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Encyclopedia > Civil service
The Roman civil service in action. Note the whip carried by the sergeant. The Virgin and St Joseph register for the census before Governor Quirinius, mosaic 1315–20.
The Roman civil service in action. Note the whip carried by the sergeant. The Virgin and St Joseph register for the census before Governor Quirinius, mosaic 1315–20.

A civil servant or public servant is a civilian career public sector employee working for a government department or agency. The term explicitly excludes the armed services, although civilian officials will work at "Defence Ministry" headquarters. The term always includes the (sovereign) state's employees; whether regional, or sub-state, or even municipal employees are called "civil servants" varies from country to country. In the United Kingdom, for instance, only Crown employees are civil servants, county or city employees are not. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 554 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 1418 pixel, file size: 364 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Civil service Quirinius... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 554 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 1418 pixel, file size: 364 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Civil service Quirinius... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The Virgin and St Joseph register for the census before Governor Quirinius. ... < [[[[math>Insert formula here</math>The public sector is that part of economic and administrative life that deals with the delivery of goods and services by and for the [[government </math></math></math></math> Direct administration funded through taxation; the delivering organisation generally has no specific requirement to meet commercial...


Many consider the study of civil service to be a part of the field of public administration. Workers in "non-departmental public bodies" (sometimes called "QUANGOs") may also be classed as civil servants for the purpose of statistics and possibly for their terms and conditions. Collectively a state's civil servants form its Civil Service or Public Service. The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Public administration can be broadly described as the study and implementation of policy. ... The acronyms Qango and Quango, variously spelt out as QUAsi Non Governmental Organisation, Quasi-Autonomous Non-Governmental Organisation, and Quasi-Autonomous National Government Organisation have been used, notably in the United Kingdom, but also in Australia, Ireland and other countries, to describe a range of organisations to which governments have...

Contents

Early civil services

No state of any extent can be ruled without a bureaucracy, but organizations of any size have been few until the modern era. Administrative institutions usually grow out of the personal servants of high officials, as in the Roman Empire. This developed a complex administrative structure, which is outlined in the Notitia Dignitatum and the work of John Lydus, but as far as we know appointments to it were made entirely by inheritance or patronage and not on merit, and it was also possible for officers to employ other people to carry out their official tasks but continue to draw their salary themselves. There are obvious parallels here with the early bureaucratic structures in modern states, such as the Office of Works or the Navy in 18th century England, where again appointments depended on patronage and were often bought and sold. The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... The Notitia Dignitatum is a unique document of the Roman imperial chanceries. ... The Ministry of Works was a department of the UK Government formed in 1943 to organise the requisitioning of property for wartime use. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ...


One of the oldest examples of a merit-based civil service is the Imperial bureaucracy of China which can be traced back as far back as the Qin dynasty. In the areas of administration, especially in the military, appointments would be based solely on merit. After the fall of the Qin dynasty, the Chinese bureaucracy would regress into a semi-merit system known as the Nine-rank system. However, the eventual Tang dynasty would decreasingly rely less on aristocratic recommendations and more and more upon promotion based on written examinations. The Chinese civil service became known to Europe in the mid-18th century, and influenced the development of European and American systems. Qin empire in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded... The Nine rank system (ch. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... The Imperial examinations (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) in Imperial China determined who among the population would be permitted to enter the states bureaucracy. ...


Ironically, and in part due to Chinese influence, the first European civil service was not set up in Europe, but rather in India by the East India Company, distinguishing its civil servants from its military servants. In order to prevent corruption and favouritism, promotions within the company were based on examinations. The system then spread to the United Kingdom in 1854, and to the United States in 1883, with the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act. The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... George H. Pendleton The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act (ch. ...


Civil Services by country

United Kingdom

Main article: British Civil Service

The civil service in the United Kingdom only includes Crown employees; not those who are parliamentary employees. Public sector employees such as teachers and NHS doctors are not considered to be civil servants. The British civil service is the permanent bureaucracy that supports the Government Ministers responsible to the Sovereign and Parliament in administering the United Kingdom. ... The National Health Service (NHS) is the publicly-funded healthcare system of the United Kingdom. ...


France

Main article: French Civil Service

The civil service in France is often considered to include government employees, as well as employees of public corporations. The French Civil Service (French: fonction publique française) is the set of civil servants (fonctionnaires) working for the French government. ...


Other countries

Danish civil servants queuing after their foreign minister for an airport passport check
Danish civil servants queuing after their foreign minister for an airport passport check

Other countries tend to use systems which vary between these two extremes. Germany makes a clear distinction, as in the U.S., between political and official posts (though the threshold is placed rather higher); also see Beamter. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Per Stig Møller Per Stig Møller (born August 27, 1942 in Frederiksberg) is the current Foreign Minister, as of 2005. ... The German word Beamter (female: Beamtin, plural: Beamte) means civil servant, and is pronounced IPA: with a glottal stop between the e and the a. This English translation may be ambiguous, as German law puts public employees into two classes, namely ordinary employees (Angestellte) and Beamte. ...


Brazilian civil service is composed mostly of career servants, with nomination based on written examinations, but it is allowed for governants to freely nominate some posts, specially higher ones.


Employees of international organisations (e.g., the United Nations or the International Atomic Energy Agency) are sometimes referred to as international civil servants. UN and U.N. redirect here. ... The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ...


Other meanings

Civil service also means a form of legal conscientious objection. It should be noted that the Finnish "siviilipalvelus", Swedish "civiltjänst" and German "civildienst" all can be translated to "civil service".


References

  • Bodde, D. Chinese Ideas in the West [1]
  • Brownlow, Louis, Charles E. Merriam, and Luther Gulick, Report of the President's Committee on Administrative Management. (1937) U.S. Government Printing Office.
  • P. N. Mathur. The Civil Service of India, 1731-1894: a study of the history, evolution and demand for reform (1977)
  • Kevin Theakston. The Civil Service Since 1945 (Institute of Contemporary British History, 1995)
  • Ari Hoogenboom. Outlawing the Spoils: A History of the Civil Service Reform Movement, 1865-1883. (1961)
  • Schiesl, Martin. The Politics of Efficiency: Municipal Administration and Reform in America, 1880-1920. (1977)
  • Van Riper, Paul. History of the United States Civil Service (1958).
  • White, Leonard D., Introduction to the Study of Public Administration. (1955)
  • Leonard D. White, Charles H. Bland, Walter R. Sharp, and Fritz Morstein Marx; Civil Service Abroad, Great Britain, Canada, France, Germany (1935) online

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Civil service - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (693 words)
In the British Civil Service, civil servants are career employees recruited and promoted on the basis of their administrative skill and technical expertise, and as such do not include, nor are appointed by, elected officials or their political advisors.
The British civil service was at its largest in 1976 with approximately three-quarters of a million servants employed.
The Chinese civil service became known to Europe in the mid-18th century and it is believed to have influenced the creation of civil services in Europe.
Civil service - definition of Civil service in Encyclopedia (473 words)
In the British system of Civil Service, civil servants are career employees recruited and promoted on the basis of their administrative skill and technical expertise, and as such do not include, nor are appointed by, elected officials or their political advisors.
In contrast, the civil service of the United States in the early 19th Century was based on the so-called spoils system, in which all bureaucrats were dependent on elected politicians.
One of the oldest examples of a civil service is the Chinese bureaucracy which during the Tang dynasty relied decreasingly on aristocratic recommendations and more and more upon promotion based on written examinations.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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