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Encyclopedia > Civil Engineering
The Petronas Twin Towers, designed by Thornton-Tomasetti and Ranhill Bersekutu Sdn Bhd engineers, and Cesar Pelli, were the world's tallest buildings from 1998 to 2004.
The Petronas Twin Towers, designed by Thornton-Tomasetti and Ranhill Bersekutu Sdn Bhd engineers, and Cesar Pelli, were the world's tallest buildings from 1998 to 2004.

Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction and maintenance of the physical and natural built environment, including works such as bridges, roads, canals, dams and buildings.[1][2][3] Civil engineering is the oldest engineering discipline after military engineering,[4] and it was defined to distinguish it from military engineering.[5] It is traditionally broken into several sub-disciplines including municipal engineering, environmental engineering, geotechnical engineering, structural engineering, transportation engineering, wind engineering, geographic information system, water resources engineering, materials engineering, coastal engineering,[4] surveying, and construction engineering.[6] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1232x1840, 283 KB) Español Descripción: Imagen nocturna de las Torres Petronas en Kula Lumpur. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1232x1840, 283 KB) Español Descripción: Imagen nocturna de las Torres Petronas en Kula Lumpur. ... The Petronas Twin Towers (also known as the Petronas Towers or Twin Towers), in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia are the worlds tallest twin buildings. ... Pellis Petronas Twin Tower César Pelli (born October 12, 1926 in Tucumán, Argentina) is a noted architect known for designing some of the worlds tallest buildings and other major urban landmarks. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 568 pixelsFull resolution (2315 × 1644 pixel, file size: 882 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Civil engineering History of the British... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 568 pixelsFull resolution (2315 × 1644 pixel, file size: 882 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Civil engineering History of the British... The Falkirk Wheel The Falkirk Wheel, named after the nearby town of Falkirk in central Scotland, is a rotating boat lift connecting the Forth and Clyde Canal with the Union Canal. ... This article is about the country. ... Professional Engineer is the term for registered or licensed engineers in some countries, including the United States, and Canada who are permitted to offer their professional services directly to the public. ... This article is about the structure. ... For other uses, see Road (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Canal (disambiguation). ... This article is about structures for water impoundment. ... Old Executive Office Building, Washington D.C. Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong, China In architecture, construction, engineering and real estate development the word building may refer to one of the following: Any man-made structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or continuous occupancy, or An... Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying scientific knowledge and utilizing natural laws and physical resources in order to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that realize a desired objective and meet specified criteria. ... A military engineer is primarily responsible for the design and construction of offensive, defensive and logistical structures for warfare. ... Environmental engineering[1][2] is the application of science and engineering principles to improve the environment (air, water, and/or land resources), to provide healthy water, air, and land for human habitation and for other organisms, and to remediate polluted sites. ... Bostons Big Dig presented geotechnical challenges in an urban environment. ... Structural engineering is a field of engineering that deals with the design of structural systems with the purpose of supporting and resisting various loads. ... Transport engineering aims to ensure the safe and efficient movement of people and goods. ... Wind Engineering is a field of engineering devoted to the analysis of wind effects on the natural and built environment. ... GIS redirects here. ... Water covers 70% of the Earths surface. ... The Materials Science Tetrahedron, which often also includes Characterization at the center Materials science or Materials Engineering is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. ... This article is about coastal management aimed to prevent erosion and flooding. ... Surveyor at work with a leveling instrument. ... Construction engineering concerns the planning and management of the construction of structures such as highways, bridges, airports, railroads, buildings, dams, and reservoirs. ...

Contents

History of the civil engineering profession

Engineering has been an aspect of life since the beginnings of human existence. Civil engineering might be considered properly commencing between 4000 and 2000 BC in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia when humans started to abandon a nomadic existence, thus causing a need for the construction of shelter. During this time, transportation became increasingly important leading to the development of the wheel and sailing. The construction of Pyramids in Egypt (circa 2700-2500 BC) might be considered the first instances of large structure constructions. Other ancient historic civil engineering constructions include the Parthenon by Iktinos in Ancient Greece (447-438 BC), the Appian Way by Roman engineers (c. 312 BC), and the Great Wall of China by General Meng T'ien under orders from Ch'in Emperor Shih Huang Ti (c. 220 BC).[6] The Romans developed civil structures throughout their empire, including especially aqueducts, insulae, harbours, bridges, dams and roads. Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying scientific knowledge and utilizing natural laws and physical resources in order to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that realize a desired objective and meet specified criteria. ... The pyramids are the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... For the 2006 historical epic set in Kazakhstan, see Nomad (2006 film). ... For other uses, see Wheel (disambiguation). ... The Clipper Ship Flying Cloud off the Needles, Isle of Wight, off the southern English coast. ... A view of the pyramids at Giza from the plateau to the south of the complex. ... The Parthenon west façade For other uses, see Parthenon (disambiguation). ... Iktinos (also Iktious or Ictinus) was an architect active in the mid 5th century BC, who, together with Kallikrates designed the Parthenon (447–432 BC) in Athens, Greece. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... The path of the Via Appia and of the Via Appia Traiana. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Great Wall of China (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally Long wall) or (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally The long wall of 10,000 Li (里)[1]) is a series of stone and earthen fortifications in China, built, rebuilt, and maintained between the 5th century BC and the 16th... Meng Tian (蒙恬) was a general of the Qin Dynasty who distinguished himself against the Xiongnu and the construction of the Great Wall of China. ... The monarch known now as Qin Shi Huang (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Shih-huang) (259 BCE – September 10, 210 BCE),[1] personal name Yíng Zhèng, was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BCE to 221 BCE (officially still under the Zhou Dynasty), and... This article is about the structure aqueduct, for the racecourse see Aqueduct Racetrack. ... Remains of the top floors of an insula near the Capitolium and the Aracoeli in Rome. ... A harbor (or harbour) or haven is a place where ships may shelter from the weather or are stored. ... This article is about the edifice. ...

The Archimedes' screw was operated by hand and could raise water efficiently.
See also: History of structural engineering

Until modern times there was no clear distinction between civil engineering and architecture, and the term engineer and architect were mainly geographical variations referring to the same person, often used interchangeably.[7] In the 18th century, the term civil engineering began to be used to and exchange, and in the construction of ports, harbours, moles, breakwaters and lighthouses, and in the art of distinguish it from military engineering.[5] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Archimedes screw. ... This article is about building architecture. ... For other uses, see Architect (disambiguation). ...


The first self-proclaimed civil engineer was John Smeaton who constructed the Eddystone Lighthouse.[6][4] In 1771 Smeaton and some of his colleagues formed the Smeatonian Society of Civil Engineers, a group of leaders of the profession who met informally over dinner. Though there was evidence of some technical meetings, it was little more than a social society. Portrait of John Smeaton, with the Eddystone Lighthouse in the background John Smeaton, FRS, (June 8, 1724 – October 28, 1792) was a civil engineer – often regarded as the father of civil engineering – responsible for the design of bridges, canals, harbours and lighthouses. ... The Eddystone Lighthouse is situated some 9 miles (15km) South West of Rame Head Cornwall, England on the treacherous Eddystone Rocks 50°10. ...


In 1818 the Institution of Civil Engineers was founded in London, and in 1820 the eminent engineer Thomas Telford became its first president. The institution received a Royal Charter in 1828, formally recognising civil engineering as a profession. Its charter defined civil engineering as:[8] The Institutions headquarters Founded on 2 January 1818, the Institution of Civil Engineers (ICE) is an independent professional association, based in central London, representing civil engineers. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Thomas Telford (August 9, 1757 - September 2, 1834) was born in Westerkirk, Scotland. ...

"...the art of directing the great sources of power in nature for the use and convenience of man, as the means of production and of traffic in states, both for external and internal trade, as applied in the construction of roads, bridges, aqueducts, canals, river navigation and docks for internal intercourse navigation by artificial power for the purposes of commerce, and in the construction and application of machinery, and in the drainage of cities and towns."

The first degree in Civil Engineering in the United States was awarded by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1835.[9] Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, or RPI, is a nonsectarian, coeducational private research university in Troy, New York, a city lying just outside the state capital of Albany. ...


History of the science of civil engineering

Pont du Gard, France, a Roman aqueduct built circa 19 BC.
Pont du Gard, France, a Roman aqueduct built circa 19 BC.

Civil engineering is the application of physical and scientific principles, and its history is intricately linked to advances in understanding of physics and mathematics throughout history. Because civil engineering is a wide ranging profession, including several separate specialized sub-disciplines, its history is linked to knowledge of structures, materials science, geology, soils, hydrology, environment, mechanics and other fields. Pont du Gard, France Image by ChrisO File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Pont du Gard, France Image by ChrisO File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Pont du Gard is an aqueduct in the south of France constructed by the Roman Empire, and located in Vers-Pont-du-Gard near Remoulins, in the Gard département. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... Look up Structure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Materials Science Tetrahedron, which often also includes Characterization at the center Materials science or Materials Engineering is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For other uses, see Soil (disambiguation). ... Water covers 70% of the Earths surface. ... For other uses, see Mechanic (disambiguation). ...


Throughout ancient and medieval history most architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans, such as stone masons and carpenters, rising to the role of master builder. Knowledge was retained in guilds and seldom supplanted by advances. Structures, roads and infrastructure that existed were repetitive, and increases in scale were incremental.[10] An artisan, also called a craftsman,[1] is a skilled manual worker who uses tools and machinery in a particular craft. ... Look up mason in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Carpenter (disambiguation). ... The Master Builder (Norwegian: Bygmester Solness) is a play by Norwegian dramatist Henrik Ibsen. ... A guild is an association of persons of the same trade or pursuits, formed to protect mutual interests and maintain standards of morality or conduct. ...


One of the earliest examples of a scientific approach to physical and mathematical problems applicable to civil engineering is the work of Archimedes in the 3rd century BC, including Archimedes Principle, which underpins our understanding of buoyancy, and practical solutions such as Archimedes' screw. For other uses, see Archimedes (disambiguation). ... In physics, buoyancy is the upward force on an object produced by the surrounding fluid (i. ... Archimedes screw. ...


The civil engineer

The Institution of Civil Engineers headquarters in London
The Institution of Civil Engineers headquarters in London
Main article: Civil engineer

Download high resolution version (2848x2136, 1630 KB)Institution of Civil Engineers Date: 7th April 2004 18:38 Camera: FujiFilm FinePix S7000 Exposure: 1/80 sec. ... Download high resolution version (2848x2136, 1630 KB)Institution of Civil Engineers Date: 7th April 2004 18:38 Camera: FujiFilm FinePix S7000 Exposure: 1/80 sec. ... The Institutions headquarters Founded on 2 January 1818, the Institution of Civil Engineers (ICE) is an independent professional association, based in central London, representing civil engineers. ... A civil engineer is a person who practices civil engineering. ...

Education and licensure

Civil engineers typically possess an academic degree with a major in porno engineering. The length of study for such a degree is usually four or five years and the completed degree is usually designated as a Bachelor of Engineering, though some universities designate the degree as a Bachelor of Science. The degree generally includes units covering physics, mathematics, project management, design and specific topics in civil engineering. Initially such topics cover most, if not all, of the sub-disciplines of civil engineering. Students then choose to specialize in one or more sub-disciplines towards the end of the degree.[11] A degree is any of a wide range of status levels conferred by institutions of higher education, such as universities, normally as the result of successfully completing a program of study. ... Bachelor of Engineering (commonly abbreviated as BE or BEng) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded to a student after three to five years of studying engineering at an accredited university in Australia, Canada, China, Finland, Germany, India, Ireland, Korea, New Zealand, the Netherlands, Nigeria, Pakistan, South Africa, Zimbabwe, the United... B.S. redirects here. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... Project Management is the discipline of organizing and managing resources (e. ... All Saints Chapel in the Cathedral Basilica of St. ...


Graduates can choose to pursue a postgraduate degree such as a Master of Engineering, Master of Science, or a Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering. The Master of Engineering degree may consist of either research, coursework or a mixture of the two. The Doctor of Philosophy consists of a significant research component and is often viewed as the entry point to academia.[12] In the United Kingdom and various other European countries, the Master of Engineering is the minimum acceptable qualification for accreditation by the relevant professional bodies, and is often included as an extra year on the undergraduate engineering degree. A Master of Engineering (M.Eng. ... A masters degree is an academic degree usually awarded for completion of a postgraduate course of one or two years in duration. ... Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. ... This article is about the concept. ... For the virtual learning environment, see CourseWork Course Management System. ... Academia is a collective term for the scientific and cultural community engaged in higher education and research, taken as a whole. ...


In most countries, a Bachelor's degree in engineering represents the first step towards professional certification and the degree program itself is certified by a professional body. After completing a certified degree program the engineer must satisfy a range of requirements (including work experience and exam requirements) before being certified. Once certified, the engineer is designated the title of Professional Engineer (in the United States, Canada and South Africa), Chartered Engineer (in most Commonwealth countries), Chartered Professional Engineer (in Australia and New Zealand), or European Engineer (in much of the European Union). There are international engineering agreements between relevant pressional bodies which are designed to allow engineers to practice across international borders. A professional certification, trade certification, or professional designation (often called simply certification or qualification) is a designation earned by a person to assure that he/she is qualified to perform a job or task. ... A professional body or professional organization is an organisation, usually non-profit, that exists to further a particular profession, to protect both the public interest and the interests of professionals. ... Professional Engineer is the term for registered or licensed engineers in some countries, including the United States, and Canada who are permitted to offer their professional services directly to the public. ... In the United Kingdom, a chartered engineer is a professional engineer registered with Engineering Council UK (the British regulatory body for engineers). ... For other uses, see Commonwealth (disambiguation). ... Chartered engineer is a professional qualification in Engineering (not a degree) offered by professional associations with a Royal Charter from the British monarchy similar to the Professional Engineer in other countries. ... European Engineer (Eur Ing) is an international professional qualification title for engineers used in many European countries. ...


The advantages of certification vary depending upon location. For example, in the United States and Canada "only a licensed engineer may prepare, sign and seal, and submit engineering plans and drawings to a public authority for approval, or seal engineering work for public and private clients.".[13] This requirement is enforced by state and provincial legislation such as Quebec's Engineers Act.[14] In other countries, no such legislation exists. In Australia, state licensing of engineers is limited to the state of Queensland. Practically all certifying bodies maintain a code of ethics that they expect all members to abide by or risk expulsion.[15] In this way, these organizations play an important role in maintaining ethical standards for the profession. Even in jurisdictions where certification has little or no legal bearing on work, engineers are subject to contract law. In cases where an engineer's work fails he or she may be subject to the tort of negligence and, in extreme cases, the charge of criminal negligence.[citation needed] An engineer's work must also comply with numerous other rules and regulations such as building codes and legislation pertaining to environmental law. This article is about the Canadian province. ... Slogan or Nickname: Sunshine State, Smart State Motto(s): Audax at Fidelis (Bold but Faithful) Other Australian states and territories Capital Brisbane Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Quentin Bryce Premier Anna Bligh (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 28  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $158,506 (3rd... This article is about a Christian Rock band. ... A contract is any promise or set of promises made by one party to another for the breach of which the law provides a remedy. ... Negligence is a legal concept usually used to achieve compensation for injuries (not accidents). ... Criminal negligence, in the realm of criminal common law, is a legal term of art for a state of mind which is careless, inattentive, neglectful, willfully blind, or reckless; it is the mens rea part of a crime which, if occurring simultaneously with the actus reus, gives rise to criminal... A building code is a set of laws that specify how buildings should be constructed. ... Environmental law is a body of law, which is a system of complex and interlocking statutes, common law, treaties, conventions, regulations and policies which seeks to protect the natural environment which may be affected, impacted or endangered by human activities. ...


Careers

There is no one typical career path for civil engineers. Most engineering graduates start with jobs of low responsibility, and as they prove their competence, they are given more and more responsible tasks, but within each subfield of civil engineering, and even within different segments of the market within each branch, the details of a career path can vary. In some fields and firms, entry-level engineers are put to work primarily monitoring construction in the field, serving as the "eyes and ears" of more senior design engineers; while in other areas, entry-level engineers end up performing the more routine tasks of analysis or design and interpretation. More senior engineers can move into doing more complex analysis or design work, or management of more complex design projects, or management of other engineers, or into specialized consulting, including forensic engineering. Forensic engineering is the investigation of materials, products, structures or components that fail or do not operate/function as intended, causing personal injury for example. ...


Engineers are in high demand at banks, financial institutions and management consultancies because of their analytical skills.[16]


Sub-disciplines

In general, civil engineering is concerned with the overall interface of human created fixed projects with the greater world. General civil engineers work closely with surveyors and specialized civil engineers to fit and serve fixed projects within their given site, community and terrain by designing grading, drainage, pavement, water supply, sewer service, electric and communications supply, and land divisions. General engineers spend much of their time visiting project sites, developing community consensus, and preparing construction plans. General civil engineering is also referred to as site engineering; a branch of civil engineering that primarily focuses on converting a tract of land from one usage to another. Civil engineers typically apply the principles of geotechnical engineering, structural engineering, environmental engineering, transportation engineering and construction engineering to residential, commercial, industrial and public works projects of all sizes and levels of construction. Pavement may refer to: Pavement (material): An American English term referring to the durable surfacing of roads and walkways. ...


Construction engineering

Building construction for several apartment blocks
Building construction for several apartment blocks

Construction engineering involves planning and execution of the designs from transportation, site development, hydraulic, environmental, structural and geotechnical engineers. As construction firms tend to have higher business risk than other types of civil engineering firms, many construction engineers tend to take on a role that is more business-like in nature: drafting and reviewing contracts, evaluating logistical operations, and closely-monitoring prices of necessary supplies. Download high resolution version (1066x768, 405 KB)A building site for a row of riverside appartment blocks in Cambridge. ... Download high resolution version (1066x768, 405 KB)A building site for a row of riverside appartment blocks in Cambridge. ... Construction engineering concerns the planning and management of the construction of structures such as highways, bridges, airports, railroads, buildings, dams, and reservoirs. ... Construction Management refers either to the study and practice of the managerial and technological aspects of the construction industry (including construction, construction science, construction management, and construction technology), or to a business model where one party to a construction contract serves as a construction consultant, providing both design and construction... A contract is a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce. ... Look up Logistics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Environmental engineering

A filter bed, a part of sewage treatment
A filter bed, a part of sewage treatment

Environmental engineering deals with the treatment of chemical, biological, and/or thermal waste, the purification of water and air, and the remediation of contaminated sites, due to prior waste disposal or accidental contamination. Among the topics covered by environmental engineering are pollutant transport, water purification, waste water treatment, air pollution, solid waste treatment and hazardous waste management. Environmental engineers can be involved with pollution reduction, green engineering, and industrial ecology. Environmental engineering also deals with the gathering of information on the environmental consequences of proposed actions and the assessment of effects of proposed actions for the purpose of assisting society and policy makers in the decision making process. Download high resolution version (1296x972, 664 KB)Sewage Treatment trickling filter bed - small rural treatment plant Author: User:Velela. ... Download high resolution version (1296x972, 664 KB)Sewage Treatment trickling filter bed - small rural treatment plant Author: User:Velela. ... Sewage treatment, or domestic wastewater treatment, is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, both runoff and domestic. ... Environmental engineering[1][2] is the application of science and engineering principles to improve the environment (air, water, and/or land resources), to provide healthy water, air, and land for human habitation and for other organisms, and to remediate polluted sites. ... Generally, remediation means giving a remedy. ... Water purification is the process of removing contaminants from a raw water source. ... Sewage treatment is the process that removes the majority of the contaminants from waste-water or sewage and produces both a liquid effluent suitable for disposal to the natural environment and a sludge. ... Air pollution is the modification of the natural characteristics of the atmosphere by a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent. ... This article describes hazardous waste as a substance; for the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal see Basel Convention Put simply, a Hazardous waste is waste that poses substantial or potential threats to public health or the environment and generally exhibits one... For the company, see Waste Management, Inc. ... Industrial ecology is the shifting of industrial process from open loop systems, in which resource and capital investments move through the system to become waste, to a closed loop system where wastes become inputs for new processes. ...


Environmental engineering is the contemporary term for sanitary engineering, though sanitary engineering traditionally had not included much of the hazardous waste management and environmental remediation work covered by the term environmental engineering. Some other terms in use are public health engineering and environmental health engineering. Sanitary engineering is the application of scientific or mathematical principles with to the field of sanitation, especially in regards to its affect on public health. ...


Geotechnical engineering

A slab-on-grade foundation
A slab-on-grade foundation

Geotechnical engineering is an area of civil engineering concerned with the rock and soil that civil engineering systems are supported by. Knowledge from the fields of geology, material science and testing, mechanics, and hydraulics are applied by geotechnical engineers to safely and economically design foundations, retaining walls, and similar structures. Environmental concerns in relation to groundwater and waste disposal have spawned a new area of study called geoenvironmental engineering where biology and chemistry are important.[17][18] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 458 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Geotechnical engineering Shallow... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 458 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Geotechnical engineering Shallow... A shallow foundation is a type of foundation which transfers building loads to the earth very near the surface, rather than to a subsurface layer or a range of depths as does a deep foundation. ... Bostons Big Dig presented geotechnical challenges in an urban environment. ... This article is about the geological substance. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For other uses, see Soil (disambiguation). ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Materials science includes those parts of chemistry and physics that deal with the properties of materials. ... For other uses, see Mechanic (disambiguation). ... Table of Hydraulics and Hydrostatics, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Shallow foundations of a house A foundation is a structure that transfers loads to the ground. ... A gravity-type stone retaining wall A retaining wall is a structure that holds back soil or rock from a building, structure or area. ... Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of lithologic formations. ... Look up Dump in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: Βιολογία - βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ...


Some of the unique difficulties of geotechnical engineering are the result of the variability and properties of soil. Boundary conditions are often well defined in other branches of civil engineering, but with soil, clearly defining these conditions can be impossible. The material properties and behavior of soil are also difficult to predict due to the variability of soil and limited investigation. This contrasts with the relatively well defined material properties of steel and concrete used in other areas of civil engineering. Soil mechanics, which define the behavior of soil, is complex due to stress-dependent material properties such as volume change, stress–strain relationship, and strength.[17] In mathematics, boundary conditions are imposed on the solutions of ordinary differential equations and partial differential equations, to fit the solutions to the actual problem. ... A drill rig operator advances a direct push soil sampler. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... This article is about the construction material. ... Soil mechanics is a discipline that applies the principles of engineering mechanics to soil to predict the mechanical behavior of soil. ... Stress is a measure of force per unit area within a body. ... Shear strength in reference to soil is a term used to describe the maximum strength of soil at which point significant plastic deformation or yielding occurs due to an applied shear stress. ...


Hydraulic engineering

Main article: Hydraulic engineering
See also: Hydrology

Hydraulic engineering is concerned with the flow and conveyance of fluids, principally water. This area of civil engineering is intimately related to the design of pipelines, water distribution systems, drainage facilities (including bridges, dams, channels, culverts, levees, storm sewers), and canals. Hydraulic engineers design these facilities using the concepts of fluid pressure, fluid statics, fluid dynamics, and hydraulics, among others. Water resources engineering is concerned with the collection and management of water (as a natural resource). As a discipline it therefore combines hydrology, environmental science, meteorology, geology, conservation, and resource management. This area of civil engineering relates to the prediction and management of both the quality and the quantity of water in both underground (aquifers) and above ground (lakes, rivers, and streams) resources. Water resource engineers analyze and model very small to very large areas of the earth to predict the amount and content of water as it flows into, through, or out of a facility. Although the actual design of the facility may be left to other engineers. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 1167 KB) Summary Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 1167 KB) Summary Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... For the dam near Westerville, Ohio, see Hoover Dam (Ohio). ... Hydraulic engineering is a sub-discipline of civil engineering concerned with the flow and conveyance of fluids, principally water. ... Water covers 70% of the Earths surface. ... A water supply network is a system of engineered hydrologic and hydraulic components, including: the watershed or geographic area that collects the water, see water purification - sources of drinking water; a raw (untreated) water reservoir (above or below ground) where the water gathers, such as a lake, a river, or... In physical geography, a channel is the physical confine of a river, slough or ocean strait consisting of a bed and banks. ... A culvert is a flowing body of water which passes underneath a road, railway, or embankment, or the part thereof that does so. ... A levee, levée (from the feminine past participle of the French verb lever, to raise), floodbank or stopbank is a natural or artificial slope or wall, usually earthen and often parallels the course of a river. ... A storm drain, storm sewer, or stormwater drain (in Australia) system is designed to drain excess rain and ground water from an area. ... Fluid pressure is the pressure on an object submerged in a fluid, such as water. ... Fluid statics (also called hydrostatics) is the science of fluids at rest, and is a sub-field within fluid mechanics. ... --68. ... Table of Hydraulics and Hydrostatics, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Water covers 70% of the Earths surface. ... Environmental science is the study of the interactions among the physical, chemical and biological components of the environment; with a focus on pollution and degradation of the environment related to human activities; and the impact on biodiversity and sustainability from local and global development. ... // Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Water conservation refers to reducing use of fresh water, through technological or social methods. ... This article is confusing for some readers, and needs to be edited for clarity. ... An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, or permeable mixtures of unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, silt, or clay) (see also groundwater). ...


Materials science

Main article: Materials science

Civil engineering also includes elements of materials science. Construction materials with broad applications in civil engineering include ceramics such as Portland cement concrete (PCC) and hot mix asphalt concrete, metals such as aluminum and steel, and polymers such as polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and carbon fibers. Current research in these areas focus around increased strength, durability, workability, and reduced cost. The Materials Science Tetrahedron, which often also includes Characterization at the center Materials science or Materials Engineering is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. ... The Materials Science Tetrahedron, which often also includes Characterization at the center Materials science or Materials Engineering is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. ... kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk ...


Structural engineering

Burj Dubai, the world's tallest building, currently under construction in Dubai
Burj Dubai, the world's tallest building, currently under construction in Dubai

Structural engineering is concerned with the structural design and structural analysis of buildings, bridges, towers, flyovers, tunnels, off shore structures like oil and gas fields in the sea and other structures. This involves identifying the loads which act upon a structure and the forces and stresses which arise within that structure due to those loads, and then designing the structure to successfully support and resist those loads. The loads can be self weight of the structures, other dead load, live loads, moving (wheel) load, wind load, earthquake load, load from temperature change etc. The structural engineer must design structures to be safe for their users and to successfully fulfil the function they are designed for (to be serviceable). Image File history File links Size of this preview: 354 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (662 × 1119 pixel, file size: 76 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Burj Dubai, taken by me on August 9, 2007 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 354 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (662 × 1119 pixel, file size: 76 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Burj Dubai, taken by me on August 9, 2007 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to... Burj Dubai (Arabic: ‎ Dubai Tower) is a skyscraper currently under construction in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, and is currently the tallest man-made structure on Earth. ... For many millennia the record holder for worlds tallest structure was clearly defined (see table below. ... Location of Dubai in the UAE Coordinates: , Country Emirate Dubai Incorporated (town) June 9, 1833 Incorporated (emirate) December 2, 1971 Founder Maktoum bin Bati bin Suhail (1833) Seat Dubai Subdivisions Towns and villages Jebel Ali Hatta Al Hunaiwah Al Aweer Al Hajarain Al Lusayli Al Marqab Al Shindagha Al Faq... The Clifton Suspension Bridge, Bristol, England. ... The Clifton Suspension Bridge, Bristol, England. ... The Clifton Suspension Bridge is a suspension bridge, spanning the Avon Gorge and linking Clifton in Bristol to Leigh Woods in North Somerset, England. ... Isambard Kingdom Brunel, FRS (9 April 1806 – 15 September 1859) (IPA: ), was a British engineer. ... This article is about the English city. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... Structural engineering is a field of engineering that deals with the design of structural systems with the purpose of supporting and resisting various loads. ... I NEED TO FUCK SOMEONE! I AM TIRED OF PORN! SOMEONE HELP ME! ... Structural analysis comprises the set of physical laws and mathematics required to study and predict the behavior of structures. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Overpass in East Potomac Park, Washington, D.C. Flyover in Miami Beach, Florida An overpass (In UK, India, Hong Kong flyover) is a bridge, road or similar structure that crosses over another road. ... A disused railway tunnel now converted to pedestrian and bicycle use, near Houyet, Belgium A tunnel is an underground passage. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Design considerations will include strength, stiffness and stability of the structure when subjected to loads which may be static, such as furniture or self-weight, or dynamic, such as wind, seismic, crowd or vehicle loads, or transitory, such as temporary construction loads or impact. Other considerations include cost, constructability, safety, aesthetics and sustainability. For other uses, see Safety (disambiguation). ... The Earth Day flag includes a NASA photo. ...


Surveying

An all-female surveying crew in Idaho, 1918
An all-female surveying crew in Idaho, 1918
Main article: Surveying

Surveying is the process by which a surveyor measures certain dimensions that generally occur on the surface of the Earth. Modern surveying equipment, such as electronic distance measurement (EDM), total stations, GPS surveying and laser scanning, allow for accurate measurement of angular deviation, horizontal, vertical and slope distances. This information is crucial to convert the data into a graphical representation of the Earth's surface, in the form of a map. This information is then used by civil engineers, contractors and even realtors to design from, build on, and trade, respectively. Elements of a building or structure must be correctly sized and positioned in relation to each other and to site boundaries and adjacent structures.Civil Engineers are trained in the basics of surveying and mapping. Image File history File links All female survey crew - Minidoka Project, Idaho 1918. ... Image File history File links All female survey crew - Minidoka Project, Idaho 1918. ... For other uses, see Idaho (disambiguation). ... Surveyor at work with a leveling instrument. ... The word mapping has several senses: In mathematics and related technical fields, it is some kind of function: see map (mathematics). ...


Wind engineering

Main article: Wind engineering

Wind Engineering is a field of engineering devoted to the analysis of wind effects on the natural and built environment. ...

Geographic Information System

GIS redirects here. ...

Transportation engineering

Main article: Transport engineering

Transportation engineering is concerned with moving people and goods efficiently, safely, and in a manner conducive to a vibrant community. This involves specifying, designing, constructing, and maintaining transportation infrastructure which includes streets, canals, highways, rail systems, airports, ports, and mass transit. It includes areas such as transportation design, transportation planning, traffic engineering, urban engineering, queueing theory, pavement engineering, Intelligent Transportation System (ITS), and infrastructure management. The engineering of this roundabout in Bristol, England, attempts to make traffic flow free-moving Transport engineering (alternatively transportation engineering) is the science of safe and efficient movement of people and goods (transport). ... Mike Skinner aka The Streets (born 27 November 1978) is a chav, a rapper and musician from Birmingham, England. ... Categories: Water-transport stubs | Canals | Water transport ... A highway is a major road within a city, or linking several cities together. ... railroads redirects here. ... For other uses, see Port (disambiguation). ... In the United States of America, transit describes local area common carrier passenger transportation configured to provide scheduled service on fixed routes on a non-reservation basis. ... Transportation planning is the field involved with the siting of transportation facilities (generally streets and highways and public transport lines). ... The term traffic engineering is used in more than one sense. ... Urban engineering is a subset of the general practice of urban planning. ... Queueing theory (also commonly spelled queuing theory) is the mathematical study of waiting lines (or queues). ... Pavement engineering is a branch of civil engineering that uses engineering techniques to design and maintain flexible (asphalt) and rigid (concrete) pavements. ... The Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) program is a worldwide initiative to add information and communications technology to transport infrastructure and vehicles. ...


See also

Engineering Portal
Associations

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A civil engineer is a person who practices civil engineering. ... This list of civil engineers is a list of notable people who have been trained in or have practiced civil engineering. ... The following is a partial list of historic civil engineering landmarks as designated by the American Society of Civil Engineers since it began the program in 1964. ... “ASCE” redirects here. ... The Canadian Society for Civil Engineering (CSCE) was founded in 1887 as the Canadian Society of Civil Engineers. ... Chi Epsilon (XE) is a national civil engineering honor society comprised of 129 chapters at universities throughout the United States. ... The Institution of Engineers Australia, often shortened to IEAust, is a professional body and not-for-profit organization dedicated to being the national forum for the advancement of the engineering field within Australia. ... The Institutions headquarters Founded on 2 January 1818, the Institution of Civil Engineers (ICE) is an independent professional association, based in central London, representing civil engineers. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. [1] (accessed: 2007-08-08).
  2. ^ History and Heritage of Civil Engineering. ASCE. Retrieved on 2007-08-08.
  3. ^ Institution of Civil Engineers What is Civil Engineering. ICE. Retrieved on 2007-09-22.
  4. ^ a b c What is Civil Engineering?. The Canadian Society for Civil Engineering. Retrieved on 2007-08-08.
  5. ^ a b Civil engineering. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved on 2007-08-09.
  6. ^ a b c Oakes, William C.; Leone, Les L. & Gunn, Craig J. (2001), Engineering Your Future, Great Lakes Press, ISBN 1-881018-57-1 
  7. ^ The Architecture of the Italian Renaissance Jacob Burckhardt ISBN 0805210822
  8. ^ Institution of Civil Engineers' website. Retrieved on 2007-12-26.
  9. ^ Griggs, Francis E Jr. "Amos Eaton was Right!". Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice, Vol. 123, No. 1, January 1997, pp. 30-34. See also RPI Timeline
  10. ^ Victor E. Saouma. Lecture notes in Structural Engineering. University of Colorado. Retrieved on 2007-11-02.
  11. ^ Various undergraduate degree requirements at MIT, Cal Poly, Queen's and Portsmouth
  12. ^ Civil Engineering: Careers. ASCE. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  13. ^ Why Should You Get Licensed?. National Society of Professional Engineers. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  14. ^ Engineers Act. Quebec Statutes and Regulations (CanLII). Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  15. ^ Ethics Codes and Guidelines. Online Ethics Center. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  16. ^ More than half of today's graduate engineers will go into other fields, such as finance, commerce and the media. Retrieved on 2007-12-29.
  17. ^ a b Mitchell 1993, pp. 1–2
  18. ^ Shroff & Shah 2003, pp. 1–2

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References

  • Mitchell, James Kenneth (1993), Fundamentals of Soil Behavior (2nd ed.), John Wiley and Sons, ISBN 0471856401 
  • Shroff, Arvind V. & Shah, Dhananjay L. (2003), Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 9058092356 

External links

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Structural engineering is a field of engineering that deals with the design of structural systems with the purpose of supporting and resisting various loads. ... Systems engineering techniques are used in complex projects: from spacecrafts to chip design, from robotics to creating large software products to building bridges, Systems engineering uses a host of tools that include modeling & simulation, requirements analysis, and scheduling to manage complexity Systems Engineering (SE) is an interdisciplinary approach and means... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering and materials methods, and suitable biochemical and physio-chemical factors to improve or replace biological functions. ... For other uses, see Safety (disambiguation). ... The AbioCor artificial heart, an example of a biomedical engineering application of mechanical engineering with biocompatible materials for Cardiothoracic Surgery using an artificial organ. ... Map of the human X chromosome (from the NCBI website). ... Insulin crystals Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... Cheminformatics (also known as chemoinformatics and chemical informatics) is the use of computer and informational techniques, applied to a range of problems in the field of chemistry. ... Fire protection engineering (also known as fire engineering or fire safety engineering) is the application of science and engineering principles to protect people and their environments from the destructive effects of fire and smoke. ... Health Sciences are the group of disciplines of applied science dealing with human and animal health. ... 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  Results from FactBites:
 
Civil engineering - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1669 words)
Civil engineering is the broadest of the engineering fields, partly because it is the oldest of all engineering fields.
Civil engineering was defined to distinguish it from military engineering.
The main subject of the field of geotechnical engineering is concerned with foundations, soil properties, soil mechanics, compression and swelling of soils, seepage, slopes, embankments, retaining walls, ground and rock anchors, use of synthetic tensile materials in soil structures, soil-structure interaction, and soil dynamics.
Department of Civil Engineering (164 words)
Civil engineering is the oldest of all the engineering fields, yet it is as contemporary as the need to provide solutions to today's environmental problems and to develop advanced transportation systems.
The civil engineer plans, designs, builds, and operates projects for the advancement and well being of society while coordinating and conserving human resources.
Civil engineering projects range from small to monumental and include public water systems, buildings, bridges, rail and highway networks, wastewater treatment plants, solid and hazardous waste disposal facilities, airports, and soil conservation and flood diversion controls.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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