindhu in ancient times) is the principal river of Pakistan. ...


Their settlement consisted of mud buildings that housed four internal subdivisions. Burials included elaborate goods such as baskets, stone and bone tools, beads, bangles and pendants. Figurines and ornaments of sea shell, limestone, turquoise, lapis lazuli, sandstone and polished copper have been found. By the 4th millennium BC, Technologies included stone and copper drills, updraft kilns, large pit kilns and copper melting crucibles. Button seals included geometric designs. For other uses, see Hamlet (disambiguation). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Four styles of household basket. ... Ancient stone tools A stone tool is, in the most general sense, any tool made of stone. ... A modern hammer is directly descended from ancient hand tools A tool or device is a piece of equipment which typically provides a mechanical advantage in accomplishing a physical task, or provides an ability that is not naturally available to the user of a tool. ... For other uses, see Bead (disambiguation). ... Bangles in Laad Bazaar, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. ... A pendant (from Old French) is a hanging object, generally attached to a necklace or an earring. ... A rare Dresden porcelain figurine Figurine is a diminutive form of the word figure, and generally refers to a small human-made statue that represents a human (or deity or animal). ... The hard, rigid outer calcium carbonate covering of certain animals is called a shell. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Turquoise (disambiguation). ... A block of lapis lazuli Lapis lazuli is one of the oldest of all gems, with a history of use stretching back 7,000 years. ... Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon, Arizona, worn smooth due to erosion by flash flooding over millions of years Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... For other uses, see Drill (disambiguation). ... Charcoal Kilns, California Gold Kiln, Victoria, Australia Hop kiln. ... For other uses, see Crucible (disambiguation). ... This article is about the authentication means. ...


By 4000 BC, a pre-Harappan culture emerged, with trade networks including lapis lazuli and other raw materials. The Sindhu civilization is known to have comprised two large cities, Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, and more than 100 towns and villages, often of relatively small size. The two cities were perhaps originally about a mile square in overall dimensions, and their outstanding magnitude suggests political centralization, either in two large states or in a single great empire with alternative capitals. Or it may be that Harappa succeeded Mohenjo-daro, which is known to have been devastated more than once by exceptional floods [9]. The southern region of the civilization in Kathiawar and beyond appears to be of later origin than the major Sindhu sites. Villagers also grew numerous other crops, including peas, sesame seed, dates, and cotton. The Sindhu valley civilization is credited for high level mathematics, astrology, astronomy, geometry and regular and consistent use of decimal fractions in a uniform system of ancient weights and measures.[23][24] Location of Harappa in the Indus Valley. ... It has been suggested that Commerce be merged into this article or section. ... A block of lapis lazuli Lapis lazuli is one of the oldest of all gems, with a history of use stretching back 7,000 years. ... Masouleh village, Gilan Province, Iran. ... Binomial name L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Binomial name Sesamum indicum Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is a crop grown primarily for its oil-rich seeds. ... Binomial name Phoenix dactylifera L. The Date Palm Phoenix dactylifera is a palm, extensively cultivated for its edible fruit. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Decimal (disambiguation). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Major cities of the civilization included Harappa (3300 BC), Dholavira (2900 BC), Mohenjo-Daro (2500 BC), Lothal (2400 BC) and Rakhigarhi. Streets were laid out in grid patterns along with the development of sewage and water systems. This civilization of planned cities came to an end around 1700 BC perhaps due to drying of rivers flowing from the Himalayas to the Arabian sea and geological/climatic changes in the Sindhu valley civilization area which resulted in the formation of the Thar desert. As a result, the cities were abandoned and populations reduced and people moved to the more fertile Ganga-Yamuna river area. The Sindhu Valley script remains un-deciphered. The theory proposed is the Out of India theory, according to which there was no Aryan invasion into India, there was a continuity between the Sindhu Valley Civilization and the Vedic Age and that the decline of the Sindhu Valley Civilization was related to geological events. Besides, the theory postulates that there was a migration of Indo-Aryans culture out of India rather than the reverse as is the case with the Aryan Invasion Theory, reviving the obsolete Urheimat theories of 18th and 19th century linguists. [citation needed]. A city is an urban area, differentiated from a town, village, or hamlet by size, population density, importance, or legal status. ... Location of Harappa in the Indus Valley. ... Dholavira, an ancient metropolitan city, and locally known as Kotada Timba Prachin Mahanagar Dholavira, is one of the largest and most prominent archaeological sites in India, belonging to the Indus Valley Civilization. ... Mohenjo-daro (literally, mound of the dead), like Harappa, was a city of the Indus Valley civilization. ... Ancient Lothal as envisaged by the Archaeological Survey of India. ... Rakhigarhi, or Rakhi Garhi, is a village in Hissar district in the northwest Indian state of Haryana, around 150 kilometers from Delhi. ... Sewage is the mainly liquid waste containing some solids produced by humans which typically consists of washing water, faeces, urine, laundry waste and other material which goes down drains and toilets from households and industry. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... For the movie Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ... The Out of India theory (OIT, also called the Indian Urheimat Theory) is the proposition that the original homeland of the Indo-European language family is India. ... The Vedic civilization is the Indo-Aryan culture associated with the Vedas, the earliest known records of Indian history. ... The Indo-Aryans are a wide collection of peoples united by their common status as speakers of the Indo-Aryan (Indic/Indian) branch of the family of Indo-European and Indo-Iranian languages. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Urheimat (German: ur- original, ancient; Heimat home, homeland) is a linguistic term denoting the original homeland of the speakers of a proto-language. ... Comparative linguistics (originally comparative philology) is a branch of historical linguistics that is concerned with comparing languages in order to establish their historical relatedness. ...


The Vedic period (or Vedic Age) is the period in the history of India when the sacred Vedic Sanskrit texts such as the Vedas were documented from their oral tradition. The associated culture, sometimes referred to as Vedic civilization, was centered on the Indo-Gangetic Plain. This civilization is the foundation of Hinduism and its daughter religions including Budhism, Jainism, Sikhism and the associated Indian culture that is known today.


Its early phase saw the formation of various kingdoms of ancient India. In its late phase (from ca. 700 BCE), it saw the rise of the Mahajanapadas, and was succeeded by the golden age of Hinduism and classical Sanskrit literature, the Maurya Empire (from ca. 320 BCE) and the Middle kingdoms of India.


In modern India, around 85% of the population practices Hinduism and associated Dharmic religions while the rest of the populace practices Abrahamic religions. Most modern Indian languages derive heavily from Sanskrit, the language of Gods according to Hindus. Bhavna says there are 300 million gods in Hinduism. ...


Ancient Egypt 3200–343 BC

See also: Ancient Egypt

The rise of dynastic Egypt in the Nile Valley occurred with the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt in approximately 3200 BC, and ended at around 343 BC, at the start of the Achaemenid dynasty's control of Egypt. It is one of the three oldest civilizations in the world. Anthropological and archaeological evidence both indicate that the Kubbaniya culture was a grain-grinding culture farming along the Nile before the 10th millennium BC using sickle blades. But another culture of hunters, fishers and gathering peoples using stone tools replaced them. Evidence also indicates human habitation in the southwestern corner of Egypt, near the Sudan border, before 8000 BC. From around 7000 BC to 3000 BC the climate of the Sahara was much moister, offering good grazing land even in areas that are now very arid. Natural climate change after 3000 BC led to progressive arification of the region. It has been suggested that as a result of these changes, around 2500 BC early tribes from the Sahara were forced to concentrate along the Nile river where they developed a settled agricultural economy and more centralized society. However it should be borne in mind that indigenous tribes would always have been present in the fertile Nile Valley and may have developed complex societies by themselves. Domesticated animals had already been imported from Asia between 7500 BC and 4000 BC (see Sahara: History, Cattle period), and there is evidence of pastoralism and cultivation of cereals in the East Sahara in the 7th millennium BC. The earliest known artwork of ships in ancient Egypt dates to 6th millennium BC. Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... ... The Persepolis Ruins The Achaemenid dynasty (Old Persian:Hakamanishiya, Persian: هخامنشیان) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... Grain redirects here. ... The word grinding can mean many things: Grinding is a manufacturing process that uses friction with a rough surface to wear away or smooth the surface of a work piece - see grinding machine. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... See 1 E11 s for more remote dates. ... Using a sickle A sickle is a curved, hand-held agricultural tool typically used for harvesting grain crops before the advent of modern harvesting machinery. ... A blade is the flat part of a tool or weapon that normally has a cutting edge and/or pointed end typically made of a metal, most recently, steel intentionally used to cut, stab, slice, throw, thrust, or strike an animate or inainimate object. ... This article is about the hunting of prey by human society. ... Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... Ancient stone tools A stone tool is, in the most general sense, any tool made of stone. ... (9th millennium BC – 8th millennium BC – 7th millennium BC – other millennia) Events The south area of Çatalhöyük. ... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... In the 8th millennium BC, agriculture becomes widely practiced in the Fertile Crescent and Anatolia. ... For other uses, see Sahara (disambiguation). ... Pastoralism is a form of farming, such as agriculture and horticulture. ... Grain redirects here. ... During the 7th millennium BC, agriculture spreads from Anatolia to the Balkans. ... For other uses, see Ship (disambiguation). ... Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... During the 6th millennium BC, agriculture spreads from the Balkans to Italy and Eastern Europe and from Mesopotamia to Egypt. ...


By 6000 BC predynastic Egyptians in the southwestern corner of Egypt were herding cattle. Symbols on Gerzean pottery, c.4th millennium BC, resemble traditional hieroglyph writing. In ancient Egypt mortar was in use by 4000 BC, and ancient Egyptians were producing ceramic faience as early as 3500 BC. There is evidence that ancient Egyptian explorers may have originally cleared and protected some branches of the Silk Road.[citation needed] Medical institutions are known to have been established in Egypt since as early as circa 3000 BC. Ancient Egypt gains credit for the tallest ancient pyramids and early forms of surgery, mathematics, and barge transport. The Predynastic Period of Egypt (prior to 3100 BC) is traditionally the period between the Early Neolithic and the beginning of the Pharaonic monarchy beginning with King Narmer. ... A man herding goats in Tunisia Herding is the act of bringing individual animals together into a group, maintaining the group and moving the group from place to place—or any combination of those. ... Gerzeh ( or Girza, Jirzah ) was a predynastic Egyptian cemetery (29°27N, 31°12E) located along the west bank of the Nile and today named after al-Girza, the nearby present day town in Egypt [1]. Gerzeh is situated only several miles due east of the lake of the... The 4th millennium BC saw major changes in human culture. ... It has been suggested that Hieroglyph (French Wiki article) be merged into this article or section. ... Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... Mortar holding weathered bricks. ... This article is about ceramic materials. ... Faience or faïence is the conventional name in English for fine tin-glazed earthenware on a delicate pale buff body. ... (36th century BC - 35th century BC - 34th century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) Events 3500 BC - 3000 BC; Face of a woman, from Uruk (modern Warka, Iraq) was made. ... Explorer redirects here. ... The Silk Road extending from Southern Europe through Arabia, Egypt, Persia, India till it reaches China. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... // Ceremonial temple butcher knife made of flint, with the Horus name of the pharaoh Djer inscribed on its gold handle. ... A view of the pyramids at Giza from the plateau to the south of the complex. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... A timeline of pure and applied mathematics // ca. ... Self propelled barge carrying bulk crushed stone A barge is a flat-bottomed boat, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods. ...


Elamite (Iran) (2700–539 BC)

The Elamite Kingdom is one of the oldest civilizations on record, beginning around 2700 BC and discovered and acknowledged very recently. This civilization was a hub of activity in the Middle East and would probably have been in contact with the civilizations of Sumer. There is evidence of an even older civilization called the Jiroft Kingdom, but not everybody acknowledges this civilization. There are records of numerous ancient and technologically advanced civilizations on the Iranian plateau before the arrival of Aryan tribes from the north, many of whom are still unknown to historians today. Archaeological findings place knowledge of Persian prehistory at middle palaeolithic times (100,000 years ago).[10] The earliest sedentary cultures date from 18,000-14,000 years ago. In 6000 BC the world saw a fairly sophisticated agricultural society and proto-urban population centers. 7000 year old jars of wine excavated in the Zagros Mountains (now on display at The University of Pennsylvania) are further testament to this. Scholars and archaeologists are only beginning to discover the scope of the independent, non-Semitic Elamite Empire and Jiroft civilizations (2) that flourished 5000 years ago]. Sumer (or Å umer; Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR [1]) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in lower Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term... The Jiroft Kingdom or Jiroft Civilization (تمدن جيرفت) is a relatively recent and ongoing multinational archeological project that aims to uncover an unknown civilization in a series of newly discovered sites in Irans Kerman Province, located at 28° 48 N latitude and 57° 46 E Longitude, known as Jiroft or Halilrud... Topographic map of the Iranian plateau connecting to Anatolia in the west and Hindu Kush and Himalaya in the east Iranian plateau is both a geographical area of South or West Asia, home of ancient civilizations[1], and a geological area of Eurasia north of the great folded mountain belts... Aryan (/eÉ™rjÉ™n/ or /ɑːrjÉ™n/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic – lit. ... (7th millennium BC – 6th millennium BC – 5th millennium BC – other millennia) Events c. ... Jar can mean: Containers: Antique fruit jar Canopic jar, used in ancient Egyptian burial Leyden jar, a simple capacitor Killing jar [municipality in Zaqatalskiy region of Azerbaijan] JAR (file format) is a file format used to package Java programming language applications Jar, Norway, a centre in the municipality of B... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... The term archaeological excavation has a double meaning. ... The Zagros Mountains (Kurdish: زنجیره‌ چیاکانی زاگروس), make up Irans and Iraqs largest mountain range. ... An Elamite Man in Persepolis The ancient Elamite Empire (تمدن عیلام in Persian) lay to the east of Sumer and Akkad, in what is now southwestern Iran. ...


Canaan (2350 BC - 100 AD)

See also: Canaan

The Canaanite civilisation of the Early Levant, associated with the small city states and regional nations that existed in the region from the end of the Early Bronze Age, down to the final disappearance of the Canaanite script and language in the 1st century AD, was a specific civilisation that tied Mediterranean trade into the larger regional states of the fertile crescent. It had its roots in the Chaclolithic Ghassulian culture of the Syro-Palestinian region, which pioneered a destinctive Mediterranean economy comprising subsistence horticulture, extensive grain agriculture, commercial production of wine, pistaccios and olives, and transhumance pastoralism. At periods of desiccation and climate change, Canaanite civilisation was impacted by nomadic pastoralists (eg. Amorites, Aramaeans, Arabs)normally confined to the semi-desert circum-Arabian zone. // [[Image:]] Map of Canaan For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... This article deals with the general history of the Levant, which is an antiquated geographical term that refers to a large area in Southwest Asia, south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea in the west, the Arabian Desert in the north, and Mesopotamia to the east. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... The Ghassulian was an archaeological stage dating to the Middle Chalcolithic Period in southern Palestine (c. ... The following is a list of subsistence techniques: Hunting and Gathering, also known as Foraging freeganism involves gathering of discarded food in the context of an urban environment gleaning involves the gathering of food that traditional farmers have left behind in their fields Cultivation Horticulture - plant cultivation, based on the... Horticulture (Latin: hortus (garden plant) + cultura (culture)) are classically defined as the culture or growing of garden plants. ... Pastoralism is a form of farming, such as agriculture and horticulture. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... Eurasian nomads are a large group of peoples of the steppes of Central Asia, Mongolia and Eastern Europe (Pontic steppe). ... Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Amurrū (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the middle Euphrates area from the second half of the third millennium BC and also appear in the Tanakh. ... The Aramaeans, or Arameans, were a Semitic, semi-nomadic and pastoralist people who originated and had lived in upper Mesopotamia and Syria. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ...


The area received its name from the Akkadian Kanahhu, or perhaps the Hurrian knaa, meaning "purple", the colour of the dye produced from the local murex mollusc, that provided a distinctive and expensive coloured textile. Canaanite culture is known to the Greeks as Phoenician (from the same source). Incorporated into the Egyptian Empire in the New Empire period, as maritime traders in the Early Iron Age, Canaanites were responsible for establishing colonies in North Africa, Sicily, Sardinia, Spain and the Balerics. They may even have circumnavigated Africa. Akkadian (lišānum akkadītum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... The word Hurrian may refer to: An ancient people of the Near East, the Hurrians. ... Species see text Murex (Linnaeus, 1758) is a genus of tropical carnivorous marine gastropods. ... Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ... The New Empire Period of Ancient Egypt is the name given by Egyptologists to the period after the expulsion of the Hyksos at the end of the Second Intermediary Period, down to the loss of Empire and the fragmentation of Egypt during the 20th Egyptian Dynasty. ...


Incorporated into Assyrian, Babylonian, Persian, Greek and Roman Empires, in the Levant, Canaanite Carthaginians managed to maintain their independence until the Punic Wars with the Roman Empire. The Jewish religion is the greatest creation of Canaanite civilization, preserving the language and much of the culture of this area. This article is about the ancient city-state of Carthage in North Africa. ... The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage between 264 and 146 BC. They are known as the Punic Wars because the Latin term for Carthaginian was Punici (older Poenici, from their Phoenician ancestry). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people, based on principles and ethics embodied in the Bible (Tanakh) and the Talmud. ...


China 2200 BC–Present

See also: History of China, History of science and technology in China, and List of Chinese inventions

China is one of the world's oldest civilizations and one of the oldest continuous civilizations. The oldest pre-civilized Neolithic cultures found in China to date are the Pengtoushan, the Jiahu, and the Peiligang, all dated to about 7000 BC. Pengtoushan has been difficult to date and has a date variance from 9000 BC to 5500 BC, but it was at this site that remains of domesticated rice dated at about 7000 BC were found. At Jiahu, some of the earliest evidence of rice cultivation was found. Another notable discovery at Jiahu was playable tonal flutes, dated around 7000 BC to 6600 BC. Peiligang was one of the earliest cultures in China to make pottery. Both Jiahu and Peiligang developed millet farming, animal husbandry, storage and redistribution of crops. Evidence also indicates specialized craftsmenship and administrators in these Neolithic cultures (see History of China: Prehistoric times). The history of China is told in traditional historical records that refer as far back as the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ... The history of science and technology in China is both long and rich with science and technological contribution. ... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (4606x3071, 2099 KB) The photographer is Hao Wei, a Chinese exchange student attending Tipperary Institute, when he was in the vicinity of the Great Wall. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (4606x3071, 2099 KB) The photographer is Hao Wei, a Chinese exchange student attending Tipperary Institute, when he was in the vicinity of the Great Wall. ... The Great Wall of China (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally Long wall) or (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally The long wall of 10,000 Li (里)[1]) is a series of stone and earthen fortifications in China, built, rebuilt, and maintained between the 5th century BC and the 16th... The Pengtoushan culture (彭頭山文化) (7500-6100 BC [1]) was a Neolithic culture centered primarily around the central Yangtze River region in northwestern Hunan, China. ... 9000 years old Jiahu playable Flutes. ... The Peiligang culture (裴李崗文化) is a name given by archaeologists to a group of Neolithic communities who lived in the Yiluo river valley in Henan Province, China. ... Craftsman is an artisan who practices a handicraft or trade; a style of architecture and furniture arising from the Arts and Crafts movement; a military rank within the Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers, equivalent to a private; and a brand of tools. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Public administration can be broadly described as the study and implementation of policy. ... The history of China is told in traditional historical records that refer as far back as the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ...


Longshan culture (traditional Chinese: 龍山文化; simplified Chinese: 龙山文化; pinyin: Lóngshān wénhuà) was a late Neolithic culture centered on the central and lower Yellow River in China. Longshan culture is named after Longshan, Shandong Province, the first excavated site of this culture. It is dated from about 3000 BC to 2000 BC. Longshan culture (龍山文化) was a late Neolithic culture centered around the central and lower Yellow River in China. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... For other Yellow Rivers, see Yellow River (disambiguation). ... Shandong (Simplified Chinese: 山东; Traditional Chinese: 山東; pinyin: Shāndōng; Wade-Giles: Shan-tung) is a coastal province of eastern Peoples Republic of China. ... (31st century BC - 30th century BC - 29th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2925 - 2776 BC - First Dynasty wars in Egypt 2900 BC - Beginning of the Early Dynastic Period I in Mesopotamia. ... (Redirected from 2000 BC) (21st century BC - 20th century BC - 19th century BC - other centuries) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 2064 - 1986 BC -- Twin Dynasty wars in Egypt 2000 BC -- Farmers and herders travel south from Ethiopia and settle in Kenya. ...


The Erlitou culture (traditional Chinese: 二里頭文化; simplified Chinese: 二里头文化; pinyin: Erlitou wénhuà ) (2200 BC to 1500 BC) is a name given by archaeologists to an Early Bronze Age society that existed in China. The culture was named after the site discovered at Erlitou in Yanshi, Henan Province. The culture was widely spread throughout Henan and Shanxi Province, and later appeared in Shaanxi and Hubei Province. Most Chinese archaeologists identify the Erlitou culture as the site of the Xia Dynasty, while most Western archaeologists remain unconvinced of the connection between the Erlitou culture and the Xia Dynasty since there are no extant written records linking Erlitou with the official history. Neolithic culture (1900–1350 BC) of the central plains of northern China. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... (Redirected from 2200 BC) (23rd century BC - 22nd century BC - 21st century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2217 - 2193 BC -- Nomadic invasions of Akkad 2181 BC -- Egypt: End of Egypt: End of Seventh Dynasty, start of Eighth Dynasty 2160 BC -- Egypt: End... (Redirected from 1500 BC) Centuries: 17th century BC - 16th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1550s BC 1540s BC 1530s BC 1520s BC 1510s BC - 1500s BC - 1490s BC 1480s BC 1470s BC 1460s BC 1450s BC Events and Trends Stonehenge built in Wiltshire, England The element Mercury has been... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Cao Mao, ch. ... Not to be confused with the unrelated provinces of Hainan and Hunan Henan (Chinese: 河南; pinyin: Hénán; Wade-Giles: Ho-nan), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. ... Not to be confused with the neighboring province of Shaanxi Shanxi (Chinese: 山西; pinyin: Shānxī; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Shansi) is a northern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ShÇŽnxÄ«; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal map spelling: Shensi) is a north-central province of the Peoples Republic of China, and includes portions of the Loess Plateau on the middle reaches of the Yellow River as well as the Qinling Mountains across the... Not to be confused with the unrelated province of Hebei Hubei (Chinese: 湖北; pinyin: Húběi; Wade-Giles: Hu-pei, also seen as Hupeh), abbreviated to 鄂 (pinyin: È, WG: O), a province of the Peoples Republic of China, lies to the north of the Dongting Lake... For the Sixteen Kingdoms Period state, see Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms). ...


The Yellow River was irrigated around 2205 BC, reputedly by an Emperor named Yu the Great, starting the semi-mythical Xia Dynasty. Archaeologists disagree whether or not there is archaeological evidence to support the existence of the Xia Dynasty, with some suggesting that the Bronze Age society, the Erlitou culture, was the site of this ancient, first recorded dynasty of China. For other Yellow Rivers, see Yellow River (disambiguation). ... For the volcano in Indonesia, see Emperor of China (volcano). ... King Yu of Xia of China, in chinese: 禹, (2070 BC-2061 BC),born Si Wen Ming, in chinese: 姒文命 , often called Da Yu (大禹,who mean Yu the Great). Yu was the legendary first Chinese monarch of the Xia Dynasty, considered as the founder of the dynasty. ... For the Sixteen Kingdoms Period state, see Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms). ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... The Erlitou culture (二里頭文化) (1900 BC to 1500 BC) is a name given by archaeologists to an Early Bronze Age society that existed in China. ...


The earliest archaeologically verifiable dynasty in recorded Chinese history, the Shang Dynasty, emerged around 1750 BC. The Shang Dynasty is attributed for bronze artifacts and oracle bones, which were turtle shells or cattle scapula on which are written the first recorded Chinese characters and found in the Huang He valley in Yinxu, a capital of the Shang Dynasty. China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ... Replica of an oracle bone -- turtle shell Replica of an oracle bone -- ox scapula Oracle bones (甲骨片 pinyin: jiÇŽgÇ”piàn) are pieces of bone or turtle shell used in royal divination in the mid Shang to early Zhou dynasties in ancient China, and often bearing written inscriptions in what... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: A Chinese character or Han character (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... For other Yellow Rivers, see Yellow River (disambiguation). ... Yinxu, the ruins of Yin, the capital (1350 - 1046 BC) of the Shang (Yin) Dynasty. ... Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ...


Another source of ancient Chinese civilization is Sanxingdui, which demonstrated astonishing bronze craftwork, but suddenly disappeared around 1000 BC leaving no historical records.[25] This article is about the Chinese civilization. ... Sanxingdui (三星堆 san1 xing1 dui1) is an archaeological site, about 40 kilometres from Chengdu in Sichuan Province, China. ...


Greece 2000 BC–146 BC

The "Saffron-gatherers": fresco found at Akrotiri on the island of Santorini.
The "Saffron-gatherers": fresco found at Akrotiri on the island of Santorini.

The first signs of civilization in Greece are on the island of Crete from around 2600 BC, and by 1600 BC it had risen to become a larger civilization across much of Greece. Aegean civilization is the general term for the prehistoric civilizations in Greece, mostly throughout the Aegean Sea. It was formerly called "Mycenaean" because its existence was first brought to popular notice by Heinrich Schliemann's excavations at Mycenae starting in 1876. It is more usual now to use the more general geographical title. The Mycenaean civilization is now known to have succeeded the earlier Minoan, which flourished on the Greek island of Crete, for which the most representative site explored up to now is Knossos. The site of Knossos has yielded valuable and the most various and continuous evidence from the Neolithic age to the twilight of classical civilization. Human habitation at the site began with the founding of the first Neolithic settlement in ca 7000 BC. Remains of food producing societies in Greece have also been found at the Franchthi Cave, and a number of sites in Thessaly, carbon-dated to ca 6500 BC. The list of significant archaeological sites includes Akrotiri on the island of Santorini. The oldest signs of human settlement there are Late Neolithic (4th millennium BC or earlier), but from ca. 20001650 BC Akrotiri developed into one of the Aegean's major Bronze Age ports [11], with recovered objects that had come not just from Crete but also from Anatolia, Cyprus, Syria and Egypt, from the Dodecanese islands and the Greek mainland. Image File history File links Saffron_gatherersSantorini-3. ... Image File history File links Saffron_gatherersSantorini-3. ... See also Akrotiri (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Aegean civilization is a general term for the Bronze Age civilizations of Greece and the Aegean. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Portrait of Heinrich Schliemann. ... A clay tablet with writing in Linear B from Mycenae. ... Year 1876 Pick up Sticks(MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the Greek archaeological site. ... The Minoan civilization was a bronze age civilization which arose on Crete, an island in the Aegean Sea. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... A portion of Arthur Evans reconstruction of the Minoan palace at Knossos. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Franchthi Cave (Greek Σπήλαιον Φράγχθη) is a cave overlooking the Argolic Gulf that has yielded large numbers of artifacts relating to Neolithic Greece. ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... See also Akrotiri (disambiguation). ... Santorini (Greek Σαντορίνη, IPA: ) is a small, circular archipelago of volcanic islands located in southern Aegean Sea, about 200 km south-east from Greeces mainland. ... The 4th millennium BC saw major changes in human culture. ... EGGS! ... Centuries: 18th century BC - 17th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1690s BC 1680s BC 1670s BC 1660s BC - 1650s BC - 1640s BC 1630s BC 1620s BC 1610s BC 1600s BC Events and trends Egypt: Start of Seventeenth Dynasty. ... See also Akrotiri (disambiguation). ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... The country of Greece is located in southeastern Europe, on the southern end of the Balkanic peninsula. ...


The language of the Minoans may have been written in the Cretan hieroglyphs and the Linear A script, but both remain un-deciphered. Approximately 3,000 tablets bearing the writing have been discovered so far, many apparently being inventories of goods or resources. In the Mycenean period, Linear A was replaced by Linear B. The latter was successfully deciphered by Michael Ventris in the 1950s, proving to be a very archaic version of the Greek language. Cretan hieroglyphs are found on artifacts of Bronze Age Minoan Crete (early to mid 2nd millennium BC, MM I to MM III, overlapping with Linear A from MM IIA at the earliest). ... Linear A incised on tablets found in Akrotiri, Santorini. ... This article is about the ancient syllabary. ... [[1]] Michael George Francis Ventris (July 12, 1922–September 6, 1956) was an English architect and classical scholar, who along with John Chadwick was responsible for the decipherment of Linear B. Michael Ventris was educated in Switzerland and at Stowe School, housed in a magnificent 18th century country house. ... Greek ( IPA: or simply IPA: — Hellenic) has a documented history of 3,500 years, the longest of any single language in the Indo-European language family. ...


Regarding Aegean art, many items have been excavated. One Aegean sculpture (a face figure) has been greatly popularized due to its appearance in the Athens 2004 opening ceremony. Another one was the idea behind the game's mascots. Aegean figures are intriguing, since they bear a high resemblance to modern sculptures (e.g. Henry Moore's works). Figure from the Cyclades, popularized by its appearance at the Athens 2004 olympic games oppening ceremony Aegean art refers to art that was created in the Grecian and Persian lands surrounding, and the islands within, the Aegean Sea. ... The ceremony for the lighting of the flame is arranged as a pagan pageant, with priestesses dancing. ... Sculptor redirects here. ... Reclining Figure (1951) outside the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, is characteristic of Moores sculptures, with an abstract female figure intercut with voids. ...


Etruscans and Ancient Rome 900BC-500AD

The Roman Forum was the central area around which ancient Rome developed.
The Roman Forum was the central area around which ancient Rome developed.

Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from an Etruscan city-state founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to an empire straddling the Mediterranean. The Etruscan civilisation developing from Piombino throughout Tuscany as a series of independent city states was eclipsed by its Latin speaking Roman neighbour, and incorporated within its republic. In its twelve-century existence, the Roman civilization shifted from a monarchy to an oligarchic republic to an empire. It came to dominate Western Europe and the entire area surrounding the Mediterranean Sea through conquest and assimilation. Nonetheless, a number of factors led to the eventual decline of the Roman Empire. The western half of the empire, including Hispania, Gaul, and Italy, eventually broke into independent kingdoms in the 5th century; the eastern empire, governed from Constantinople, is usually referred to as the Byzantine Empire after 476, the traditional date for the "fall of Rome" and for the subsequent onset of the Early Middle Ages, also known as the Dark Ages. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1311x500, 176 KB)ur a fucking fag show me the fucking picturs now File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1311x500, 176 KB)ur a fucking fag show me the fucking picturs now File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Part of the Roman Forum. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Extent of Etruscan civilization and the twelve Etruscan League cities. ... Satellite view of the Peninsula in spring The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Italian: Penisola italiana or Penisola appenninica) is one of the greatest peninsulas of Europe, spanning 1,000 km from the Alps in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south. ... (10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC - other centuries) (900s BC - 890s BC - 880s BC - 870s BC - 860s BC - 850s BC - 840s BC - 830s BC - 820s BC - 810s BC - 800s BC - other decades) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Kingdom of Kush (900 BC... The Etruscan civilization existed in Etruria and the Po valley in the northern part of what is now Italy, prior to the formation of the Roman Republic. ... Piombino is a town and commune in the province of Livorno (Tuscany), Italy, on the medium coast of Tyrrhenian sea, in front of Elba Island and at the northern side of Maremma. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small elite segment of society (whether distinguished by wealth, family or military powers). ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the political and historical term. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory, or altering the established government. ... Cultural assimilation (often called merely assimilation) is an intense process of consistent integration whereby members of an ethno-cultural group, typically immigrants, or other minority groups, are absorbed into an established, generally larger community. ... This article is about the historiography of the decline of the Roman Empire. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Events August - The usurper Basiliscus is deposed and Zeno is restored as Eastern Roman Emperor. ... The History of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, a major literary achievement of Eighteenth Century, was written by the English historian, Edward Gibbon. ... Justinians wife Theodora and her retinue, in a 6th century mosaic from the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna. ... Petrarch, who conceived the idea of a European Dark Age. From Cycle of Famous Men and Women, Andrea di Bartolo di Bargillac, c. ...


Persia (Iran)(550 B.C -- 650 A.D.)

The Achaemenid Empire (559 BC–330 BC), founded by Cyrus the Great, was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of Greater Iran. It also eventually incorporated the following territories: in the east modern Afghanistan and beyond into central Asia, and portions of Baluchistan; in the north and west all of Asia Minor (modern Turkey), the upper Balkans peninsula (Thrace), and most of the Black Sea coastal regions; in the west and southwest the territories of modern Iraq, northern Saudi-Arabia, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon, Syria, all significant population centers of ancient Egypt and as far west as portions of Libya. Encompassing approximately 7.5 million square kilometers, the Achaemenid Empire was territorially the largest empire of classical antiquity. When Alexander the Great conquered the Persian Empire in 330 BC, Persian civilization experienced fundamental changes. Along his route of conquest and destroying the Persepolis, Alexander founded many colony cities, that he often named "Alexandria". For the next several centuries, these cities served to greatly extend Greek, or Hellenistic, culture in Persia. The recovery of Persian civilisation under the Parthians and Sassanid Empires saw a renaissance of the Iranian Zoroastrian religion and the Persian monarchy and bureaucracy down to Muslim times. Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires. ... “Cyrus” redirects here. ... Persia redirects here. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      Greater Iran (in Persian: Irān-e Bozorg, or Irān-zamÄ«n; the Encyclopedia Iranica uses the term Iranian Cultural Continent[1]) is a term for the Iranian plateau in addition to... Major ethnic groups in Pakistan and surrounding areas, in 1980. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Motto There is no God but Allah; Muhammad is His messenger (the Shahadah) Anthem Aash Al Maleek Long live the King Capital (and largest city) Riyadh Official languages Arabic Demonym Saudi, Saudi Arabian Government Absolute monarchy  -  King Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz  -  Crown Prince Sultan bin Abdul Aziz Establishment  -  Kingdom declared... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... This article is about the ancient city. ... Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate...


American Civilizations of the "New World"

Norte Chico 3000–1600 BC

Caral of the Norte Chico, the oldest known civilization in the Western Hemisphere.
Caral of the Norte Chico, the oldest known civilization in the Western Hemisphere.

The oldest known civilization in South America, as well as in the Western Hemisphere as a whole, the Norte Chico civilization comprised several interconnected settlements leading to the Peruvian coast, including the urban centers at Aspero and Caral. The presence of Quipu (an Andean recording medium) at Caral indicates its potential influence on later Andean societies, as well as the antiquity of this unique recording system. The stone pyramids on the sites are thought to be contemporary to the great pyramids of Giza. Unusually among Andean cities, no evidence of fortifications, or of other signs of warfare, have yet been found in the Norte Chico. Image File history File links PeruCaral01. ... Image File history File links PeruCaral01. ... Editor: The name of the first andean civilization is Caral, and not Norte Chico. Caral civilization was defined for the first time by Ruth Shady in 1997, after the Sacred City of Caral. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... The Norte Chico civilization (also Caral or Caral-Supe civilization) was a complex Pre-Columbian society that included as many as 30 major population centers in what is now the Norte Chico region of north-central coastal Peru. ... Aspero is a well-studied site of the ancient Norte Chico civilization, located at the mouth of the Supe river on the north-central Peruvian coast. ... Editor: The name of the first andean civilization is Caral, and not Norte Chico. Caral civilization was defined for the first time by Ruth Shady in 1997, after the Sacred City of Caral. ... Inca Quipu. ...


Olmec (New World) 1200–450 BC

The Olmec civilization was the first Mesoamerican civilization, beginning around 1200 BC and ending around 400 BC. By 2700 BC, settlers in the Americas had begun to grow their first crop, maize, and a number of cities were built. Around 1200 BC, these small cities coalesced into this civilization. A prominent civilization thus emerged. The centers of these cities were ceremonial complexes with pyramids and walled plazas. The first of these centers was at San Lorenzo, with another one following it at La Venta. Olmec artisans sculpted jade and clay figurines of Jaguars and humans, and giant heads of the emperor stood in every major city. The domestication of maize is thought to have begun around 7,500 to 12,000 years ago (corrected for solar variations).[26]. The earliest record of lowland maize cultivation dates to around 5,100 calendar years BC[27]. The ruling families, however, eventually lost their grip on the surrounding regions, and the civilization ended in 400 BC, with the defacing and destruction of San Lorenzo and La Venta, two of the major cities. This civilization is considered the mother culture of the Mesoamerican civilizations. It spawned the Mayan civilization whose first constructions began around 600 BC and continued to influence future civilizations. Mesoamerica is the region extending from central Mexico south to the northwestern border of Costa Rica that gave rise to a group of stratified, culturally related agrarian civilizations spanning an approximately 3,000-year period before the European discovery of the New World by Columbus. ... (Redirected from 1200 BC) Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC 1210s BC - 1200s BC - 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC Events and Trends 1204 BC - Theseus, legendary King of Athens is deposed after... The Celtics claim Vienna, Austria. ... (Redirected from 2700 BC) (28th century BC - 27th century BC - 26th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC -- Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period 2775 - 2650 BC -- Second Dynasty wars in Egypt Germination of the Bristlecone pine tree Methuselah... The Celtics claim Vienna, Austria. ... This article is about the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ...


Alleged prehistoric civilizations

Since the days of Plato there has been the suggestion at different times that there were in fact a number of additional ancient civilizations that disappeared as a result of major catastrophes. These include For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ...

No scientific evidence for any of these so-called civilizations exists, and they are scientifically considered fictions, although Spyridon Marinatos and others have suggested that the story of Atlantis may be a distorted memory of the Bronze Age collapse of Aegean Mycenaean or Minoan civilization. The theory of any other large pre-historic civilizations located in major oceans being overwhelmed by catastrophes has been totally rejected by mainstream science. The esteemed archaeologist Colin Renfrew, in a BBC Horizon program on this subject, responded to the theory with the remark "You could summarize it by saying it's a load of codswallop". Modern geophysics, chemistry, and carbon dating all show that there was no single source for all civilization—that civilizations evolved independently, in many different places, at different times throughout history.[28] For other uses, see Atlantis (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Ignatius Loyola Donnelly (November 3, 1831 – January 1, 1901) was a U.S. Congressman, populist, and writer, known primarily today for his theories on the history of Atlantis and Shakespearean authorship. ... New Age describes a broad movement characterized by alternative approaches to traditional Western culture. ... Lemuria is the name of a hypothetical lost land variously located in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. ... Biogeography is the science which deals with patterns of species distribution and the processes that result in such patterns. ... Ernst Haeckel. ... Pithecanthropus erectus was the name first given to the Homo erectus specimen, also known as Java Man, by its discoverer Eugene Dubois. ... Eugene Dubois (January 28, 1858 - December 16, 1940) was a Dutch anthropologist, who earned world-wide fame with the discovery of Homo erectus in Java in 1891. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... For other uses, see Occult (disambiguation). ... Underwater structures controversially identified as remnants of Mu, near Yonaguni, Japan Mu is the name of a hypothetical vanished continent. ...   Maya glyphs in stucco at the Museo de sitio in Palenque, Mexico The Maya script, commonly known as Maya hieroglyphs, was the writing system of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization of Mesoamerica, presently the only deciphered script of the Mesoamerican writing systems. ... Col. ... New Age describes a broad movement characterized by alternative approaches to traditional Western culture. ... A typical 18th century phrenology chart. ... Spyridon Nikolaou Marinatos (November 4, 1901 - October 1, 1974) was one of the premier Greek archaeologists of the 20th century, whose most notable discovery was the site of the Minoan port city on the island of Thera destroyed and preserved by the massive volcanic eruption, ca 1650-1600 BCE, spawning... The Bronze Age collapse is the name of the Dark Age period of history of the Ancient Middle East extending between the collapse of the Mycenaean kingdoms, the Hittite Empire in Anatolia and Syria, and the Egyptian Empire in Syria and Palestine between 1206 and 1150 BC, down to the... Mycenaean may refer to: Mycenae, coming from or belonging to this ancient town in Peloponnese in Greece Mycenaean Greece, the Greek-speaking regions of the Aegean Sea as of the Late Bronze Age, named (somewhat anachronistically) after the Mycenae of the Trojan War epics Mycenaean language, an ancient form of... The Minoan civilization was a bronze age civilization which arose on Crete, an island in the Aegean Sea. ... Andrew Colin Renfrew, Baron Renfrew of Kaimsthorn (born 25 July 1937), English archaeologist, notable for his work on the radiocarbon revolution, the prehistory of languages, archaeogenetics, and the prevention of looting of archaeological sites. ...


Subsequent Developments of Civilizations

Karl Jaspers, the German historical philosopher, proposed that the ancient civilisations were greatly affected by an Axial Age during which a series of historical developments in the period between 600 BCE-400 BCE during which a series of male sages, prophets, religious reformers and philosophers, from China, India, Iran, Israel and Greece, changed the direction of civilizations forever. Julian Jaynes proposed that this was associated with the "collapse of the bicameral mind", during which the voice of the subconscious was recognised as subjective, rather than being seen as a voice of a divinity or disembodied spirit. William H. McNeill proposed that this period of history was one in which culture contact between previously separate civilisations saw the "closure of the oecumene", and led to accelerated social change from China to the Mediterranean, associated with the spread of coinage, larger empires and new religions. This view has recently been championed by Christopher Chase-Dunn and other world systems theorists. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... According to the Axial Age theory, the philosophy behind the worlds major religions sprang from a six-hundred year span of time in the first millennium BCE. German philosopher Karl Jaspers coined the term the Axial Age (Achsenzeit in the German language original) to describe the period from 800... Julian Jaynes Julian Jaynes (February 27, 1920 - November 21, 1997) was an American psychologist, best known for his book The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind (1976), in which he argues that ancient peoples were not conscious as we consider the term today, and that the... The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind (1976) is a controversial work of popular psychology by Julian Jaynes in which he proposes that consciousness emerged relatively recently in human history. ... William H. McNeill (born 1917, Vancouver, British Columbia) is a Canadian historian. ... Oecumene Oecumene is a term originally adopted within Christianity, where it has been suggested there is a single believing community amongst the various different Christian denominations, particularly between the Roman Catholic Church and the denominations which has arose by the Great Schism of 1054 and with the European Reformation. ... Unlike former sociological theories, which presented general models of social change with particular focus at the societal level, world-systems theory (or world system perspective) explores the role and relationships between societies (and the subsequent changes produced by them). ...


Civilisations affected by these developments include

  • Middle Eastern Civilisations
  • Indian Hindu and Buddhist Civilisations
  • East Asian Civilisations
  • The Civilisations of South East Asia
  • Central Asian Civilisation
  • European Civilisations

Since the voyages of discovery by European explorers of the 15th and 16th century, another development has occurred whereby which European forms of government, industry, commerce and culture have spread from Western Europe, to the Americas, South Africa, Australia, and through colonial empires, to the rest of the planet. Today it would appear that we are all parts of a planetary industrialising world civilisation, divided between many nations and languages. This article describes the ancient classical period: for the classical period in music (second half of the 18th century): see Classical music era. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... The Hellenistic period of Greek history was the period between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the annexation of the Greek peninsula and islands by Rome in 146 BC. Although the establishment of Roman rule did not break the continuity of Hellenistic society and culture, which... The Roman Empire is not the Holy Roman Empire (843-1806). ... A stone (2. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Bhavna says there are 300 million gods in Hinduism. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Mauryan empire was Indias first great unified empire. ... The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in the world. ... Dark green region marks the approximate extent of northern India while the regions marked as light green lies within the sphere of north Indian influence. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Cholas. ... The geographical south of India includes all Indian territory below the 20th parallel. ... The recorded History of Sri Lanka boasts of 25 chronicled centuries. ... Funan (Old Khmer Bnam, Modern Khmer Phnom (i. ... Chenla, known from Chinese records as Zhenla (真腊), was an early Khmer kingdom. ... Map of the Angkor region in Cambodia. ... Srivijaya (-jaya meaning success or excellence) was an ancient kingdom on the island of Sumatra which was to influence much of the Malay Archipelago. ... Shankardas Kesarilal Shailendra (August 30, 1923 Rawalpindi-December 14, 1966 Mumbai) was a popular Indian Hindi lyricist. ... The Majapahit Empire was based in eastern Java and ruled much of the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Bali from about 1293 to around 1500. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins and sees itself as the same Church founded by Jesus and maintained through Apostolic Succession from the Twelve Apostles. ... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... Current political map of the Balkans. ...


References

  1. ^ "Civilization" (1974), Encyclopaedia Britannica 15th ed. Vol. II, Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., 956.
  2. ^ "Culture", Wiktionary, [1]. Retrieved 25 August 2007.
  3. ^ "Civilization and Cultural Evolution" (1974), Encyclopaedia Britannica 15th ed. Vol. 4, 657.
  4. ^ "Civilization and Cultural Evolution," Britannica Vol. 4, 657.
  5. ^ "Civilization" (2004), Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary Eleventh Edition, Merriam-Webster, Inc., 226.
  6. ^ "Civil", Merriam-Webster, 226.
  7. ^ a b c d e f Émile Benveniste, "Civilisation. Contribution à l'histoire du mot" (Civilisation. Contribution to the history of the word), 1954, published in Problèmes de linguistique générale, Editions Gallimard, 1966, pp.336-345 (translated by Mary Elizabeth Meek as Problems in general linguistics, 2 vols., 1971)
  8. ^ Benveniste (French): Ce n'était pas seulement une vue historique de la société; c'était aussi une interprétation optimiste et résolument non théologique de son évolution qui s'affirmait, parfois à l'insu de ceux qui la proclamaient, et même si certains, et d'abord Mirabeau, comptaient encore la religion comme le premier facteur de la "civilisation".
  9. ^ Gordon Childe, V., What Happened in History (Penguin, 1942) and Man Makes Himself (Harmondsworth, 1951)
  10. ^ Tom Standage (2005), A History of the World in 6 Glasses, Walker & Company, 25.
  11. ^ Pauketat, 169.
  12. ^ Spengler, Oswald, Decline of the West: Perspectives of World History (1919)
  13. ^ Algaze, Guillermo, The Uruk World System: The Dynamics of Expansion of Early Mesopotamian Civilization" (Second Edition, 2004) (ISBN 978-0-226-01382-4)
  14. ^ Wilkinson, David, The Power Configuration Sequence of the Central World System, 1500-700 BC (2001)
  15. ^ Huntington, Samuel P., The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, (Simon & Schuster, 1996)
  16. ^ [2]
  17. ^ [3]
  18. ^ [4]
  19. ^ ISBN 0195159543
  20. ^ ISBN 0192807285
  21. ^ ISBN 0521533902
  22. ^ McNeely, Jeffrey A. (1994) "Lessons of the past: Forests and Biodiversity" (Vol 3, No 1 1994. Biodiversity and Conservation)
  23. ^ andrews.ac.uk/history/Projects/Pearce/Chapters/Ch3.html Early Indian culture - Indus civilization
  24. ^ Kenoyer, Jonathan (1998). Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley Civilization. Oxford University Press. 
  25. ^ http://www.china.org.cn/e-sanxingdui/pic/page1.html
  26. ^ [5]
  27. ^ [6]
  28. ^ BBC Horizon "Atlantis Uncovered" [7]

... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... ... 1888 advertisement for Websters Dictionary Websters Dictionary is the common title given to English language dictionaries in the United States, derived from American lexicographer Noah Webster. ... Emile Benveniste (1902 - 1976) was a French linguist best known for his work on Indo-European languages and his work expanding the linguistic paradigm established by Ferdinand de Saussure. ... Éditions Gallimard is the second most important French publisher, and probably the most respected. ... Tom Standage is a journalist and author from England. ... Jonathan Mark Kenoyer is an archaeologist and professor of Anthropology at the University of Wisconsin Madison. ...

Further reading

  • Ankerl, Guy: Coexisting Contemporary Civilizations: Arabo-Muslim, Bhatari, Chinese, and Western INUPRESS, Geneva, 2000. ISBN 2-88155-004-5
  • Clash of Civilizations and information on other civilizations, Discussion and news surrounding the clash and concepts such as dialog, equality, acceptance etc between civilizations.
  • BBC on civilisation
  • Wiktionary: civilization, civilize
  • Brinton, Crane (et al.) (1984). A History of Civilization: Prehistory to 1715, 6th ed., Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0-13-389866-0. 
  • Casson, Lionel (1994). Ships and Seafaring in Ancient Times. London: British Museum Press. ISBN 0-7141-1735-8. 
  • Chisholm, Jane; and Anne Millard (1991). Early Civilization, illus. Ian Jackson, London: Usborne. ISBN 1-58086-022-2. 
  • Collcutt, Martin; Marius Jansen, and Isao Kumakura (1988). Cultural Atlas of Japan. New York: Facts on File. ISBN 0-8160-1927-4. 
  • Drews, Robert (1993). The End of the Bronze Age: Changes in Warfare and the Catastrophe ca. 1200 B.C.. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-04811-8. 
  • Edey, Maitland A. (1974). The Sea Traders. New York: Time-Life Books. ISBN 0-7054-0060-3. 
  • Fairservis, Walter A., Jr. (1975). The Threshold of Civilization: An Experiment in Prehistory. New York: Scribner. ISBN 0-684-12775-X. 
  • Fernández-Armesto, Felipe (2000). Civilizations. London: Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-90171-1. 
  • Ferrill, Arther (1985). The Origins of War: From the Stone Age to Alexander the Great. New York: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-25093-6. 
  • Fitzgerald, C. P. (1969). The Horizon History of China. New York: American Heritage. ISBN 0-8281-0005-5. 
  • Fuller, J. F. C. (1954-57). A Military History of the Western World, 3 vols., New York: Funk & Wagnalls. 
    1. From the Earliest Times to the Battle of Lepanto. ISBN 0-306-80304-6 (1987 reprint).
    2. From the Defeat of the Spanish Armada to the Battle of Waterloo. ISBN 0-306-80305-4 (1987 reprint).
    3. From the American Civil War to the End of World War II. ISBN 0-306-80306-2 (1987 reprint).
  • Gowlett, John (1984). Ascent to Civilization. London: Collins. ISBN 0-00-217090-6. 
  • Hawkes, Jacquetta (1968). Dawn of the Gods. London: Chatto & Windus. ISBN 0-7011-1332-4. 
  • Hawkes, Jacquetta; with David Trump (1976). The Atlas of Early Man. London: Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 0-312-09746-8 (1993 reprint). 
  • Hicks, Jim (1974). The Empire Builders. New York: Time-Life Books. 
  • Hicks, Jim (1975). The Persians. New York: Time-Life Books. 
  • Johnson, Paul (1987). A History of the Jews. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-79091-9. 
  • Jensen, Derrick (2006). Endgame. New York: Seven Stories Press. ISBN 978-1-58322-730-5. 
  • Keppie, Lawrence (1984). The Making of the Roman Army: From Republic to Empire. Totowa, N.J.: Barnes & Noble. ISBN 0-389-20447-1. 
  • Korotayev, Andrey, World Religions and Social Evolution of the Old World Oikumene Civilizations: A Cross-Cultural Perspective]. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 2004. ISBN 0-7734-6310-0
  • Lansing, Elizabeth (1971). The Sumerians: Inventors and Builders. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-036357-9. 
  • Lee, Ki-Baik (1984). A New History of Korea, trans. Edward W. Wagner, with Edward J. Shultz, Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-61575-1. 
  • Nahm, Andrew C. (1983). A Panorama of 5000 Years: Korean History. Elizabeth, N.J.: Hollym International. ISBN 0-930878-23-X. 
  • Oliphant, Margaret (1992). The Atlas of the Ancient World: Charting the Great Civilizations of the Past. London: Ebury. ISBN 0-09-177040-8. 
  • Rogerson, John (1985). Atlas of the Bible. New York: Facts on File. ISBN 0-8160-1206-7. 
  • Sandall, Roger (2001). The Culture Cult: Designer Tribalism and Other Essays. Boulder, Colo.: Westview. ISBN 0-8133-3863-8. 
  • Sansom, George (1958). A History of Japan: To 1334. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-0523-2 (1996 reprint). 
  • Southworth, John Van Duyn (1968). The Ancient Fleets: The Story of Naval Warfare Under Oars, 2600 B.C.–1597 A.D.. New York: Twayne. 
  • Thomas, Hugh (1981). An Unfinished History of the World, rev. ed., London: Pan. ISBN 0-330-26458-3. 
  • Yap, Yong; and Arthur Cotterell (1975). The Early Civilization of China. New York: Putnam. ISBN 0-399-11595-1. 
  • A. Nuri Yurdusev, International Relations and the Philosophy of History: A Civilizational Approach (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003).

(Clarence) Crane Brinton (Winsted, Connecticut 1898 –Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1968), American historian of France and the history of ideas|. His most famous work, The Anatomy of Revolution, compared the dynamics of revolutionary movements to the progress of fever. ... Felipe Fernández-Armesto (born 1950) is a British historian and author of several popular works of history. ... Major-General John Frederick Charles Fuller, CB, CBE, DSO, commonly J.F.C. Fuller, (September 1, 1878–February 10, 1966), was a British major-general, military historian and strategist, notable as an early theorist of modern armoured warfare, including categorising principles of warfare. ... Jacquetta Hawkes, née Hopkins, (August 5, 1910 – March 18, 1996) was a British archaeologist. ... Paul Johnson (born Paul Bede Johnson on 2 November 1928 in Manchester, England) is a British Roman Catholic journalist, historian, speechwriter and author. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Endgame: Volume 1: The Problem of Civilization Endgame: Volume 2: Resistance Endgame is a two-volume work by Derrick Jensen, published in 2006, which argues that civilization is inherently unsustainable and addresses the resulting normative question of what to do about it. ... Roger Sandall is an essayist and commentator on cultural relativism and is best known as the author of The Culture Cult. ... Hugh Thomas, Baron Thomas of Swynnerton (born October 21, 1931 Windsor), is a British historian. ...

See also

The Holocene calendar, which uses a dating system similar to astronomical year numbering but adds 10,000, placing a zero at the start of the Human Era (HE, the beginning of human civilization), approximating the Holocene Epoch (HE, post Ice Age) and spanning the whole of civilization, for easier geological, archaeological, dendrochronological and historical dating. H.E. redirects here. ... The Holocene Epoch is a geologic period that extends from the present back about 10,000 radiocarbon years. ... Geology (from Greek γη- (ge-, the earth) and λογος (logos, word, reason)) is the science and study of the Earth, its composition, structure, physical properties, history, and the processes that shape it. ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... The growth rings of an unknown tree species, at Bristol Zoo, England Pinus taeda Cross section showing annual rings, Cheraw, South Carolina Pine stump showing growth rings Dendrochronology or tree-ring dating is the method of scientific dating based on the analysis of tree-ring growth patterns. ... History is often used as a generic term for information about the past, such as in geologic history of the Earth. When used as the name of a field of study, history refers to the study and interpretation of the record of human societies. ...


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COMMENTARY     

Abdol
11th May 2010
A good article,but the matters on theories on the civilization is not enough.
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