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Encyclopedia > Civil society

Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis of a functioning society as opposed to the force-backed structures of a state (regardless of that state's political system) and commercial institutions. For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Consent of the governed is a political theory stating that a governments legitimacy and moral right to use state power is, or ought to be, derived from the people or society over which that power is exercised. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... This list summarises the country subdivisions which have a separate article on their politics. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political economy was the original term for the study of production, the acts of buying and selling, and their relationships to laws, customs and government. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political history is the narrative and analysis of political events, ideas, movements, and leaders. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... Foreign affairs redirects here. ... Main International Relations Theories and derivates Realism & Neorealism Idealism, Liberalism & Neoliberalism Marxism & Dependency theory Functionalism & Neofunctionalism Critical theory & Constructivism International relations theory attempts to provide a conceptual model upon which international relations can be analyzed. ... This is a list of notable political scientists. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Comparative politics is a subfield of political science, characterized by an empirical approach based on the comparative method. ... Public Administration can be broadly described as the development, implementation and study of government policy. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... Street-level bureaucracy is a term used to refer to a public agency employee who actually performs the actions that implement laws. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Separation of powers is a term coined by French political Enlightenment thinker Baron de Montesquieu[1][2], is a model for the governance of democratic states. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      In the law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... The psychodynamics of decision-making form a basis to understand institutional functioning. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... This article is about the political process. ... Vote redirects here. ... For theological federalism, see Covenant Theology. ... A form of government (also referred to as a system of government or a political system) is a system composed of various people, institutions and their relations in regard to the governance of a state. ... Political Ideologies Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... “Electioneering” redirects here. ... Political Parties redirects here. ... For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ... This article discusses states as sovereign political entities. ...

Contents

Origin

The term is often traced to Adam Ferguson, who saw the development of a "commercial state" as a way to change the corrupt feudal order and strengthen the liberty of the individual.[1] While Ferguson did not draw a line between the state and the society, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, a German philosopher, made this distinction in his Elements of the Philosophy of Right [2]. In this work, civil society (Hegel used the term "buergerliche Gesellschaft" though it is now referred to as Zivilgesellschaft in German to emphasize a more inclusive community) was a stage on the dialectical relationship between Hegel's perceived opposites, the macro-community of the state and the micro-community of the family [3]. Broadly speaking, the term was split, like Hegel's followers, to the political left and right. On the left, it became the foundation for Karl Marx's bourgeois society [4]; to the right it became a description for all non-state aspects of society, expanding out of the economic rigidity of Marxism into culture, society and politics [5] Adam Ferguson, also known as Ferguson of Raith (June 20, 1723 (O.S.) - February 22, 1816) was a philosopher and historian of the Scottish Enlightenment. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (IPA: ) (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and, with Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, one of the representatives of German idealism. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Hegels Elements of the Philosophy of Right (Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts) was published in 1820, though the books original title page dates it to 1821. ... Broadly speaking, a dialectic (Greek: διαλεκτική) is an exchange of propositions (theses) and counter-propositions (antitheses) resulting in a disagreement. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... Look up Family in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Bourgeoisie () in modern use refers to the wealthy or propertied social class in a capitalist society. ... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ...


Definition

There are myriad definitions of civil society. The London School of Economics Centre for Civil Society working definition is illustrative: Mascot: Beaver Affiliations: University of London Russell Group EUA ACU CEMS APSIA Universities UK U8 Golden Triangle G5 Group Website: http://www. ...

Civil society refers to the arena of uncoerced collective action around shared interests, purposes and values. In theory, its institutional forms are distinct from those of the state, family and market, though in practice, the boundaries between state, civil society, family and market are often complex, blurred and negotiated. Civil society commonly embraces a diversity of spaces, actors and institutional forms, varying in their degree of formality, autonomy and power. Civil societies are often populated by organisations such as registered charities, development non-governmental organisations, community groups, women's organisations, faith-based organisations, professional associations, trade unions, self-help groups, social movements, business associations, coalitions and advocacy groups.[6] The economic theory of collective action is concerned with the provision of public goods (and other collective consumption) through the collaboration of two or more individuals, and the impact of externalities on group behavior. ... A special interest is a person or political organization established to influence governmental policy or legislators in a specific area of policy. ... Value is a term that expresses the concept of worth in general, and it is thought to be connected to reasons for certain practices, policies or actions. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... Look up Family in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Market in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... American Civil Rights Movement is one of the most famous social movements of the 20th century. ...

Civil society and democracy

The literature on links between civil society and democracy have their root in early liberal writings like those of Tocqueville. However they were developed in significant ways by 20th century theorists like Gabriel Almond and Sidney Verba, who identified the role of civil society in a democratic order as vital [7]. For otheruses, see Tocqueville (disambiguation) Alexis de Tocqueville (July 29, 1805 - April 16, 1859) was a French political thinker and historian. ... Gabriel Almond was a prolific political scientist who was widely considered to the one of the most important political scientists of the 20th centure. ... Sidney Verba is a political scientist who specializes in American and comparative politics. ...


They argued that the political element of many civil society organisations facilitates better awareness and a more informed citizenry, who make better voting choices, participate in politics, and hold government more accountable as a result [8]. The statutes of these organizations have often been considered micro-constitutions because they accustom participants to the formalities of democratic decision making.


More recently, Robert Putnam has argued that even non-political organisations in civil society are vital for democracy. This is because they build social capital, trust and shared values, which are transferred into the political sphere and help to hold society together, facilitating an understanding of the interconnectedness of society and interests within it [9]. Robert D. Putnam (2006) Robert David Putnam (born 1941 in Rochester, New York) is a political scientist and professor at Harvard University. ... Social capital is a core concept in business, economics, organizational behaviour, political science, and sociology, defined as the advantage created by a persons location in a structure of relationships. ...


Others, however, have questioned how democratic civil society actually is. Some have noted that the civil society actors have now obtained a remarkable amount of political power without anyone directly electing or appointing them [10]. Finally, other scholars have argued that, since the concept of civil society is closely related to democracy and representation, it should in turn be linked with ideas of nationality and nationalism [11]. Much of the recent sociological debate on power revolves around the issue of the constraining and/or enabling nature of power. ...


Civil society and globalization: Global Civil Society

The term civil society is currently often used by critics and activists as a reference to sources of resistance to and the domain of social life which needs to be protected against globalization. This is because it is seen as acting beyond boundaries and across different territories [12]. However, as civil society can, under many definitions, include and be funded and directed by those businesses and institutions (especially donors linked to European and Northern states) who support globalization, this is a contested use [13]. The rise of multinational corporations and outsourcing have played a crucial part in globalization. ... The rise of multinational corporations and outsourcing have played a crucial part in globalization. ...


On the other hand, others see globalization as a social phenomenon bringing classical liberal values which inevitably lead to a larger role for civil society at the expense of politically derived state institutions. The rise of multinational corporations and outsourcing have played a crucial part in globalization. ... Liberalism is a political current embracing several historical and present-day ideologies that claim defense of individual liberty as the purpose of government. ...


Examples of civil society institutions

Whether all of these institutions are by definition part of civil society is up for debate. Neera Chandhoke, a scientist from India, thinks not. She concludes that only institutions that are critical of the state are the real thing, while the rest are merely not governmental[citation needed]. The key here is that not every institution is a 'countervailing power' to the state. In developing countries, civil society is very popular with aid donors with left and right leanings. But very often mock civil society organisations exist (including those that support and which are critical of neo-liberalism) that serve only to gain access to development aid or to provide the illusion of popular support for Northern political projects.[citation needed]. Academia is a collective term for the scientific and cultural community engaged in higher education and research, taken as a whole. ... This article is about charitable organizations. ... The word citizen may refer to: A person with a citizenship Citizen Watch Co. ... Lebanese Kataeb militia A Militia is an army composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency or paramilitary service, or those engaged in such activity. ... Community foundations are instruments of civil society designed to pool donations into a coordinated investment and grant making facility dedicated primarily to the social improvement of a given place. ... For other uses, see Coop. ... The historic Blue Marble photograph, which helped bring environmentalism to the public eye. ... A non-governmental organization (NGO) is an organization which is not a part of a government. ... A non-profit organization (abbreviated NPO, or non-profit or not-for-profit) is an organization whose primary objective is to support an issue or matter of private interest or public concern for non-commercial purposes, without concern for monetary profit. ... USAID defines private voluntary organizations as tax-exempt, non-profit organizations working in, or intending to become engaged in, international development activities. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Aid. ...


Some noted scholars of civil society

Daniel Bell Daniel Bell (born 10 May 1919) is a sociologist and professor emeritus at Harvard University. ... Robert Neelly Bellah is a sociologist at University of California at Berkeley and author of a number of books including Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life. ... Michael Edwards (b. ... Dr. Jean Bethke Elshtain is a prolific feminist political philosopher with the University of Chicago Divinity School and a contributing editor for The New Republic. ... Amitai Etzioni. ... Francis Fukuyama Yoshihiro Francis Fukuyama (born October 27, 1952, Chicago, Illinois) is an American philosopher, political economist and author. ... Antonio Gramsci (IPA: ) (January 22, 1891 – April 27, 1937) was an Italian writer, politician and political theorist. ... Jürgen Habermas (IPA: ; born June 18, 1929) is a German philosopher and sociologist in the tradition of critical theory and American pragmatism. ... Patrick Hunout is a researcher and policymaker who in 1999 created The International Scope Review, one of the largest peer-reviewed academic journals in the economic and social sciences. ... Peter Dobkin Hall, historian, author, and educator, is Hauser Lecturer on Nonprofit Organizations at the Kennedy School of Government, and Lecturer in the Department of History, Harvard University <http://www. ... Barry Karl is the William Henry Bloomberg Professor of philanthropy and volunteerism at the Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University. ... John Keane could be one of several notable people: John Keane was one of Irelands most outstanding hurlers. ... Dr. David C. Korten is an author and leader within the anti-globalization movement. ... Frank Moulaert is Professor of European Planning and Development at the School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. He also leads the research theme on Regeneration, Social Innovation and Inclusion at Global Urban Research Unit. ... ONeill received a doctorate in education from Harvard University in 1967. ... Elinor Ostrom is the Arthur F. Bentley Professor of Political Science at Indiana University, Bloomington She has authored many books in the fields of organizational theory, political science, and public administration. ... Robert D. Putnam (2006) Robert David Putnam (born 1941 in Rochester, New York) is a political scientist and professor at Harvard University. ... Michael Sandel (1943-) is a contemporary political philosopher. ... Benjamin R. Barber (b. ...

See also

  • List of politics-related topics

The Elections and Parties Series Democracy Liberal democracy History of democracy Referenda Representative democracy Representation Voting Voting systems Elections Elections by country Elections by calender Electoral systems Politics Politics by country Political campaigns Political science Political philosophy Related topics Political parties Parties by country Parties by name Parties by ideology... Civics is the science of comparative government and means of administering public trusts—the theory of governance as applied to state institutions. ... For other uses, see Civilization (disambiguation). ... The intended meaning of the term civil religion often varies according to whether one is a sociologist of religion or a professional political commentator. ... Civil Affairs (CA) is the official name for military units that conduct civil-military operations. ... Communitarianism as a group of related but distinct philosophies began in the late 20th century, opposing radical individualism, and other similar philosophies while advocating phenomena such as civil society. ... Democracy (literally rule by the people, from the Greek δημοκρατία-demokratia demos, people, and kratos, rule) is a form of government by the will of the people. ... DEMOLOGOS stands for Development Models and Logics of Socioeconomic Organization in Space. ... Global governance refers to political interaction aimed at solving problems that affect more than one state or region when there is no power of enforcing compliance. ... KATARSIS project is a Coordination Action under European Commissions Sixth Framework Programme to address Growing Inequality and Social Innovation: Alternative Knowledge and Practice in Overcoming Social Exclusion in Europe. ... Mass society is a society in which the concerns of the majority – the lower social classes – play a prominent role, characterized by extension of voting rights, an improved standard of living for the lower classes and mass education. ... A non-governmental organization (NGO) is an organization which is not a part of a government. ... Consultative Status is a phrase whose use can be traced to the founding of the United Nations and is used within the UN community to refer to Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Consultative Status with the United Nations Economic & Social Council. ... An open society is a concept originally developed by philosopher Henri Bergson. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... Public Administration can be broadly described as the development, implementation and study of government policy. ... Social capital is a core concept in business, economics, organizational behaviour, political science, and sociology, defined as the advantage created by a persons location in a structure of relationships. ... Social economy refers to a third sector in economies between the private sector and business or, the public sector and government. ... Social entrepreneurship is the work of a social entrepreneur. ... Social Innovation refers to new strategies, concepts, ideas and organizations that meet social needs of all kinds - from working conditions and education to community development and health - and that extend and strengthen civil society. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the systematic and scientific study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social action, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... Much of the recent sociological debate on power revolves around the issue of the constraining and/or enabling nature of power. ... The most up-to-date and comprehensive reference to international organizations published (under current title since 1950) by the Union of International Associations (UIA). ...

Notes

  1. ^ An Essay on the History of Civil Society, 1767
  2. ^ Etext of Philosophy of Right Hegel, 1827 (translated by Dyde, 1897)
  3. ^ Pelczynski, A.Z.; 1984; 'The Significane of Hegel's speration of the state and civil society' pp1-13 in Pelczynski, A.Z. (ed.); 1984; The State and Civil Society; Cambridge University Press
  4. ^ ibid
  5. ^ ibid
  6. ^ What is civil society?. Centre for Civil Society, London School of Economics (2004-03-01). Retrieved on 2006-10-30.
  7. ^ Almond, G., & Verba, S.; 'The Civic Culture: Political Attitudes And Democracy In Five Nations; 1989; Sage
  8. ^ 'ibid'
  9. ^ Putnam, R.; Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions In Modern Italy; 1993; Princeton
  10. ^ Agnew, John; 2002; 'Democracy and Human Rights' in Johnston, R.J., Taylor, Peter J. and Watts, Michael J. (eds); 2002; Geographies of Global Change; Blackwell
  11. ^ Pollock, Graham.'Civil Society Theory and Euro-Nationalism' , Studies In Social & Political Thought, Issue 4, March 2001, pp. 31-56
  12. ^ Mann, Michael; 1984; The Autonomous Power of The State: Its Origins, Mechanisms and Results; European Journal of Sociology 25: pp185-213
  13. ^ United Nations: Partners in Civil Society

Look up ibid, idem in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Alagappa, Muthiah. Civil Society and Political Change in Asia. Stanford: Standford University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-8047-5097-1
  • Edwards, Michael. Civil Society. Cambridge, England: Polity Press, 2004. ISBN 0-7456-3133-9.
  • O'Connell, Brian. Civil Society: The Underpinnings of American Democracy. Medford, Mass: Tufts University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-87451-924-1.
  • Pollock, Graham.'Civil Society Theory and Euro-Nationalism' , Studies In Social & Political Thought, Issue 4, March 2001, pp. 31-56
  • Hemmati, Minu. Dodds, Felix. Enayati, Jasmin. and McHarry,Jan downloadable copy of Multistakeholder Processes for Governance and Sustainability:Beyond Deadlock and Conflict

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Civil society - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (470 words)
Civil society or civil institutions refers to the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations or institutions which form the basis of a functioning society as opposed to the force backed structures of a state (regardless of that state's political system).
Civil societies are often populated by organisations such as registered charities, development non-governmental organisations, community groups, women's organisations, faith-based organisations, professional associations, trade unions, self-help groups, social movements, business associations, coalitions and advocacy groups.
The term civil society is currently often used by critics and activists as a reference to sources of resistance to and the domain of social life which needs to be protected against globalization.
CPN - Tools (1707 words)
Civil society refers to that sphere of voluntary associations and informal networks in which individuals and groups engage in activities of public consequence.
Civil society has experienced an enormous theoretical rebirth in recent years, which testifies to its pivotal role in modern democratic theory, as well as to a broader crisis of contemporary societies seeking new foundations for citizenship.
Civil society is populated with institutions whose role in developing robust citizenship is often weak and one-sided.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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