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Encyclopedia > Civil Rights Act of 1964
First page of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
First page of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Long title: An Act To enforce the constitutional right to vote, to confer jurisdiction upon the district courts of the United States to provide relief against discrimination in public accommodations, to authorize the Attorney General to institute suits to protect constitutional rights in public facilities and public education, to extend the Commission on Civil Rights, to prevent discrimination in federally assisted programs, to establish a Commission on Equal Employment Opportunity, and for other purposes.

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Pub.L. 88-352, 78 Stat. 241, July 2, 1964) was a landmark legislation in the United States that outlawed segregation in the U.S. schools and public places. First conceived to help African Americans, the bill was amended prior to passage to protect women in courts, and explicitly included white people for the first time. It also started the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The United States Statutes at Large, commonly referred to as the Statutes at Large, is the official source for the laws and resolutions passed by Congress. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ... The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, or EEOC, is a United States federal agency tasked with ending employment discrimination in the United States. ...


In order to circumvent limitations on the federal use of the Equal Protection Clause handed down by the Civil Rights Cases, the law was passed under the Commerce Clause. Once it was implemented, its effects were far reaching and had tremendous long-term impacts on the whole country. It prohibited discrimination in public facilities, in government, and in employment, invalidating the Jim Crow laws in the southern U.S. It became illegal to compel segregation of the races in schools, housing, or hiring. Powers given to enforce the bill were initially weak, but were supplemented during later years. Congressman John Bingham of Ohio was the principal framer of the Equal Protection Clause. ... Holding The Equal Protection clause applies only to state action, not segregation by privately owned businesses. ... Article I, Section 8, Clause 3 of the United States Constitution, known as the Commerce Clause, states that Congress has the exclusive authority to manage trade activities between the states and with foreign nations and Indian tribes. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial...

Contents

Origins

John F. Kennedy addresses the nation about Civil Rights on June 11, 1963
John F. Kennedy addresses the nation about Civil Rights on June 11, 1963

The bill had been introduced by President John F. Kennedy in his civil rights speech of June 11, 1963,[1] in which he asked for legislation "giving all Americans the right to be served in facilities which are open to the public—hotels, restaurants, theaters, retail stores, and similar establishments," as well as "greater protection for the right to vote." Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (760x963, 187 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): History of the United States Democratic Party (United States) List of United States Presidents by longevity ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (760x963, 187 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): History of the United States Democratic Party (United States) List of United States Presidents by longevity ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ...


He then sent a bill to Congress on June 19. Emulating the Civil Rights Act of 1875, Kennedy's civil rights bill included provisions to ban discrimination in public accommodations, and to enable the U.S. Attorney General to join in lawsuits against state governments which operated segregated school systems, among other provisions. But it does not include a number of provisions deemed essential by civil rights leaders including protection against police brutality, ending discrimination in private employment, or granting the Justice Department power to initiate desegregation or job discrimination lawsuites.[2] is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Civil Rights Act of 1875 (18 Stat. ... Seal of the United States Department of Justice The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice (see 28 U.S.C. Â§ 503) concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ...


Passage

Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Among the guests behind him is Martin Luther King, Jr.
Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Among the guests behind him is Martin Luther King, Jr.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (7000x4687, 2722 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Civil rights Lyndon B. Johnson Civil Rights Act of 1964 African American history Portal:Human rights Portal:Human... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (7000x4687, 2722 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Civil rights Lyndon B. Johnson Civil Rights Act of 1964 African American history Portal:Human rights Portal:Human... LBJ redirects here. ... Martin Luther King redirects here. ...

Passage in the House of Representatives

The bill was sent to the House of Representatives, and referred to the House Judiciary Committee, chaired by Emmanuel Celler. After a series of hearings on the bill, Celler's committee greatly strengthened the act, adding provisions to ban racial discrimination in employment. The bill was reported out of the Judiciary Committee in November 1963, but was then referred to the Rules Committee, whose chairman, Howard W. Smith, a Democrat from Virginia, indicated his intention to keep the bill bottled up indefinitely. Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... U.S. House Committee on the Judiciary, or (more commonly) the House Judiciary Committee, is a standing committee of the United States House of Representatives. ... Emanuel Celler (May 6, 1888 January 15, 1981) was a congressman in the United States House of Representatives from New York from 1923 until 1973. ... The Committee on Rules, or (more commonly) Rules Committee, is a committee of the United States House of Representatives. ... Howard W. Smith (February 2, 1883—October 3, 1976), U.S. Congressman from Virginia, was a leader of the Conservative coalition. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


It was at this point that President Kennedy was assassinated. The new president, Lyndon Johnson, utilized his experience in parliamentary politics and the bully pulpit he wielded as president in support of the bill. Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ...


Because of Smith's stalling of the bill in the Rules Committee, Celler filed a petition to discharge the bill from the Committee. Only if a majority of members signed the discharge petition, the bill would move directly to the House floor without consideration by advocates. Initially Johnson had a difficult time acquiring the signatures necessary, as even many congressmen who supported the civil rights bill itself were cautious about violating House procedure with the discharge petition. By the time of the 1963 winter recess, fifty signatures were still wanting. For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ...


On the return from the winter recess, however, matters took a significant turn. The President's public advocacy of the Act had made a difference of opinion in congressmen's home districts, and soon it became apparent that the petition would acquire the necessary signatures. To prevent the humiliation of the success of the petition, Chairman Smith allowed the bill to pass through the Rules Committee.


The bill was brought to a vote in the House on February 10, 1964, and passed by a vote of 290 to 130, and sent to the Senate. is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ...


Passage in the Senate

Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X at the United States Capitol on March 26, 1964. Both men had come to hear the Senate debate on the bill.

Johnson, who wanted the bill passed as soon as possible, ensured that the bill would be quickly considered by the Senate. Normally, the bill would have been referred to the Senate Judiciary Committee, chaired by Senator James O. Eastland, from Mississippi. Under Eastland's care, it seemed impossible that the bill would reach the Senate floor. Senate Majority Leader Mike Mansfield took a novel approach to prevent the bill from being relegated to Judiciary Committee limbo. Having initially waived a second reading of the bill, which would have led to it being immediately referred to Judiciary, Mansfield gave the bill a second reading on February 26, 1964, and then proposed, in the absence of precedent for instances when a second reading did not immediately follow the first, that the bill bypass the Judiciary Committee and immediately be sent to the Senate floor for debate. Although this parliamentary move led to a brief filibuster, the senators eventually let it pass, preferring to concentrate their resistance on passage of the bill itself. Image File history File links Malcolmxmartinlutherking. ... Image File history File links Malcolmxmartinlutherking. ... Martin Luther King redirects here. ... Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little, also known as Detroit Red and Al-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Omaha, Nebraska, May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965 in New York City) was a Muslim Minister and National Spokesman for the Nation of Islam. ... The United States Capitol is the capitol building that serves as the location for the United States Congress, the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... The U.S. Senate Committee on the Judiciary (informally Senate Judiciary Committee) is a standing committee of the United States Senate, the upper house of the United States Congress. ... James Oliver Eastland (November 28, 1904–February 19, 1986) was an American politician from Mississippi who served in the U.S. Senate briefly in 1941 and again from 1943 to 1978. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... A Senate Majority Leader is a politician within a Senate who leads the majority party, or majority coalition, of sitting senators. ... Mike Mansfield, Congressional portrait This article describes the American politician. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... As a form of obstructionism in a legislature or other decision making body, a filibuster is an attempt to extend debate upon a proposal in order to delay or completely prevent a vote on its passage. ...


The bill came before the full Senate for debate on March 30, 1964 and the "Southern Bloc" of southern Senators led by Richard Russel (D-GA) launched a filibuster to prevent it's passage. Said Russell "We will resist to the bitter end any measure or any movement which would have a tendency to bring about social equality and intermingling and amalgamation of the races in our (Southern) states."[3] is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Richard Brevard Russell, Jr. ...


After 54 days of filibuster, Senators Everett Dirksen (R-IL), Thomas Kuchel (R-CA), Hubert Humphrey (D-MN), and Mike Mansfield (D-MT) introduced a substitute bill that they hoped would attract enough Republican votes to end the filibuster. The compromise bill was weaker than the House version in regards to government power to regulate the conduct of private business, but it was not so weak as to cause the House to reconsider the legislation.[4] Everett McKinley Dirksen Everett McKinley Dirksen (January 4, 1896 – September 7, 1969) was a Republican U.S. Congressman and Senator from Illinois. ... For other uses, see Hubert Humphrey (disambiguation). ...


On the morning of June 10, 1964, Senator Robert Byrd (D-W.Va.) completed an address that he had begun 14 hours and 13 minutes earlier opposing the legislation. Until then, the measure had occupied the Senate for 57 working days, including six Saturdays. A day earlier, Democratic Whip Hubert Humphrey of Minnesota, the bill's manager, concluded he had the 67 votes required at that time to end the debate and end the filibuster. With six wavering senators providing a four-vote victory margin, the final tally stood at 71 to 29. Never in history had the Senate been able to muster enough votes to cut off a filibuster on a civil rights bill. And only once in the 37 years since 1927 had it agreed to cloture for any measure. is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Robert Carlyle Byrd (born November 20, 1917) is the senior United States Senator from West Virginia and a member of the Democratic Party. ...


Shortly thereafter, the substitute (compromise) bill passed the Senate by a vote of 73-27, and quickly passed through the House-Senate conference committee, which adopted the Senate version of the bill. The conference bill was passed by both houses of Congress, and was signed into law by President Johnson on July 2, 1964. Legend has it that as he put down his pen Johnson told an aide, "We have lost the South for a generation."[5] A conference committee in the United States Congress is a committee appointed by the members of the upper and lower houses to resolve disagreements on a bill passed in different versions of each House. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ...


Vote totals

Totals are in "Yes-No" format:

  • The original House version: 290-130   (69%-31%)
  • The Senate version: 73-27   (73%-27%)
  • The Senate version, as voted on by the House: 289-126   (70%-30%)

By party

The original House version:[6]

  • Democratic Party: 152-96   (61%-39%)
  • Republican Party: 138-34   (80%-20%)

The Senate version:[6]

  • Democratic Party: 46-21   (69%-31%)
  • Republican Party: 27-6   (82%-18%)

The Senate version, voted on by the House:[6]

  • Democratic Party: 153-91   (63%-37%)
  • Republican Party: 136-35   (80%-20%)

By party and region

Note : "Southern", as used in this section, refers to members of Congress from the eleven states that made up the Confederate States of America in the American Civil War. "Northern" refers to members from the other 39 states, regardless of the geographic location of those states. Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...


The original House version:

  • Southern Democrats: 7-87   (7%-93%)
  • Southern Republicans: 0-10   (0%-100%)
  • Northern Democrats: 145-9   (94%-6%)
  • Northern Republicans: 138-24   (85%-15%)

The Senate version:

Texas politician Ralph Yarborough Ralph Webster Yarborough (June 8, 1903 – January 27, 1996) was a Texas Democratic politician who served in the United States Senate (1957 until 1971) and was a leader of the progressive or liberal wing of the Democratic Party in Texas in his many races for statewide... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... John Tower John Goodwin Tower (September 29, 1925 – April 5, 1991) was the first Republican United States senator from Texas since the Reconstruction after the Civil War. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Robert Carlyle Byrd (born November 20, 1917) is the senior United States Senator from West Virginia and a member of the Democratic Party. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Demonym West Virginian Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st in the US  - Total 24,230 sq mi (62,755 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... Bourke Blakemore Hickenlooper ( July 21, 1896–September 4, 1971), was a member of the Republican Party, first elected to statewide office in Iowa as lieutenant governor, serving from 1939 to 1942 and then as Governor from 1943 to 1944. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for president in the 1964 election. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... Edwin Leard Mechem (2 July 1912 - 27 November 2002), Republican politician from New Mexico, four term Governor of New Mexico 1951-1954, 1957-1958, and 1961-1962, United States Senator from New Mexico 1962 to 1964, He voted against the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Yet was made a Federal... Official language(s) None Spoken language(s) English 68. ... Milward Lee Simpson (November 12, 1897 – June 10, 1993) was an American politician who served as a U.S. Senator and as governor of Wyoming. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... Norris H. Cotton (May 11, 1900 February 24, 1989) was an American politician from the state of New Hampshire. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ...

Women's rights

The prohibition on sex discrimination was added by Howard W. Smith, a powerful Virginian Democrat who chaired the House Rules Committee and had strongly opposed the Civil Rights Act. The addition of "sex" to title VII is commonly described as a cynical attempt to defeat the bill by inserting objectionable amendments.[7][8] Representative Carl Elliott of Alabama later claimed, "Smith didn't give a damn about women's rights...he was trying to knock off votes either then or down the line because there was always a hard core of men who didn't favor women's rights," [9] and the Congressional Record records that Smith was greeted by laughter when he introduced the amendment.[10] Howard W. Smith (February 2, 1883—October 3, 1976), U.S. Congressman from Virginia, was a leader of the Conservative coalition. ... Carl Atwood Elliott (1913-1999) was a U.S. Congressman from the state of Alabama. ... The Congressional Record is the official record of the proceedings and debates of the United States Congress. ...


Smith nevertheless claimed that he sincerely supported the amendment and made serious arguments in its favor. [10] The claim was not entirely ungrounded, as Smith had long been close to Alice Paul, a women's rights activist who urged him to include sex as a protected category. The amendment had been forcefully promoted by the National Woman's Party and its allies in Congress, who had no desire to scuttle the Civil Rights Act.[7] Thus, as William Rehnquist explained in Meritor Savings Bank v. Vinson, “The prohibition against discrimination based on sex was added to Title VII at the last minute on the floor of the House of Representatives…the bill quickly passed as amended, and we are left with little legislative history to guide us in interpreting the Act’s prohibition against discrimination based on ‘sex.’” (477 U.S. 57, 63-64) Alice Stokes Paul (January 11, 1885 – July 9, 1977) was an American suffragist leader. ... William Hubbs Rehnquist (October 1, 1924 – September 3, 2005) was an American lawyer, jurist, and a political figure who served as an Associate Justice on the Supreme Court of the United States and later as the Chief Justice of the United States. ...


Political repercussions

President Johnson speaks to a television camera at the signing of the Civil Rights Act.
President Johnson speaks to a television camera at the signing of the Civil Rights Act.

The bill divided and engendered a long-term change in the demographics of both parties. President Johnson realized that supporting this bill would risk losing the South's overwhelming support of the Democratic Party. As Vice President, Johnson pushed the Kennedy administration to introduce civil rights legislation, telling Kennedy aide Ted Sorensen that "I know the risks are great and we might lose the South, but those sorts of states may be lost anyway."[11] Senator Richard Russell, Jr. warned President Johnson that his strong support for the civil rights bill "will not only cost you the South, it will cost you the election." [12] The South indeed started to vote increasingly Republican after 1964. However, political scientists Richard Johnston and Byron Schafer have argued that this development was based more on economics than on race. [13] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 619 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1217 × 1178 pixel, file size: 437 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 619 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1217 × 1178 pixel, file size: 437 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Theodore Chaikin Ted Sorensen (b. ... Richard Brevard Russell, Jr. ... Richard Frank Johnston (born August 8, 1946) is a retired Canadian politician, educator and administrator. ...


Although majorities in both parties voted for the bill, there were notable exceptions. Republican senator Barry Goldwater of Arizona voted against the bill, remarking, "You can't legislate morality." Goldwater had supported previous attempts to pass Civil Rights legislation in 1957 and 1960. The reason for his opposition to the 1964 bill was Title II, which he viewed as a violation of individual liberty. Most Democrats from the Southern states opposed the bill, including Senators Albert Gore Sr. (D-TN), J. William Fulbright (D-AR), and Robert Byrd (D-WV). Goldwater went on to secure his party's nomination for the presidency, and in the ensuing election, Goldwater won only Arizona and five of the Deep South states, two of which (Alabama and Mississippi) had not voted Republican since the disputed presidential election of 1876. GOP redirects here. ... Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for president in the 1964 election. ... Albert Gore Sr. ... James William Fulbright (April 9, 1905 – February 9, 1995) was a United States Senator representing Arkansas from 1945 to 1975. ... Robert Carlyle Byrd (born November 20, 1917) is the senior United States Senator from West Virginia and a member of the Democratic Party. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... The states in dark red comprise the Deep South. ... The United States presidential election of 1876 was one of the most disputed and intense presidential elections in American history. ...


Major features of the Civil Rights Act of 1964

(The full text of the Act is available online.)


Title I

Barred unequal application of voter registration requirements, but did not abolish literacy tests sometimes used to disqualify African Americans and poor white voters.

"It shall be the duty of the judge designated pursuant to this section to assign the case for hearing at the earliest practicable date and to cause the case to be in every way expedited."'

But it did not eliminate literacy tests, which were one of the main methods used to exclude Black voters in the South, nor did it address economic retaliation, police repression, or physical violence against nonwhite voters. While the Act did require that voting rules and procedures be applied equally to all races, it failed to challenge the fundamental concept of voter "qualification." That is, it accepted the idea that citizens do not have an automatic right to vote but rather might have to meet some standard beyond citizenship.[14]


Title II

Outlawed discrimination in hotels, motels, restaurants, theaters, and all other public accommodations engaged in interstate commerce; exempted private clubs without defining the term "private."


Title III

Prohibited state and municipal governments from denying access to public facilities on grounds of race, religion, or ethnicity.


Title IV

Encouraged the desegregation of public schools and authorized the U.S. Attorney General to file suits to enforce said act.


Title VI

Prevented discrimination by government agencies that receive federal funding. If an agency is found in violation of Title VI, that agency can lose its federal funding.


Title VII

Title VII of the Act, codified as Subchapter VI of Chapter 21 of 42 U.S.C. § 2000e [2] et seq., prohibits discrimination by covered employers on the basis of race, color, religion, sex or national origin (see 42 U.S.C. § 2000e-2[15]). Same sex harassment is prohibited by Title VII (Oncale v. Sundowner Offshore Services, Inc., 523 U.S. 75 (1998), 118 S.Ct. 998). Title 42 of the United States Code outlines the role of Public Health and Social Welfare in the United States Code. ... Title 42 of the United States Code outlines the role of Public Health and Social Welfare in the United States Code. ...


Title VII also prohibits discrimination against an individual because of his or her association with another individual of a particular race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. An employer cannot discriminate against a person because of his interracial association with another, such as by an interracial marriage (Parr v. Woodmen of the World Life Insurance Company, 791 F.2d 888 (11th Cir. 1986)).


Notwithstanding the general prohibition of employment discrimination, covered employers are allowed to discriminate on the basis of religion, sex or national origin (but not based on color or race) where religion, sex, or national origin is a bona fide occupational qualification reasonably necessary to the normal operation of that particular business or enterprise. In order to prove the Bona Fide Occupational Qualifications defense, an employer must prove three elements: a direct relationship between sex and the ability to perform the duties of the job, the BFOQ relates to the "essence" or "central mission of the employer's business," and there is no less-restrictive or reasonable alternative (Automobile Workers v. Johnson Controls, Inc., 499 U.S. 187 (1991) 111 S.Ct. 1196). The Bona Fide Occupational Qualification exception is an extremely narrow exception to the general prohibition of discrimination based on sex (Dothard v. Rawlinson, 433 U.S. 321 (1977) 97 S.Ct. 2720). An employer or customer's preference for an individual of a particular religion is not sufficient to establish a Bona Fide Occupational Qualification (Equal Employment Opportunity Commission v. Kamehameha School - Bishop Estate, 990 F.2d 458 (9th Cir. 1993)).


Title VII allows for any employer, labor organization, joint labor-management committee, or employment agency to bypass the "unlawful employment practice" for any person involved with the Communist Party of the United States or of any other organization required to register as a Communist-action or Communist-front organization by final order of the Subversive Activities Control Board pursuant to the Subversive Activities Control Act of 1950. The Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA) is one of several Marxist-Leninist groups in the United States. ...


There are partial and whole exceptions to Title VII for four types of employers:

  • Federal government; (Comment: The proscriptions against employment discrimination under Title VII are now applicable to the federal government under 42 U.S.C. Section 2000e-16)
  • Indian Tribes
  • Religious groups performing work connected to the group's activities, including associated education institutions;
  • Bona fide nonprofit private membership organizations.

The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) as well as certain state fair employment practices agencies (FEPAs) enforce Title VII (see 42 U.S.C. § 2000e-4[15]). The EEOC and state FEPAs investigate, mediate, and may file lawsuits on behalf of employees. Every state, except Arkansas and Alabama maintains a state FEPA (see EEOC and state FEPA directory ). Title VII also provides that an individual can bring a private lawsuit. An individual must file a complaint of discrimination with the EEOC within 180 days of learning of the discrimination or the individual may lose the right to file a lawsuit. Title VII only applies to employers who employ 15 or more employees for more than 19 weeks in the current or preceding calendar year. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, or EEOC, is a United States federal agency tasked with ending employment discrimination in the United States. ... Title 42 of the United States Code outlines the role of Public Health and Social Welfare in the United States Code. ...


In the late 1970s courts began holding that sexual harassment is also prohibited under the Act. Chrapliwy v. Uniroyal is a notable Title VII case relating to sexual harassment that was decided in favor of the plaintiffs. In 1986 the Supreme Court held in Meritor Savings Bank v. Vinson, 477 U.S. 57 (1986), that sexual harassment is sex discrimination and is prohibited by Title VII. Title VII has been supplemented with legislation prohibiting pregnancy, age, and disability discrimination (See Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978, Age Discrimination in Employment Act, Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990). Sexual harassment is harassment or unwelcome attention of a sexual nature. ... Chrapliwy v. ... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... Meritor Savings Bank v. ... Pregnancy discrimination occurs when expectant women are fired, not hired, or otherwise discriminated against due to their pregnancy or intention to become pregnant. ... PWNED!!! ... The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) is the short title of United States Public Law 101-336, 104 Stat. ...


Title VIII

Required compilation of voter-registration and voting data in geographic areas specified by the Commission on Civil Rights.


Title IX

Made it easier to move civil rights cases from state courts with segregationist judges and all-white juries to federal court. This was of crucial importanct to civil rights activists who could not get a fair trial in state courts.


Title X

Established the Community Relations Service, tasked with assisting in community disputes involving claims of discrimination to people of color.


References

  • Branch, Taylor. Pillar of Fire: America in the King Years 1963-65 (1999)
  • Brauer, Carl M., "Women Activists, Southern Conservatives, and the Prohibition of Sexual Discrimination in Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act", 49 Journal of Southern History, February 1983
  • Burstein, Paul, Discrimination, Jobs and Politics: The Struggle for Equal Employment Opportunity in the United States since the New Deal, University of Chicago Press, 1985.
  • Dallek, Robert. Flawed Giant: Lyndon Johnson and His Times, 1961-1975 (1998)
  • Finley, Keith M. "Southern Opposition to Civil Rights in the United States Senate: A Tactical and Ideological Analysis, 1938-1965", Louisiana State University PhD dissertation, 2003. online version
  • Freeman, Jo. "How 'Sex' Got Into Title VII: Persistent Opportunism as a Maker of Public Policy" Law and Inequality: A Journal of Theory and Practice, Vol. 9, No. 2, March 1991, pp. 163-184. online version
  • Graham, Hugh, The Civil Rights Era: Origins and Development of National Policy, 1960-1972, Oxford U P, 1990.
  • Harrison, Cynthia, On Account of Sex: The Politics of Women's Issues 1945-1968, U. California Press, 1988.
  • Loevy, Robert D. To End All Segregation: The Politics of the Passage Of The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (1990)
  • Loevy, Robert D. ed; The Civil Rights Act of 1964: The Passage of the Law That Ended Racial Segregation State University of New York Press. (1997)
  • Loevy, Robert D. "A Brief History of the Civil Rights Act OF 1964," in David C. Kozak and Kenneth N. Ciboski, ed., The American Presidency (Chicago, IL: Nelson Hall, 1985), pp. 411-419. online version
  • Rodriguez, Daniel B. and Barry R. Weingast; "The Positive Political Theory of Legislative History: New Perspectives on the 1964 Civil Rights Act and Its Interpretation" ';University of Pennsylvania Law Review, Vol. 151. (2003)
  • Whalen, Charles and Barbara Whalen, The Longest Debate: A Legislative History of the 1964 Civil Rights Act Cabin John, Maryland: Seven Locks Press. (1985).
  • Woods, Randall. LBJ: Architect of American Ambition (2006) ch 22.
  • Civil Rights bill.
  • Text of Civil Rights Act of 1964 - Title VII - 42 US Code Chapter 21
  • MLK's famous speech, plus background including Civil Rights bill.
  • 1963 March on Washington, civil rights including JFK death date.
  • Presidency book excerpt, the legislative history of this bill as it became an Act.
  • Background facts including enactment date.
  • Directory of EEOC offices, addresses, and hours of operation.

For other uses, see LSU. Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, generally known as Louisiana State University or LSU, is a public, coeducational university located in Baton Rouge, Louisiana and the main campus of the Louisiana State University System. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Transcript from the JFK library.
  2. ^ Civil Rights Act Passes in the House ~ Civil Rights Movement Veterans
  3. ^ Civil Rights Act of 1964
  4. ^ Civil Rights Act — Battle in the Senate ~ Civil Rights Movement Veterans
  5. ^ Risen, Clay. "How the South was won", The Boston Globe, 2006-03-05. Retrieved on 2007-02-11. 
  6. ^ a b c King, Desmond (1995). Separate and Unequal: Black Americans and the US Federal Government, 311. 
  7. ^ a b Freeman, Jo. "How 'Sex' Got Into Title VII: Persistent Opportunism as a Maker of Public Policy," Law and Inequality: A Journal of Theory and Practice, Vol. 9, No. 2, March 1991, pp. 163-184. online version
  8. ^ Ted Gittinger and Allen Fisher, LBJ Champions the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Part 2, Prologue Magazine, The National Archives, Summer 2004, Vol. 36, No. 2 ("Certainly Smith hoped that such a divisive issue would torpedo the civil rights bill, if not in the House, then in the Senate.")
  9. ^ Dierenfield , Bruce J. "Conservative Outrage: the Defeat in 1966 of Representative Howard W. Smith of Virginia." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 1981 89 (2): p 194
  10. ^ a b Gold, Michael Evan. A Tale of Two Amendments: The Reasons Congress Added Sex to Title VII and Their Implication for the Issue of Comparable Worth. Faculty Publications - Collective Bargaining, Labor Law, and Labor History. Cornell, 1981 [1]
  11. ^ Nick Kotz, Judgment Days: Lyndon Baines Johnson, Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Laws that Changed America (New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2005), 61.
  12. ^ Taylor Branch, Pillar of Fire, (New York: Simon and Schuster Paperbacks, 1998), 187.
  13. ^ Richard Johnston and Byron Shafer, The End of Southern Exceptionalism, (Harvard, 2006).
  14. ^ Voting Rights ~ Civil Rights Movement Veterans
  15. ^ a b Civil Rights Act of 1964 - CRA - Title VII - Equal Employment Opportunities - 42 US Code Chapter 21 | finduslaw

The Boston Globe (and Boston Sunday Globe) is the most widely circulated daily newspaper in Boston, Massachusetts and New England. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the day. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Affirmative action is a policy or a program of giving preferential treatment to certain designated groups allegedly seeking to redress discrimination or bias through active measures, as in education and employment. ... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... Holding Segregation of students in public schools violates the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, because separate facilities are inherently unequal. ... Holding The Court held that while affirmative action systems are constitutional, a quota system based on race is unconstitutional. ... Holding University of Michigan Law School admissions program that gave special consideration for being a certain racial minority did not violate the Fourteenth Amendment. ... Holding A state universitys admission policy violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment because its ranking system gave an automatic point increase to all racial minorities rather than making individual determinations. ... Holding The student assignment plan of Seattle Public Schools and Jefferson County Public Schools does not meet the narrowly tailored and compelling interest requirements for a race-based assignment plan because it is used only to achieve racial balance. ... An Act of Vaginapenis is a bill or resolution adopted by both houses of the United States Congress to which one of the following events has happened: Acceptance by the President of the United States, Inaction by the President after ten days from reception (excluding Sundays) while the Congress is... The presidential seal was used by Rutherford B. Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... Congressman John Bingham of Ohio was the principal framer of the Equal Protection Clause. ... Amendment XIV in the National Archives The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (Amendment XIV) is one of the post-Civil War amendments (known as the Reconstruction Amendments), first intended to secure rights for former slaves. ... Executive Order 10925 was signed by President John F. Kennedy on March 6, 1961 to establishes the Presidents Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity. ... Executive Order 11246, signed by President Lyndon B. Johnson on September 24, 1965 required Equal Employment Opportunity. ... initiative, see Initiative (disambiguation). ... Proposition 209 was a 1996 California ballot proposition which amended the state constitution to prohibit public institutions from discriminating on the basis of race, sex, or ethnicity. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Initiative 200 was a Washington State initiative that sought to prohibit public institutions from discriminating or granting preferential treatment on the basis of race, sex, color, ethnicity, or national origin. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... MCRIs executive director Jennifer Gratz The Michigan Civil Rights Initiative (MCRI), or Proposal 2 (Michigan 06-2), was a ballot initiative in the U.S. state of Michigan that passed into Michigan Constitutional law by a 58% to 42% margin on November 7, 2006, according to results officially certified... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Arthur Fletcher (1924–July 12, 2005) was an American government official, widely referred to as the father of affirmative action. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Civil Rights Act of 1991 (2946 words)
The text of the sections of the CRA that amend the laws enforced by EEOC (i.e., Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967, the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990) is not printed below.
An Act To amend the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to strengthen and improve Federal civil rights laws, to provide for damages in cases of intentional employment discrimination, to clarify provisions regarding disparate impact actions, and for other purposes.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, This Act may be cited as the "Civil Rights Act of 1991".
Civil rights - Wex (810 words)
Examples of civil rights are freedom of speech, press, assembly, the right to vote, freedom from involuntary servitude, and the right to equality in public places.
Discrimination occurs when the civil rights of an individual are denied or interfered with because of their membership in a particular group or class.
The existence of civil rights and liberties are recognized internationally by numerous agreements and declarations.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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