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Encyclopedia > Civil parish (England)

In England a civil parish (usually just parish) is the lowest unit of local government, lower than districts or counties. Civil parishes are entirely different from ecclesiastic parishes, and have nothing to do with the Church. Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area  - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 1st UK 49,138,831 377/km² Ethnicity... The United Kingdom is divided into four parts, England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. ... The Districts of England are the lowest level of local government in England except for civil parishes. ... The division into counties is one of the larger divisions of England. ... Parish Hall of St. ... A parish is a subdivision of a diocese or bishopric within the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Church of Sweden, and of some other churches. ... A church building is a building used in Christian worship. ...

A parish bulletin board in Willersey in the Cotswolds
A parish bulletin board in Willersey in the Cotswolds

Contents

Download high resolution version (1760x1168, 595 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1760x1168, 595 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Cotswolds are a range of hills in central England, sometimes called the heart of England, a hilly area reaching nearly 300 m or 1000 feet. ...


Geography

Parishes do not cover the whole of England, and mostly exist in rural areas, and small urban areas. Civil parishes vary greatly in size, many cover tiny hamlets with populations of less than 100, whereas some large ones such as Hereford cover towns with populations of tens of thousands. Rural areas are sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities and towns. ... A hamlet is (usually — see below) a small settlement, too small or unimportant to be considered a village. ... Hereford - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Large urban areas are mostly unparished, but there is generally nothing to stop their establishment. For example, Birmingham has a parish, New Frankley. In Greater London, however, the current legislative framework for local government forbids the establishment of civil parishes. This article is about the city in England. ... New Frankley is the only civil parish in Birmingham, England. ... Greater London is the top level administrative subdivision covering London, England. ...


Parish councils

Civil parishes are usually administered by parish councils, (sometimes called a town council or occasionally a 'City Council') which have various local responsibilities. Typical activities undertaken by a parish council include the provision and upkeep of certain local facillities such as allotments, parks, playgrounds, footpaths, village halls and public clocks. They also have responsibility for litter collection, and entering Britain in Bloom. Recently parish councils have been given new powers to provide traffic calming, community transport, and crime prevention measures In the United Kingdom, town councils are civil parish councils, where the civil parish is a town. ... A typical allotment plot, Essex, United Kingdom, an allotment is a small area of land, let out at a nominal yearly rent by local government or independent allotment associations, for individuals to grow their own food. ... Britain in Bloom is a horticultural competition in the United Kingdom; organised by the Royal Horticultural Society, and currently sponsored by B&Q. It is entered by settlements; the winner is the settlement judged to have beautified itself best with the use of flowers and plants. ...


Parish councils are supposed to act as a channel of local opinion to larger local government bodies, and as such have the right to be consulted of any planning decisions affecting the parish. Parish councils receive funding from their district council, taken from the council tax payed by the residents of the parish. Urban, city, or town planning, deals with design of the built environment from the municipal and metropolitan perspective. ... The Council Tax is the main form of local taxation in England, Scotland and Wales. ...


The role played by parish councils varies, some play only a minor role. Whereas some larger parish councils have a role similar to that of a small district council. Non-metropolitan districts (usually just called Districts) are local government sub-divisions of English Counties. ...


Parish councils are run by volunteer councillors who are elected to serve for 4 years. Different councils have different numbers of councillors. This group of political volunteers is working to promote voter turn-out. ... A councillor is a member of a council (such as a city council), particularly in the U.K. and its former colonies. ... An election is a decision making process whereby people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ... A councillor is a member of a council (such as a city council), particularly in the U.K. and its former colonies. ...


Most parish councillors are elected to represent the entire parish. Only if there are more candidates standing for election than there are seats on the council will an election be held. An election is a decision making process whereby people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ... An election is a decision making process whereby people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ... An election is a decision making process whereby people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ...


Some parishes are deemed too small to have a parish council and instead have a parish meeting; an example of direct democracy. Parishes can be grouped with other parishes and share a common parish council. Direct democracy comprises a form of democracy and theory of civics wherein all citizens can directly participate in the political decision-making process. ...


There are about 8,700 parish and town councils in England, and about 1,500 parish meetings. Since 1997 around 100 new civil parishes have been created. 1997 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


A parish council can also be called a Town Council or a City Council (but not all city or town councils are parish councils). It can become a Town Council unilaterally, simply by making a resolution to do so. City status however is granted by the crown. In England, there are currently six parishes with city status : Chichester, Ely, Hereford, Lichfield, Ripon, and Wells. The Chair of a Town council or City council will usually have the title Mayor. Historically, city status was associated with the presence of a cathedral, such as York Minster. ... The Crown is a term which is used to separate the government authority and property of the state in a kingdom from any personal influence and private assets held by the current Monarch. ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area  - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 1st UK 49,138,831 377/km² Ethnicity... Chichester Cross, in a circa 1831 illustration. ... There are other places also called Ely. ... Hereford - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Lichfield is a small city in Staffordshire, 110 miles northwest of London and 14 miles north of Birmingham. ... Map sources for Ripon at grid reference SE3171 Ripon is a cathedral city in North Yorkshire, England, 214 miles NNW from London. ... Map sources for Wells at grid reference ST5445 The west front of Wells Cathedral Wells is a small city in the Mendip district of Somerset. ... In the United Kingdom, the office of Mayor or Lord Mayor had long been a ceremonial post, with little or no duties attached to it. ...


Sometimes a city or town is abolished as a district, and it is considered desirable to maintain continuity of the charter until a parish council to replace it can be set up. In this case Charter Trustees perform some of the functions of a parish council, and maintain traditions such as mayoralty. An example of such a city was Hereford, whose city council was merged in 1998 to form a unitary Herefordshire. The area of the city of Hereford remained unparished until 2000 when a parish council was created for the city. In the United Kingdom, Charter Trustees are set up to maintain the continuity of a town charter or city charter after a district with the status of a borough or city has been abolished, until such time as a parish council is established. ... In the United Kingdom, the office of Mayor or Lord Mayor had long been a ceremonial post, with little or no duties attached to it. ... Hereford - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... 1998 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... Herefordshire is a county in the West Midlands region of England. ... 2000 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The policy of the present government is to encourage creation of town and parish councils in unparished areas. Recently established councils include those for Daventry (2003), and Folkestone (2004). Daventrys High Street Daventry is a market town in Northamptonshire, England with a population of 22,367 (2001 census). ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map sources for Folkestone at grid reference TR2236 Folkestone is a coastal resort town in the Shepway district of Kent, England. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Scotland, Wales and Ireland

In Wales the equivalent body to a Parish council is termed a Community council. National motto: Cymru am byth (Welsh: Wales for ever) Waless location within the UK Official languages English(100%), Welsh(20. ... Community councils (CCs) are the most local official representative bodies in Scotland and Wales. ...


The administrative counties of Scotland were sub-divided into parishes, but these lacked their own councils. Scotland has now bodies called Community councils, but these are not equivalent to and have fewer powers than the English parishes and Welsh communities. The administrative counties of Scotland were set up in 1889 as areas that county councils would cover. ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area  - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 1st UK 49,138,831 377/km² Ethnicity... National motto: Cymru am byth (Welsh: Wales for ever) Waless location within the UK Official languages English(100%), Welsh(20. ...


In Ireland, counties are divided into civil parishes. Irish civil parishes are divided into townlands. Counties are also divided into larger subdivisions called baronies, which are made up of a number of parishes or parts of parishes. Both civil parishes and baronies are now largely obsolete (except for some purposes such as legal transactions involving land) and are no longer used for local government purposes. The island of Ireland is often referred to as the 32 counties, with its two states, Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, being nicknamed respectively the six counties and the twenty-six counties. ... A townland is the lowest-level geographical unit of land used in Ireland, smaller than a Parish or County. ... Various rulers or governments of Europe, of Japan bestow or recognise the title of baron. ...


History

Whilst as their name suggests, Civil Parishes arose out of the ecclesiastical parish system, their purpose was to administer the Poor Law. The entire country of England was divided into parishes, each responsible for the maintenance of the poor people born in the parish. A rate (property tax) was levied in each parish. The Poor Law was the system for the provision of social security in operation in England and the United Kingdom from the 16th century until the establishment of the Welfare State in the 20th century. ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area  - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 1st UK 49,138,831 377/km² Ethnicity...


How ancient the division of parishes is, may at present be difficult to ascertain. Mr. Camden says, England was divided into parishes by Archbishop Honorius, about the year 630. Sir Henry Hobart lays it down, that parishes were first erected by the council of Lateran, which was held A.D. 1179. Each widely differs from the other, and both of them perhaps from the truth, which will probably be found in the medium, between the two extremes. We find the distinction of parishes, nay, even of mother churches, so early as in the laws of King Edgar, about the year 970.


The civil division of England into counties, of counties into hundreds, of hundreds into tithings, or towns, as it now stands, seems to owe its original to King Alfred; who, to prevent the rapines and disorders which formerly prevailed in the realm, instituted tithings; so called, from the Saxon, because ten freeholders with their families composed one. These all dwelt together, and were sureties, or free-pledges to the king for the good behaviour of each other; and if any offence were committed in their district, they were bound to have the offender forthcoming. And therefore, anciently, no man was suffered to abide in England above forty days, unless he were enrolled in some tithing or decennary. As ten families of freeholders made up a tithing, so ten tithings composed a superior division, called a hundred.


In some of the more northern counties these hundreds are called wapentakes. The sub-division of hundreds into tithings seems to be most peculiarly the invention of Alfred; the institution of hundreds themselves he rather introduced than invented, for they seem to have obtained in Denmark; and we find that in France a regulation of this sort was made above 200 years before; set on foot by Clotharicus and Childebert, with a view of obliging each district to answer for the robberies committed in its own division. In some counties there is an intermediate division between the shire and the hundred, as lathes in Kent, and rapes in Sussex, each of them containing about three or four hundreds a-piece. Where a county is divided into three of these intermediate jurisdictions, they are called trithings, which still subsist in the large county of York, where, by an easy corruption, they are denominated ridings; the north, the east, and the west.


As Local Government was restructured in the 19th Century, some parishes were designated Urban Sanitary Districts and had their powers greatly increased. Smaller parishes were grouped together as Rural Districts but still retained some responsibilities. However the Poor Law obligations were now given to "Unions" of a number of parishes, in order to have sufficient resources to establish and administer workhouses and "outdoor relief". In 1929 the old Poor Law system was abolished, central government now assuming responsibility for welfare payments. In 1974 rural parishes were retained but most urban areas became "unparished". In local government on the British Isles, a rural district was a predominantly rural area used for local government. ...


See also

A parish is a subdivision. ... Community councils (CCs) are the most local official representative bodies in Scotland and Wales. ... This is a list of civil parishes in England, the smallest level of local government, split by county. ... A civil township is a widely-used unit of local government in the United States, subordinate to a county. ... A freguesia is a secondary local administrative unit in Portugal and the former Portuguese overseas province of Macao. ... Shortcut: UK topics This is a list of topics related to the United Kingdom. ...

External links

  • www.nalc.gov.uk The National Association of Local Councils represents English parish councils and Welsh community councils

  Results from FactBites:
 
Parish - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (832 words)
Appointment as a parish priest entails the enjoyment of a benefice.
Parishes of this type are found in England, Ireland, the Channel Islands, the U.S. state of Louisiana (where it is equivalent to a county), Estonia and a number of island nations in the region of the Caribbean.
In Quebec, a parish is a large rural municipality consisting mainly of farmlands, as opposed to a village.
magoo.com: McGoughs, McGeoughs, and McGeoghs in the Civil Parish of Donaghmoyne and the Barony of Farney by Hugh McGough (17454 words)
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