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Encyclopedia > Civil Rights Act of 1957

The Civil Rights Act of 1957, primarily a voting rights bill, was the first civil rights legislation enacted in the United States since Reconstruction. It was proposed by Congress to President Dwight Eisenhower. In United States History, there have been three similar, but somewhat separate, movements for voting rights. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ...

Contents

History and passage

Early liberal senators, led by Paul Douglas, had long hoped for a bill guaranteeing open housing, accommodations, public transit, restaurants, etc. since the early 1950s, mainly in response to growing integrationist policies from the military in World War II and stronger demands for equal rights from minority groups. The senators desired these minority rights to be protected by the attorney general and Justice Department of the United States, and verdicts for infringement to be handed out by federal judges, not historically all-white juries. American liberalism—that is, liberalism in the United States of America—is a broad political and philosophical mindset, favoring individual liberty, and opposing restrictions on liberty, whether they come from established religion, from government regulation, from the existing class structure, or from multi-national corporations. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Politics Portal      The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the bicameral United States Congress, the... This article is about the economist and senator; Paul Douglas. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The definition of a minority group can vary, depending on specific context, but generally refers to either a sociological sub-group that does not form either a majority or a plurality of the total population, or a group that, while not necessarily a numerical minority, is disadvantaged or otherwise has... In most common law jurisdictions, the Attorney General is the main legal adviser to the government, and in some jurisdictions may in addition have executive responsibility for law enforcement or responsibility for public prosecutions. ... The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is a Cabinet department in the United States government designed to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the law and to ensure fair and impartial administration of justice for all Americans. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


During the early 1950s, most Southern senators were in obvious opposition to a bill that promoted such sweeping change, owing to the beliefs and desires of their constituencies. The early demands of Northern senators encompassed demands for voting rights (the core of the bill), along with the ability of the federal judiciary to rule on infringements of the law. This latter portion of the bill gave it the so-called teeth, and was perhaps the portion of the bill most despised by the Southern members of the Senate. This does not cite any references or sources. ...


However, by 1957, many Southern senators were willing to see a weaker voting rights bill passed. This was largely in an effort to quell the desires of minorities and integrationists, and to preserve the Democratic majority in the Senate at that time (through capturing of the integrationist vote while still maintaining a stranglehold on Southern votes). Along with the majority of Southern senators who allowed the bill for that reason, there were some (such as Harry Byrd) who were of the opinion that voting for minorities should be federally protected, while others (such as Richard Russell) wished to propel Senate leader Lyndon Johnson to greater power, and for these reasons were supporters of a bill protecting (albeit weak) voting rights in the late 1950s. Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Harry Flood Byrd, Sr. ... Richard Brevard Russell, Jr. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


During this time, many members of the Senate, including Johnson, did not think that a wide-ranging bill could possibly pass the Senate without threat of or an actual filibuster, and owing to his presidential ambitions, Senator Johnson did not seek a strong civil rights bill in 1957. This was due in part to strong opposition from Southern senators, who had successfully contained the possibility of effective civil rights legislation since the 1870s and the end of Reconstruction. As a form of obstructionism in a legislature or other decision making body, a filibuster is an attempt to extend debate upon a proposal in order to delay or completely prevent a vote on its passage. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... // The invention of the telephone (1876) by Alexander Graham Bell. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


A Senate impasse developed when the vote for the bill with the federal judicial enforcement was being prepared. Aided by senators from the northwestern United States, who voted with the South because the South had agreed to vote for the Snake River Dam, the Southern senators sustained a filibuster for a few weeks. However, once moderate Northern members of the Senate limited the bill to voting rights and relented on jury trials, when the sentence exceeded a certain level, the South yielded and the filibuster was dropped.


Even so, after the bill had been limited to voting rights with the jury trial amendment, and the Southern majority had ended its filibuster, Senator Strom Thurmond remained a stronghold against the bill. His filibuster of the bill lasted 24 hours, 18 minutes, the United States Senate record for longest uninterrupted speech. After Thurmond finished speaking, the vote was allowed, and the Civil Rights Act of 1957 passed the Senate, and was soon signed by President Eisenhower to become law. James Strom Thurmond (December 5, 1902 – June 26, 2003) was an American politician who served as governor of South Carolina and as a United States Senator representing that state. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Politics Portal      The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the bicameral United States Congress, the... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American General and politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ...


Content and legacy

The Civil Rights Act of 1957 was largely ineffective in its enforcement and its scope. Statistical history notes that by 1960, slightly fewer blacks were voting in the South than had been in 1956. It did however open the door to later legislation that was effective in securing voting rights as well as ending legal segregation and providing housing rights. In particular, it established the Assistant Attorney General for Civil Rights as a presidential appointee. Subsequently, on December 9, 1957, the Civil Rights Division was established by order of Attorney General William P. Rogers, giving the Assistant Attorney General for Civil Rights a distinct division to command. Previously, civil rights lawyers enforced Reconstruction-era laws from within the Criminal Division. Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The U.S. Department of Justice Civil Rights Division is the institution within the federal government responsible for enforcing federal statutes prohibiting discrimination on the basis of race, sex, disability, religion, and national origin. ... The U.S. Department of Justice Criminal Division develops, enforces, and supervises the application of all federal criminal laws in the United States, except those specifically assigned to other divisions. ...


The bill provided guarantees for African-American voting rights in the South. It did so, in part, by establishing a voting-referee system. Federal district judges were charged with appointing referees to enroll voters in areas where the government had noted local authorities denying voting rights in an ammendum to the Act made in April 1960. Other changes made in 1960 required local authorities to maintain voting records for up to twenty two months, in order for federal investigators to determine if any of the law had been violated. In addition, the act contained provisions making it illegal to interfere with federal court orders by threats of force (to subdue mob violence relating to then-recent school desegregation disputes. ) The act also called for the creation of the Civil Rights Commission to investigate issues regarding race relations. Desegregation is the process of ending racial segregation, most commonly used in reference to the United States. ... The first Presidents Committee on Civil Rights was established in 1957 by the United States President Dwight Eisenhower to investigate race relations. ...


See also

President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964. ... The Civil Rights Act of 1960 was a United States federal law that established federal inspection of local voter registration polls and introduced penalties for anyone who obstructed someones attempt to register to vote or actually vote. ... The United States Voting Rights Act of 1965 outlawed requiring would-be voters to take literacy tests and provided for federal registration of African American voters in areas that had less than 50% of eligible voters registered. ... President Johnson signing the Civil Rights Act of 1968 On April 11, 1968, President Lyndon Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1968 (also known as CRA 68), which was meant as a follow-up to the Civil Rights Act of 1964. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ... A Racial Program for the Twentieth Century (occasionally A Radical Program for the Twentieth Century) is an anti-Semitic forgery whose existence was alleged by Eustace Mullins in It is often cited as proof of a Jewish and/or Communist plot against white Americans, in much the same way as... The Southern Manifesto was a document written in 1956 by legislators in the United States Congress opposed to racial integration in public places. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Civil Rights Act - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (321 words)
Civil Rights Act of 1866 aimed to buttress Civil Rights Laws to protect freedmen and to grant full citizenship to those born on U.S. soil except Indians.
Civil Rights Act of 1871 was also known at the time as the "Ku Klux Klan Act" because one of main reasons for its passage was to protect southern fls from the KKK by providing a civil remedy for abuses then being committed in the south.
Civil Rights Act of 1991 provided for the right to trial by jury on discrimination claims and introduced the possibility of emotional distress damages, while limiting the amount that a jury could award.
CongressLink - A Resource for Teachers Providing Information About the U.S. Congress (8013 words)
Although civil rights had a long history as a political and legislative issue, the 1960s marked a period of intense activity by the federal government to protect minority rights.
When Kennedy did act in June 1963 to propose a civil rights bill, it was because the climate of opinion and the political situation forced him to act.
When an issue is as important and controversial as civil rights was in 1963, the final bill may reflect the ideas of individual citizens, organized groups, members and committees of Congress, congressional staff, and the executive branch.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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