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Encyclopedia > Civil defense
The old United States civil defense logo. The triangle emphasised the 3-step Civil Defense philosophy used before the foundation of FEMA and Comprehensive Emergency Management.
The old United States civil defense logo. The triangle emphasised the 3-step Civil Defense philosophy used before the foundation of FEMA and Comprehensive Emergency Management.


Civil defense, spelt civil defence outside the United States and now often called civil protection, is an effort to prepare civilians for military attack. It uses the principles of emergency operations: prevention, mitigation, preparation, response, or emergency evacuation, and recovery. Programmes of this sort were initially discussed at least as early as the 1920s but it was only after the threat of nuclear weapons became realized that they became widespread. As the intensity of the Cold War waned emphasis shifted from military attack to emergencies and disasters in general. In the context of Civil Defense in the United States this eventually led to the replacement of the United States civil defense with the Federal Emergency Management Agency. In some countries, the all-encompassing nature of civil defense is denoted by using name "total defence" such as the Swedish word totalförsvar. The name suggests committing all resources, hence the term total, of the nation to the defence. It can be compared to total war. ((PD)) Federal Civil Defense Logo, no longer used except on FEMAs seal File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The old United States Civil Defense logo. ... Comprehensive Emergency Management, as defined in various laws throughout the United States, is the preparation for and the carrying out of all emergency functions, other than functions for which the military forces are primarily responsible, to mitigate, prepare for, respond to, and recover from emergencies and disasters, and to aid... In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ... Emergency operations or Emergency preparedness is a set of doctrines to prepare civil society to cope with natural or man-made disasters. ... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... Mitigation consists of the activities designed to reduce or eliminate risks to persons or property or to lessen the actual or potential effects or consequences of an incident. ... A response is the following: Often a response is the result of a stimulus. ... Emergency evacuation is the movement of persons from a dangerous place due to the threat or occurrence of a disastrous event. ... Recovery is the first e-book and seventh installment of The New Jedi Order series set in the Star Wars galaxy. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... For other uses, please see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The old United States Civil Defense logo. ... The old United States Civil Defense logo. ... New FEMA seal The Federal Emergency Management Agency, or FEMA, is an agency of the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) within the Emergency Preparedness and Response Directorate. ... Total Defence logo Total Defence is a concept introduced in Singapore in 1984 to improve readiness in matters related to defence and national security, and is partly based on similar concepts in Switzerland and Sweden. ... Swedish ( ) is a North Germanic language (also called Scandinavian languages) spoken predominantly in Sweden and in parts of Finland, especially along the coast and on the Ã…land islands, by more than nine million people. ... This article is about the military doctrine of total war. ...

Contents

Importance

Relatively small investments in preparation can speed up recovery by months or years and thereby prevent millions of deaths by hunger, cold and disease. According to human capital theory in economics, a country's population is more valuable than all of the land, factories and other assets that it possesses. People are what rebuilds a country after its destruction and it is therefore important for the economic security of a country to protect its people. Also, reducing fear and uncertainty via civil defense helps people's quality of life and has positive economic benefits. According to psychology, it is important for people to feel like they are in control of their own destiny and preparing for uncertainty via civil defense can help in this respect. Human capital is a way of defining and categorizing peoples skills and abilities as used in employment and as they otherwise contribute to the economy. ... Face-to-face trading interactions among on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor Economics, may just involve more otriches than you think social science, studies the production, distribution, and consumption of commodities. ... Psychology is an academic and applied field involving the study of the human mind, brain, and behavior. ...


Threat Assessment

Some various threats to civilians and civilian life are nuclear, biological, chemical, information warfare (cyberattacks), etc. Each needs to be looked at and studied so that preventative measures can be built into civilian life. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Conventional

This would be conventional explosives. Blast sheltering against nuclear blast would pretty much protect against conventional explosives.


Nuclear

The biggest threats from a nuclear attack are effects from the blast, fires and radiation. There is also the possibility of terrorists employing a radioactive "dirty bomb". One of the most prepared countries for a nuclear attack is Switzerland. Almost every building in Switzerland has an abri (shelter) against the initial nuclear bomb and explosion followed by the fallout. Because of this, many people use it as a safe to protect valuables, photos, financial information and so on. Switzerland also has air-raid and nuclear raid sirens in every village. Terrorist redirects here. ... The term dirty bomb is primarily used to refer to a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD), a radiological weapon which combines radioactive material with conventional explosives. ...


Biological

The threat here is primarily from disease-causing microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses.


Chemical

Various chemical agents are a threat such as nerve gas (VX, Sarin, etc.). Also known as Nerve agents, it is the term used for a type of chemical warfare substance that interferes with the transmission of nerve impulses. ...


Information Warfare

Attacks to a country's information infrastructure are a threat and, since so many facets of modern life are tied into computers and information systems, such attacks could have financial and economic consequences.


Other

There are many other possible threats besides these.


Stages

Mitigation

Mitigation is the process of actively preventing the war or the release of nuclear weapons. It includes policy analysis, diplomacy, political measures, and more military responses such as a National Missile Defense and air defense artillery. In the case of counter-terrorism, mitigation would include intelligence gathering and direct action against terrorist groups. Mitigation may also be reflected in long-term planning such as the design of the interstate highway system and the placement of military bases further away from populated areas. The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... A payload launch vehicle carrying a prototype exoatmospheric kill vehicle is launched from Meck Island at the Kwajalein Missile Range on Dec. ... American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft, or air defense, is any method of combating military aircraft from the ground. ... Intelligence (abbreviated or ) is the process and the result of gathering information and analyzing it to answer questions or obtain advance warnings needed to plan for the future. ... Interstate Highways in the lower 48 states. ...

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (671x663, 1185 KB) United States Civil Defense patch, Cuyahoga County, Ohio. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (671x663, 1185 KB) United States Civil Defense patch, Cuyahoga County, Ohio. ... The old United States Civil Defense logo. ... Cuyahoga County is a county located in the state of Ohio. ... Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ...

Preparation

Preparation consists of building blast shelters, and prepositioning information, supplies and emergency infrastructure. For example, most larger cities in the U.S. now have underground emergency operations centers that can perform civil defense coordination. FEMA also has many underground facilities located near major railheads such as the one in Denton, Texas and Mount Weather, Virginia for the same purpose. Other measures would include continuous government inventories of grain silos, the National Strategic Medical Stockpile, the uncapping of the strategic petroleum reserve, the dispersal of truck-transportable bridges, water purification, mobile refineries, mobile decontamination facilities, mobile general and special purpose disaster mortuary facilities such as DMORT and DMORT-WMD, and other aids such as temporary housing to speed civil recovery. A blast shelter is a place where people can go to protect themselves from bomb blasts. ... Nickname: Little D Location within the state of Texas County Denton County Mayor Perry McNeill Area    - City 161. ... Photo courtesy FEMA The Mount Weather Emergency Operations Center is a U.S. government facility located in Bluemont, Virginia. ... A Disaster Mortuary Operational Response Team or DMORT is a team of experts in the fields of victim identification and mortuary services. ...


On an individual scale, one means of preparation for exposure to nuclear fallout is to obtain potassium iodide (KI) tablets as a safety measure to protect the human thyroid gland from the uptake of dangerous radioactive iodine. Another measure is to cover the nose, mouth and eyes with a piece of cloth and sunglasses to protect against alpha particles, which are only an internal hazard. Map of hypothetical fallout dispersal after a large-scale nuclear attack against the United States. ... Potassium iodide is a white crystalline salt with chemical formula KI, used in photography and radiation treatment. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iodine, I, 53 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 5, p Appearance violet-dark gray, lustrous Atomic mass 126. ... An alpha particle is deflected by a magnetic field Alpha particles (named after the first letter in the Greek alphabet, α) are a highly ionizing form of particle radiation which have low penetration. ...


To support and supplement efforts at national, regional and local level with regard to disaster prevention, the preparedness of those responsible for civil protection and the intervention in the event of disaster This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ...

  • To establish a framework for effective and rapid cooperation between different civil protection services when mutual assistance is needed (police, fire service, healthcare service, public utility provider, voluntary agencies).
  • To set up and implement training programmes for intervention and coordination teams as well as assessment experts including joint courses and exchange systems.
  • To enhance the coherence of actions undertaken at international level in the field of civil protection especially in the context of cooperation.

Preparing also includes sharing information: Firefighter with an axe A firefighter, sometimes still called a fireman though women have increasingly joined firefighting units, is a person who is trained and equipped to put out fires, rescue people and in some areas provide emergency medical services. ... Health care or healthcare is one of the worlds largest and fastest growing professions. ... A public utility is a company that maintains the infrastructure for a public service. ... This group of political volunteers is working to promote voter turn-out. ... See: Intervention (counseling) - an orchestrated attempt by family and friends to get a family member to get help for addiction or other similar problem. ... Look up coordination in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

  • To contribute to the information of the public in view of increasing the level of self-protection of citizens
  • To collect and disseminate validated emergency information
  • To pool information on national civil protection capabilities, military and medical resources.
  • To ensure efficient information sharing between the different authorities.

Response

Enlarge
This air-raid siren in Los Angeles shows signs of neglect.

Response consists first of warning civilians so they can enter Fallout Shelters and protect assets. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (672x1280, 1266 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (672x1280, 1266 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A sign pointing to an old fallout shelter in New York City. ...


Staffing a response is always full of problems in a civil defense emergency. After an attack, conventional full-time emergency services are dramatically overloaded, with conventional fire fighting response times often exceeding several days. Some capability is maintained by local and state agencies, and an emergency reserve is provided by specialized military units, especially civil affairs, Military Police, Judge Advocates and combat engineers. Civil Affairs, known commonly as CA, is the official name for special operations units which conduct civil-military operations. ... It has been suggested that Gendarmerie be merged into this article or section. ... Judge Advocate Generals Corps, also known as JAG, is the judicial arm of the United States armed forces, consisting of autonomous departments in the Air Force, Army and Navy. ... A US army combat engineer setting up a communications cable. ...


However, the traditional response to massed attack on civilian population centers is to maintain a mass-trained force of volunteer emergency workers. Studies in World War II showed that lightly trained (40 hours or less) civilians in organized teams can perform up to 95% of emergency activities when trained, liaised and supported by local government. In this plan, the populace rescues itself from most situations, and provides information to a central office to prioritize professional emergency services. Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead...


In the 1990s, this concept was revived by the Los Angeles Fire Department to cope with civil emergencies such as earthquakes. The program was widely adopted, providing standard terms for organization. In the U.S., this is now official federal policy, and it is implemented by community emergency response teams, under the Department of Homeland Security, which certifies training programs by local governments, and registers "certified disaster service workers" who complete such training. The Los Angeles Fire Department (LAFD), referred to by some as the Los Angeles City Fire Department, is the full-spectrum life safety agency that protects the second largest city in the United States. ... An earthquake is a phenomenon that results from and is powered by the sudden release of stored energy in the crust that propagates seismic waves. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Recovery

Recovery consists of rebuilding damaged infrastructure, buildings and production. The recovery phase is the longest and ultimately most expensive phase. Once the immediate "crisis" has passed, cooperation fades away and recovery efforts are often politicized or seen as economic opportunities.


Preparation for recovery can be very helpful. If mitigating resources are dispersed before the attack, cascades of social failures can be prevented. One hedge against bridge damage in riverine cities is to subsidize a "tourist ferry" that performs scenic cruises on the river. When a bridge is down, the ferry takes up the load.


Implementation

Some advocates believe that government should change building codes to require autonomous buildings in order to reduce civil societies' dependence on complex, fragile networks of social services. An autonomous building is a building designed to be operated independently from infrastructural support services such as the electric power grid, municipal water systems, sewage treatment systems, storm drains, communication services, and (in some cases) public roads. ...


An example of a crucial need after a general nuclear attack would be transport fuel to transport every other item for recovery. However, oil refineries are large, immobile, and probable targets. One proposal is to preposition truck-mounted fuel refineries near oil fields and bulk storage depots. Other critical infrastructure needs would include road and bridge repair, communications, electric power, food production and potable water. View of Shell Oil Refinery in Martinez, California. ... An L-system or Lindenmayer system is a formal grammar (a set of rules and symbols) most famously used to model the growth processes of plant development, though able to model the morphology of a variety of organisms. ...


Civil Defense organizations

Civil Defense is also the name of a number of organizations around the world dedicated to protecting civilians from military attacks, as well as to providing rescue services after natural and human-made disasters alike.


In a few countries such as Jordan and Singapore (see Singapore Civil Defence Force), civil defense is essentially the same organization as the fire brigade. In most countries however, civil defense is a government-managed, volunteer-staffed organization, separate from the fire brigade and the ambulance service. As the threat of Cold War eased, a number of such civil defense organizations have been disbanded or mothballed (as in the United Kingdom and the United States civil defense), while others have changed their focuses into providing rescue services after natural disasters (as for the State Emergency Service in Australia). The Singapore Civil Defence Force (SCDF) is the main agency in charge of the provision of emergency services in Singapore during peacetime and emergency. ... Firefighter with an axe A firefighter, sometimes still called a fireman though women have increasingly joined firefighting units, is a person who is trained and equipped to put out fires, rescue people and in some areas provide emergency medical services. ... An ambulance is an emergency vehicle designated for the transport of anyone who due to disease or injury is in need of medical treatment and/or monitoring throughout transportation. ... The old United States Civil Defense logo. ... Western Australia SES OKA 4WD vehicle. ...


History

Civil Defense literature such as Fallout Protection were common during the cold war era.
Civil Defense literature such as Fallout Protection were common during the cold war era.

In most of the NATO states, such as the United States, the United Kingdom or Germany as well as the Soviet Bloc, and especially in the neutral countries, such as Switzerland and in Sweden during the 1950s and 60s, many civil defence practices took place to prepare for the aftermath of a nuclear war, which seemed quite likely at that time. However, there was never strong civil defense policy because it fundamentally violates the Mutually Assured Destruction doctrine by making provisions for survivors. Also, a fully fledged total defense would have been too expensive. Above all, compared to the power of destruction a defense would have been inefffective. In the M.A.D. doctrine, there are not supposed to be any survivors for a civil defense system to assist (thus the acronym). However M.A.D. was not official government policy, and successive governments in the west sought to implement civil defence measures in the face of popular apathy. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (400x607, 54 KB) Summary Department of Defense, Office of Civil Defense, 1961 Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (400x607, 54 KB) Summary Department of Defense, Office of Civil Defense, 1961 Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Cover of Fallout Protection, 1961 Fallout Protection - What To Know And Do About Nuclear Attack, was an official government booklet released in December of 1961 by the United States Department of Defense and The Office of Civil Defense. ... During the Cold War, the Eastern Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) comprised the following Central and Eastern European countries: Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Poland, Albania (until the early 1960s, see below), the Soviet Union, and Czechoslovakia. ... The 1950s was the decade spanning the years 1950 to 1959. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ... Nuclear War is a card game designed by Douglas Malewicki, and originally published in 1966. ... Mutually assured destruction (MAD) is the doctrine of military strategy in which a full scale use of nuclear weapons by one of two opposing sides would result in the destruction of both the attacker and the defender. ...


During the Cold War, civil defense was seen largely as defending against and recovering from an attack involving nuclear weapons. After the end of the Cold War, the focus moved from defense against nuclear war to defense against a terrorist attack possibly involving chemical or biological weapons. After the September 11, 2001 attacks, in the United States the concept of civil defense has been revisited under the umbrella term of homeland security. The old US Civil Defence logo was used in the FEMA logo until recently and is hinted at in the United States Civil Air Patrol logo. To the contrary, in Europe the triangle CD logo continuous to be widely used. For other uses, please see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... For other uses, please see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Dressing the wounded during a gas attack by Austin O. Spare, 1918. ... Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is the use of any organism (bacteria, virus or other disease_causing organism) or toxin found in nature, as a weapon of war. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Homeland security refers to governmental actions designed to prevent, detect, respond to, and recover from acts of terrorism, and also respond to natural disasters. ... New FEMA seal The Federal Emergency Management Agency or FEMA is an agency of the United States government dedicated to swift response in the event of disasters, both natural and man-made. ... Civil Air Patrol seal The Civil Air Patrol (CAP) is the official civilian auxiliary of the United States Air Force (USAF). ...


Notes

    See also

    Commons logo
    Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
    Civil Defense

    Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Infiltrated by the Cacophony Society, the Wilshire Cafe became known as the Atomic Cafe after they put habenero pepper extract in all the food. ... A blast shelter is a place where people can go to protect themselves from bomb blasts. ... Most Civil Defense Geiger Counters were issued by the United States Civil Defense during the 1960s in the midst of the Cold War in an effort to help prepare citizens for a nuclear attack. ... Thunderbolt 1000/1000T Civil Defense siren. ... Duck and Cover was a method of personal protection against the effects of a nuclear detonation which the United States government taught to generations of United States school children from the late 1940s into the 1980s. ... Emergency operations or Emergency preparedness is a set of doctrines to prepare civil society to cope with natural or man-made disasters. ... A sign pointing to an old fallout shelter in New York City. ... Nuclear War is a card game designed by Douglas Malewicki, and originally published in 1966. ... Nuclear War Survival Skills or NWSS by Cresson Kearny is a civil defense manual. ... Cresson Henry Kearny was born on January 7, 1914 in San Antonio, Texas and died on December 18, 2003. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... A survivalist is a person who anticipates a potential disruption in the continuity of local, regional or worldwide society, and takes steps to survive in the resulting unpredictable situation. ... Transarmament (also known as civilian-based defense) is the partial or total replacement of armed forces with the physical and social infrastructure to support nonviolent resistance. ... The old United States Civil Defense logo. ... Weapon of mass destruction (WMD) is a term used to describe a munition with the capacity to indiscriminately kill large numbers of human beings. ...

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