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Encyclopedia > Civilian casualties and displacements during the Cyprus conflict
The neutrality and factual accuracy of this article are disputed.
Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page.

This article covers the civilian casualties and displacements that occurred between 1963 and 1975—from the outbreak of the intercommunal fightings until the end of displacements following the Turkish invasion of Cyprus. Image File history File links Stop_hand. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ...

Contents


Intercommunal violence, displacements and terrorist activities 1963-1974

In 1963, Turkish Cypriots withdrew from all levels of government. While Greek Cypriots hold that this happened voluntarily, Turkish Cypriots claim they were forced out of government and its agencies by the Greek Cypriot authorities. During this and the following years, fightings occasionally flared up between the two communities, more and more enforcing a separation and alienation of Greek and Turkish Cypriots. Turkish Cypriots are those inhabitants of Cyprus who are ethnically Turkish, as opposed to those who are of Greek (the Greek Cypriots) or other ethnicity. ... Greek Cypriot refers to the Greek-speaking population of the island of Cyprus. ...


Greek Cypriot casualties and displacements

Greek Cypriots living in majority Turkish Cypriot areas such as the village of Louroujina (Turkish: Lurucina/Akincilar) and the town of Lefka (Turkish: Lefke) were displaced as TMT gained control of those areas. There were about 300 deaths. map of Cyprus showing the Louroujina Salient of the TRNC TRNC flag The Louroujina Salient marks the southernmost extent of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. ...


Turkish Cypriot casualties and displacements

Estimating the total number of deaths suffered by Turkish Cypriots is hard. Conservative estimates puts the deaths as higher as 120,000 during the period 1888-1974 on the lower end of the scale death tolls as low as 5,000 have been given by some Greek commentators and historians.


During this period, Turkish Cypriots claim they were forced out of government and its agencies by the Greek Cypriot authorities and into enclaves. Greek Cypriots hold that the withdrawal of Turkish Cypriots from government was voluntary and that the movement of people in enclaves was out of choice. Turkish Cypriots believe the Akritas Plan (devised in 1963 by Polycarpos Georgadjis (alternative spelling Yorgadjis), the Interior Minister, but not discovered until 1966) to be at the heart of the issue. The plan had the intention of amending the constitution of 1960 and to remove the power of veto of the Turkish Cypriots (which they thought was responsible for the stalling of governing matters). The plan foresaw possible defiance by Turkish Cypriots, and suggested measures to put a stop violent action as quickly as possible before outside intervention "would be either justified or possible" and as a last resort declare enosis (union with Greece). Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Polycarpos Georgadjis was a member of EOKA, and became minister of interior affairs of the republic of Cyprus despite having no higher education. ... Prominent issues in Greek foreign policy include a dispute over the name of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, the enduring Cyprus problem, Greek-Turkish differences over the Aegean, and relations with the USA. The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Greek refusal to recognize the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia...


However the Turkish Cypriot organization TMT was already active and liberal Turkish Cypriot voices and any Turkish Cypriots that had dealings with Greeks were told to sever their links. This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


On December 21, 1963, serious violence erupted in Nicosia when a Greek Cypriot police patrol, ostensibly checking identification documents, stopped a Turkish Cypriot couple on the edge of the Turkish quarter. A hostile crowd gathered, shots were fired, and two Turkish Cypriots were killed. As the news spread, members of the underground organizations began firing and taking hostages. North of Nicosia, Turkish forces occupied a strong position at St. Hilarion Castle, dominating the road to Kyrenia on the northern coast. The road became a principal combat area as both sides fought to control it. Much intercommunal fighting occurred in Nicosia along the line separating the Greek and Turkish quarters of the city (known later as the Green Line). Turkish Cypriots were not concentrated in one area, but lived throughout the island, making their position precarious. Vice-President Kuzuk and Turkish Cypriot ministers and members of the House of Representatives ceased participating in the government. Nicosia, Cyprus For the Italian town, see Nicosia, Sicily Nicosia, known locally as Lefkosia (Greek: Λευκωσία; also colloquially Khora,Χώρα see also List of traditional Greek place names) or Lefkoşa (Turkish), is the capital and largest city of Cyprus. ... Image:KyreniaCastleAtNight. ...


Turkish paramilitaries captured the Lefkosa to Kyrenia main highway to use as a bridge-head for a Turkish invasion and Turkish commandos were parachuted into Cyprus to assist the paramilitaries. Nicosia, known locally as Lefkosia (Greek: Λευκωσία) or Lefkosa (Turkish: Lefkoşa), population 177,410 (1992), is the capital of Cyprus. ...


Severe intercommunal fighting occurred in March and April 1964. When the worst of the fighting was over, Turkish Cypriots began moving from isolated rural areas and mixed villages into enclaves (Turkish Cypriots state that the hostilities forced such an amalgamation while the Greek Cypriots state that the Turkish Cypriots did so without any pressure form them). Before long, a substantial portion of the island's Turkish Cypriot population was crowded into the Turkish quarter of Nicosia in tents and hastily constructed shacks. Slum conditions resulted from the serious overcrowding. There were cases of Turkish Cypriots with different political affiliations (leftist or in favour of independence) being killed by extremists within TMT. Examples of such cases are PEO member Fazil Onder killed in 1958, reporters Hikmet and Gurkan, publishers of Cumhuriyet, killed in 1962 and Dervis Ali Kavazoglu, member of AKEL killed in 1966. In greek Pagypria Ergatiki Omospondia (Pancyprian Labour Federation). ... The Progressive Party of Working People (AKEL) (Greek: Ανορθωτικό Κόμμα Εργαζόμενου Λαού) is a socialist party in Cyprus. ...


Attempts of the Cypriot National Guard under control of General Grivas, who claimed to be acting under a mandate given to Cyprus by the UN, to re-capture a beach-head at the Erenköy enclave which would cut off the Turkish Cypriots last link with the outside world caused the intervention of the Turkish airforce. Kokkina is the Greek Cypriot name for the Turkish Cypriot exclave of Erenköy, which contains a village bearing the same name. ...


Turkish invasion 1974

On 15 July 1974, the Greek Cypriot government was overthrown by Greek Cypriot militant circle under the lead of, under the order of the Greek military junta and with help of Greek army officers, installing the long-time EOKA-B activist Nikos Sampson as the new president. The attempt to murder president Makarios failed, however, and he fled Cyprus with the help of the British army, in response to this and news of ethnic cleansing. July 15 is the 196th day (197th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 169 days remaining. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) is a common year starting on Tuesday (click on link for calendar). ... In modern usage, junta (pronounced as in Spanish HUN-ta or HOON-ta) typically refers to a military dictatorship, especially in Latin America, which is officially run by a committee of high-ranking military officers. ... EOKA (Greek: Εθνική Οργάνωσις Κυπρίων Αγωνιστών, Ethniki Organosis Kyprion Agoniston, in English National Organisation of Cypriot Fighters) was a Greek Cypriot military resistance organisation that fought for self-determination and for union with Greece in the mid- to late- 1950s. ... Nikos Sampson (1935 – May 9, 2001) was the coup détat-installed dictator of Cyprus, after the overthrow of President Makarios in 1974. ... Archbishop Makarios III Makarios was the adopted clerical name of Mikhalis Khristodoulou Mouskos (13 August 1913 – 3 August 1977). ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Media:Example. ...


On 20 July 1974, in response to the coup, Turkish troops landed near Kyrenia, forcing a narrow corridor to Nicosia within 2 days, until a ceasefire was negotiated on 22 July. In August of the same year, the three guarantor powers, together with representatives of the two communities, met in Geneva. The Turkish Cypriots under Denktaş demanded a federal state with 34% of the territory ceded to Turkish Cypriots (to make up the former properties lost since 1963). Clerides - the Greek Cypriot representative - asked for 36 to 48 hours in order to consult with his superiors. While still in talks, a second Turkish invasion was launched on Cyprus. When a ceasefire was declared, more than 36% of the territory was occupied by Turkish forces. The ceasefire line of 1974 today still separates the two communities and is generally referred to as the Green Line (or the 'Atilla Line'), which also runs through Nicosia, making it the only divided capital in the world. July 20 is the 201st day (202nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 164 days remaining. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) is a common year starting on Tuesday (click on link for calendar). ... Image:KyreniaCastleAtNight. ... Nicosia, Cyprus For the Italian town, see Nicosia, Sicily Nicosia, known locally as Lefkosia (Greek: Λευκωσία; also colloquially Khora,Χώρα see also List of traditional Greek place names) or LefkoÅŸa (Turkish), is the capital and largest city of Cyprus. ... A ceasefire is a temporary stoppage of a war, or any armed conflict, where each side of the conflict agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions. ... 22 July is the 203rd day (204th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 162 days remaining. ... Note: as an adjective (stressed on the second syllable instead of the first), august means honorable. ... A ceasefire is a temporary stoppage of a war, or any armed conflict, where each side of the conflict agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions. ... UN Buffer Zone on Cyprus The UN Buffer Zone on Cyprus is a 300 km (187 mile) separation barrier along the 1974 Green Line (or ceasefire line) between the self-proclaimed Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus and the internationally recognised Republic of Cyprus. ...


The invasion - codenamed 'Atilla' - by the Turkish Military, is known in Northern Cyprus by the Turkish Cypriots as 'the 1974 Peace Operation', while in Southern Cyprus,the Greek Cypriots refer to it as 'the Turkish Invasion and Brutal Occupation of the north of Cyprus'. Atilla was the code-name given to the Turkish military invasion of the island of Cyprus in July1974, in response to a Greek-inspired coup détat which sought to unite the island with Greece. ...


Greek Cypriot casualties and displacements

Ιn the process of the 1974 intervention/invasion, about 200,000 Greek Cypriots living in the north became refugees, a third of the total population of the island; many of them were forced out of their homes, the rest fleeing at the word of the approaching Turkish army.


In 1975, 20,000 Greek Cypriots remained enclaved on the Karpass Peninsula; nowadays after much alleged persecution and ethnic cleansing, only 600 remain there. The Karpass Peninsula (Karpasia) is a long, finger-like peninsula that is one of the most prominent geographical features of the island of Cyprus. ...


Turkish Cypriot casualties and displacements

Turkish Cypriot causalities are around 2,000 persons. Turkish Cypriot villages were raided, men killed, woman raped and some villages executed including infants by Greek Cypriot paramilitia and Greek Army units, based in Cyprus. Almost the whole population of Aloa, Sandallaris and Maratha near Famagusta and Tokhni, Zyyi and Mari at Larnaca district were massacred and wiped out. Turkish villagers south of the Green Line fled to English bases to save their lives , leaving their belongings or were held captive until the population exchange at September 1974. About 100,000 Turkish Cypriots fleed to the North of the Island to find peace finally after 11 years of Greek Genocide, a further 50,000 have already fled abroad between 1963-1974(during the [Turkish Cypriot Genocide]) Shivaji and the Marathas The Marāthās is a collective term referring to a group of Hindu, Marathi-speaking castes of warriors and peasants, hailing mostly from the present-day state of Maharashtra, who created a substantial empire, covering a major part of India, in the 17th and 18th... Famagusta (Greek: Αμμόχωστος, Ammochostos; Turkish: Gazimağusa) is a city on the east coast of Cyprus. ... The Mari (also known as Cheremis in Russian and Çirmeş in Tatar) are a Volga-Finnic people in the Volga area, the natives of Mari El, Russia. ...


See also

The Cyprus Dispute is the conflict between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots and also Republic of Cyprus and Turkey over Cyprus, an island in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. ... Kokkina ((Greek: ????, Kokina; Turkish: Erenköy) ) is an exclave of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. ... Atilla was the code-name given to the Turkish military invasion of the island of Cyprus in July1974, in response to a Greek-inspired coup détat which sought to unite the island with Greece. ... map of Cyprus showing the Louroujina Salient of the TRNC TRNC flag The Louroujina Salient marks the southernmost extent of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. ...

External links

  • Article from the U.S. Library of Congress
  • The Greek-Cypriots missing since the Turkish invasion in 1974
  • The Cyprus Conflict — an educational web-site
  • Results of the Turkish invasion
  • The Republic of Cyprus Press and Information Office
  • The TRNC Press and Information Office
  • — Turkish Cypriot History

Further Reading

  • Gibbons, Harry Scott (1997). The Genocide Files, Charles Bravos Publishers. ISBN 0-95-144642-8.
  • Oberling, Pierre (1982). The Road to Bellapais, Columbia University Press. ISBN 088033-000-7.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Cyprus dispute - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (8188 words)
During the first round of talks, which lasted until August 1967, the Turkish Cypriots were prepared to make several concessions regarding constitutional matters, but Makarios refused to grant them greater autonomy in return.
During his stay he also called on the two sides to meet with him again the following month in The Hague, where he would expect their answer on whether they were prepared to out the plan to a referendum.
During Turkey's military intervention/invasion in 1974, many Greek Cypriots (who owned 90% of the land and property in the north) were forced to abandon their homes.
Talk:Cyprus dispute - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1749 words)
I would prefer the approach of the Civilian casualties and displacements during the Cyprus conflict article (I might be biased coz I put the structure there, however) - put appropriate information in appropriate sections, and keep historic information as short as possible.
Dont try and turn this into the RoC explanation of the Cyprus dispute, this article is a political overview of the situation, if you want to talk about murders and death rates put it inCivilian casualties and displacements during the Cyprus conflict.
Cyprus cannot be divided as Greek and Turkish Cypriots have properties and homes in all the areas of Cyprus.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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