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Encyclopedia > Civil liberties
Part of the series on
Freedom
By concept

Philosophical freedom
Political freedom
Liberty
Mohandas K. Gandhi - Freedom can be achieved through inner sovereignty. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Liberty is generally considered a concept of political philosophy and identifies the condition in which an individual has immunity from the arbitrary exercise of authority. ...

By form

Assembly
Association
Body: clothing, modifying
From government
Movement
Press
Religion and beliefs
Software
Speech (international)
Thought
Group of women holding dick placards with political activist slogans: know your courts - study your politicians, Liberty in law, Law makers must not be law breakers, and character in candidates photo 1920 Freedom of assembly is the freedom to associate with, or organize any groups, gatherings, clubs, or organizations that... Freedom of association is a Constitutional (legal) concept based on the premise that it is the right of free adults to mutually choose their associates for whatever purpose they see fit. ... Bredene nude beach in Belgium. ... Morphological freedom is, according to neuroscientist Anders Sandberg, an extension of one’s right to one’s body, not just self-ownership but also the right to modify oneself according to one’s desires. ... Title page of a European Union member state passport. ... Freedom of the press (or press freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public press for its citizens and their associations, extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ... It has been suggested that Religious toleration be merged into this article or section. ... The free software movement began in 1983 when Richard Stallman announced the GNU project. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Freedom of speech is enshrined in the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights and is granted formal recognition by the laws of most nations. ... Freedom of thought (also called freedom of conscience and freedom of ideas) is the freedom of an individual to hold or consider a fact, viewpoint, or thought, regardless of anyone elses view. ...

Other

Censorship
Coercion
Human rights
Indices
Media transparency
Negative liberty
Positive liberty
Self-ownership
Censorship is the editing, removing, or otherwise changing speech and other forms of human expression. ... Coercion is the practice of compelling a person to act by employing threat of harm (usually physical force, sometimes other forms of harm). ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... There are several non-governmental organizations that publish and maintain assessments of the state of freedom in the world and rank countries as being free, partly free, or unfree using various measures of freedom, including political rights, economic rights, and civil liberties. ... Media Transparency is the concept of determining how and why information is conveyed through various means. ... The philosophical concept of negative liberty refers to an individuals liberty from being subjected to the authority of others. ... Positive liberty is an idea that was first expressed and analyzed as a separate conception of liberty by John Stuart Mill but most notably described by Isaiah Berlin. ... Self-ownership is the condition where an individual has the exclusive moral or legal right to control his or her own body and life. ...

Part of the Politics series on
Libertarianism

Schools of thought
Agorism
Anarcho-capitalism
Geolibertarianism
Green libertarianism
Left-libertarianism
Minarchism
Neolibertarianism
Paleolibertarianism
Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ... Libertarianism is a political philosophy advocating that individuals should be free to do whatever they wish with their person or property, as long as they do not infringe on the same liberty of others. ... Agorism is a radical left-libertarian political philosophy popularized by Samuel Edward Konkin III, who defined an agorist as a conscious practitioner of counter-economics (peaceful black markets and grey markets). ... Anarcho-capitalism refers to an anti-statist philosophy that embraces capitalism as one of its foundational principles. ... Geolibertarianism (also geoanarchism) is a liberal political philosophy that holds along with other forms of libertarian individualism that each individual has an exclusive right to the fruits of his or her labor, as opposed to this product being owned collectively by society or the community. ... Green-Libertarian describes a political philosophy that was established in the United States. ... Historically, the term libertarianism was first coined by leftist followers of Mikhail Bakunin to describe their own, anti-statist version of socialism, as contrasted with the state socialism propounded by Karl Marx. ... In civics, minarchism, sometimes called minimal statism or small government, is the view that the size, role and influence of government in a free society should be minimal — only large enough to protect the liberty of each and every individual, without violating the liberty of any individuals itself. ... Neolibertarianism is a political philosophy combining elements of libertarian and conservative thought that embraces incrementalism and pragmatism domestically, and a generally interventionist foreign policy based on self-interest, national defense and the expansion of freedom. ... Paleolibertarianism is a school of thought within American libertarianism founded by Lew Rockwell and Murray Rothbard, and closely associated with the Ludwig von Mises Institute. ...


Origins
Individualist anarchism
Austrian School
Chicago School
Classical liberalism
Individualist Anarchism is an anarchist philosophical tradition that has a strong emphasis on sovereignty of the individual[1] and is generally opposed to collectivism[2]. The tradition appears most often in the United States, most notably in regard to its advocacy of private property. ... The Austrian School, also known as “the Vienna School” and as “the Psychological School”, is a school of economic thought that advocates the adherence to strict methodological individualism. ... The Chicago School of Economics is a school of thought in economics; it refers to the style of economics practiced at and disseminated from the University of Chicago after 1946. ... Classical liberalism (also called laissez-faire liberalism[1]) is a term used: to label the philosophy developed by early liberals from the Age of Enlightenment until John Stuart Mill [2] to label the revived economic liberalism of the 20th century, seen in work by Friedrich Hayek[3] and Milton Friedman. ...


Ideas
Civil liberties
Free markets
Laissez-faire
Liberty
Individualism
Non-aggression
Private property
Self-ownership
Free trade
A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... Laissez-faire is short for laissez faire, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning to let things alone, let them pass. First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. ... Liberty is generally considered a concept of political philosophy and identifies the condition in which an individual has immunity from the arbitrary exercise of authority. ... Methodological individualism is a philosophical orientation toward explaining broad society-wide developments as the accumulation of decisions by individuals. ... The non-aggression principle (also called the non-aggression axiom, anticoercion principle, or zero aggression principle) is a deontological ethical stance associated with the libertarian movement. ... This page deals with property as ownership rights. ... Self-ownership is the condition where an individual has the exclusive moral or legal right to control his or her own body and life. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ...


Key issues
History
Parties
Economic views
Views of rights
Theories of law
Modern libertarians see themselves as having revived the original doctrine of liberalism, and often call themselves libertarians and classical liberals interchangeably. ... Many countries and subnational political entities have libertarian political parties. ... The Austrian School of economics and the Chicago School of economics are important foundations of the economic system favored by modern libertarians —capitalism, where the means of production are privately owned, economic and financial decisions are made privately rather than by state control, and goods and services are exchanged in... Libertarians and Objectivists limit what they define as rights to variations on the right to be left alone, and argue that other rights such as the right to a good education or the right to have free access to water are not legitimate rights and do not deserve the same... Libertarian theories of law build on libertarianism or classical liberalism. ...

Politics Portal ·  v  d  e 

Civil liberties is the name given to freedoms that protect the individual from government. Civil liberties set limits for government so that it would not abuse its power and interfere with the lives of its citizens. See also civil rights and human rights. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2112x2816, 1644 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Civil liberties Negative liberty User:Nevit Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2112x2816, 1644 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Civil liberties Negative liberty User:Nevit Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


Basic civil liberties include freedom of assembly, freedom of religion, and freedom of speech. There are also the rights to due process, to a fair trial and to privacy. Many of the world's democracies, such as the United States and Canada, have bills of rights or similar constitutional documents that enumerate and seek to guarantee civil liberties. Other states have enacted similar laws through a variety of legal means, including signing and ratifying or otherwise giving effect to key conventions such as the European Convention on Human Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. It might be said that the protection of civil liberties is a key responsibility of all democratic states, unlike the situation in authoritarian states, for example. Group of women holding dick placards with political activist slogans: know your courts - study your politicians, Liberty in law, Law makers must not be law breakers, and character in candidates photo 1920 Freedom of assembly is the freedom to associate with, or organize any groups, gatherings, clubs, or organizations that... It has been suggested that Religious toleration be merged into this article or section. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In United States law, adopted from English law, due process (more fully due process of law) is the principle that the government must normally respect all of a persons legal rights instead of just some or most of those legal rights when the government deprives a person of life... The Right to a fair trial is an essential right in all countries respecting the rule of law. ... Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to keep their lives and personal affairs out of public view, or to control the flow of information about themselves. ... The United States Bill of Rights is the specific name given to the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution. ... The Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, also known as the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), was adopted under the auspices of the Council of Europe[1] in 1950 to protect human rights and fundamental freedoms. ... The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights is a United Nations treaty based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, created in 1966 and entered into force on 23 March 1976. ... For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation). ... Bold text:This article applies to political ideologies. ...


The existence of some claimed civil liberties is a matter of dispute, as are the extent of most civil liberties. Controversial examples include reproductive rights, same-sex marriage, and possession of guns. Another matter of debate is the suspension or alteration of certain civil liberties in times of war or state of emergency, including whether and to what extent this should occur. Reproductive rights (also Procreative liberty) refers to human rights in areas of sexual reproduction, including the rights to reproduce (such as opposition to forced sterilization) as well as rights not to reproduce (such as support for access to birth control and abortion), the right to privacy, medical coverage, right to... Same-sex marriage is a term for a marriage where the people involved are the same sex. ... It has been suggested that Gun politics worldwide be merged into this article or section. ... A war is a conflict between two or more groups that involve large numbers of individuals. ... A state of emergency is a governmental declaration that may suspend certain normal functions of government, may work to alert citizens to alter their normal behaviors, or may order government agencies to implement emergency preparedness plans. ...

Contents

Civil liberties by country

The European Convention on Human Rights, to which most European countries, including all of the European Union, belong, enumerates a number of civil liberties and is of varying constitutional force in different European states. France's 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen listed many civil liberties and is of constitutional force. The Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, also known as the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), was adopted under the auspices of the Council of Europe[1] in 1950 to protect human rights and fundamental freedoms. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen: Revolutionary patriotism borrows familiar iconography of the Ten Commandments Wikisource has original text related to this article: Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (French: La...


The Constitution of Canada includes the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms which guarantees many of the same rights as the U.S. constitution, with the notable exceptions of protection against establishment of religion. However, the Charter does protect freedom of religion. The Charter also omits any mention of, or protection for, property. The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law in Canada. ... The Charter, signed by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau in 1981. ... Establishment of religion refers to investing political power in a particular religious faith or body. ... It has been suggested that Religious toleration be merged into this article or section. ...


The Constitution of People's Republic of China (apply to mainland China only, not to Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan) , especially its Fundamental Rights and Duties of Citizens, claims to protect many civil liberties. See Civil liberties in the People's Republic of China The Constitution of the Peoples Republic of China (中华人民共和国宪法; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Xiànfǎ) is the highest law within the Peoples Republic of China. ... The highlighted area in the map is what is commonly known as mainland China. Mainland China (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally The Chinese Massive Landmass or Continental China) is a geopolitical term which is usually synonymous with the area currently administered by the Peoples Republic of China (PRC... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ...


While the United Kingdom has no codified constitution, relying on a number of legal conventions and pieces of legislation, it is a signatory to the European Convention on Human Rights which covers both human rights and civil liberties. The Human Rights Act 1998 incorporates the great majority of Convention rights directly into UK law. The Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, also known as the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), was adopted under the auspices of the Council of Europe[1] in 1950 to protect human rights and fundamental freedoms. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... The Human Rights Act 1998 is a United Kingdom Act of Parliament which received Royal Assent on November 9, 1998, and came into force on October 2, 2000. ...


The United States Constitution, especially its Bill of Rights, protects many civil liberties. See Civil liberties in the United States The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... Image of the United States Bill of Rights from the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


Controversies in the UK

After the September 11, 2001 attacks the UK passed the Anti-Terrorism Crime and Security Act 2001, Part 4 of which provided for the indefinite detention without trial of foreign nationals whom the Home Secretary suspected of involvement in terrorism. In order to pass this legislation, the UK derogated from Article 5 of the Convention on the grounds that the terrorist threat to the UK constituted a 'public emergency threatening the life of the nation' within the terms of Article 15. In December 2004, the Judicial Committee of the House of Lords ruled by a majority of 8-1 that Part 4 of the 2001 Act was incompatible with Articles 5 and 14 of the Convention. Although a majority of the Law Lords agreed that the terrorist threat to the UK constituted a public emergency within the meaning of Article 15, it found that the use of indefinite detention was both disproportionate (in that less restrictive measures were available) and discriminatory (since UK nationals suspected of terrorism were not liable to indefinite detention). This prompted the government to pass the Prevention of Terrorism Act 2005, which provides for the use of "control orders" against both UK and foreign nationals suspected of involvement in terrorism. The courts have yet to rule on the compatibility of these orders, although human rights groups have argued they are incompatible with both Article 5 (the right to liberty) and Article 6 (the right to a fair trial). It is argued by such groups that these acts are taking away civil liberties, in the name of "fighting terrorism" . Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... The Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001 or ATCSA is a British Act of Parliament introduced as emergency legislation after the September 11, 2001 attacks in New York. ... Internment camp for Japanese in Canada during World War II Internment is the imprisonment or confinement of people, commonly in large groups, without trial. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... Derogation is the partial revocation of a law, as opposed to abrogation or the total abolition of a law. ... The House of Lords, in addition to having a legislative function, has a judicial function as a court of last resort within the United Kingdom. ... The Prevention of Terrorism Act 2005 is a British Act of Parliament intended to deal with the Law Lords ruling of 16 December 2004, that the detention without trial of nine foreigners at HM Prison Belmarsh under Part IV of the Anti-terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001 was unlawful... A control order is an order made by the Home Secretary of the United Kingdom to restrict an individuals liberty for the purpose of protecting members of the public from a risk of terrorism. Its definition and power were provided by Parliament in the Prevention of Terrorism Act 2005. ...


Despite the UK's liberal heritage, the Government's Information Commissioner stated in 2004 that the country is currently in danger of becoming a surveillance society. See also British national identity card. The Office of the Information Commissioner (OIC) in the United Kingdom, is an independent government authority and reports directly to Parliament. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mass surveillance is the pervasive surveillance of an entire population, or a substantial fraction thereof. ... Enabling legislation for the British national identity card was passed under the Identity Cards Act 2006 [1]. The multi-billion pound scheme [2] has yet to enter procurement. ...


References

Alan Morton Dershowitz (born September 1, 1938) is an American lawyer and law professor. ... The Chronicle of Higher Education is a newspaper that is a source of news, information, and jobs for college and university faculty and administration. ... September 28 is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 2001. ... August 11 is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jean Edward Smith is an accomplished educator and biographer having authored such works as Grant, John Marshall: Definer of a Nation, and Presently he is the John Marshall Professor of Political Science at Marshall University. ...

See also

The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is a major American non-profit organization with headquarters in New York City, whose stated mission is to defend and preserve the individual rights and liberties guaranteed to every person in this country by the Constitution and laws of the United States.[1] It... The Rutherford Institute is a public interest law firm and resource center based in Charlottesville, Virginia. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This map reflects the findings of Freedom Houses 2006 survey Freedom in the World, concerning the state of world freedom in 2005. ... International Freedom of Expression eXchange. ... Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to keep their lives and personal affairs out of public view, or to control the flow of information about themselves. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Civil Liberties

  Results from FactBites:
 
Civil liberties - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (679 words)
Civil liberties are protections from the power of governments.
Examples include due process (the right that the government not take an individual's life, liberty, or property without a fair trial or other appropriate procedure); the right to self defense; the right to privacy; freedom of speech; freedom of religion; and freedom of assembly.
Furthermore, even civil liberties that are legally protected have sometimes been abrogated, especially in time of war.
Human Rights and Civil Liberties - MSN Encarta (1166 words)
Human Rights and Civil Liberties, the liberty and justice that a citizen or person expects, or is entitled to expect, in the content and operation of the law.
Examples of civil liberties include the prohibition of torture, while perhaps the most basic of commonly recognized rights is the right to life.
Although civil liberties are now considered an integral part of democratic government, it would be a mistake to see this period as a democratic one in a modern sense.
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