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Encyclopedia > Citrus sinensis


Orange

Ambersweet oranges
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Subclass: Rosidae
Order: Sapindales
Family: Rutaceae
Genus: Citrus
Species: sinensis



Orange blossoms and oranges on tree

For other uses of orange, see orange (disambiguation)


Oranges are the fruits of an orange tree, one of the most common citrus fruits. Oranges are widely grown in warmer climates and are distributed worldwide. The name "orange" refers both to the fruit and its color — the color is named for the fruit. (However, before the orange fruit was introduced to the English-speaking world, the color was refered to as geoluhread, which transliterates into Modern English variously as yellow_red or yellored.)


The flavors of orange vary from sweet to sour. The fruit is commonly peeled and eaten fresh, or squeezed for its juice. It has a thick bitter rind that is usually discarded, but can be used in certain recipes as flavoring or a garnish. The outer-most layer of the rind is grated or thinly veneered with a tool called a zester, to produce orange zest which is popular in cooking because it has a similar flavor to the inner part of the orange. The white part of the rind, pith, is almost always discarded.

Contents

Origins

For the etymology of the word "orange", see orange (word).
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Orange (variety Hart's Late) - watercolor 1887

The fruit is said to have originated in India (some say China). The original fruit is rather bitter compared to modern varieties, as is referred to as the sour orange (or alternately, bitter, bigarade or Seville orange). The sour taste is in fact attributed to the slight acidity of the orange's juice. It is not entirely clear if the sour orange really is the original stock or not, and it may be the case that there is no original wild orange species.


Varieties

All citrus trees are of a single genus, Citrus, and remain largely interbreedable – that is, there is only one "superspecies" which includes lemons and limes as well as oranges. Nevertheless names have been given to the various members of the citrus family, oranges often being referred to as Citrus sinensis and Citrus aurantium. All members of the Citrus aurantium family are considered berries because they have many seeds, are fleshy, soft and derive from a single ovary.


A number of varieties of orange are now cultivated widely. The sweet orange (Citrus aurantium) was first grown in Spain, and has become the most popular variety. The sweet orange will grow to different sizes and colors due to local conditions, most commonly with ten carpels (slices) inside.

Navel oranges with various sized navels.

A single mutation in an orchard of sweet oranges planted at a monastery in 1820 in Brazil led to the navel orange (aka Washington, Riverside or Bahia navel). A single cutting of the original was then transplanted to Riverside, California in 1870, creating a new market worldwide. The mutation caused a diploid (twin) fruit, with a smaller orange embedded in the outer fruit near the stem. From the outside the smaller, undeveloped, twin leaves a human navel-like formation at the top of the fruit. Navel oranges are almost always seedless, and tend to be larger than the sweet orange. They are produced without pollination (parthenocarpy).

Sectioned navel orange. The underdeveloped twin is located on the bottom right.

The Valencia or Murcia orange is one of the sweet oranges used for juice extraction. It is a late-season fruit. It is a popular variety of orange when the navel oranges are out of season.

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Blood oranges

The blood orange has streaks of red in the fruit, and when squeezed the juice is often reddish. The mandarin orange is similar, but smaller and sweeter, and the scarlet navel is a variety with the same diploid mutation as the navel orange.


Bitter oranges are used in marmalade and as an ingredient in the liqueurs triple sec and curaçao.


Orange cultivation

Orange cultivation is a major business, and an important part of the economies of (among others) the US states of Florida and California, many Mediterranean countries, Romania, South Africa, China, and the 'Riverina' district around the Murray River in Australia.


Products made from oranges

Oranges and orange juice
  • Orange juice is one of the commodities traded on the New York commodities market. Brazil is the largest producer of orange juice in the world, followed by Florida.
  • Orange oil (produced by pressing the peel) is used in surface conditioning of wood furniture, and (along with other citrus oils) in grease removal and as a hand-cleansing agent.
  • Orange spray (extracted from orange peels and sold commercially) is an extremely efficient cleaning agent which is environmentally friendly and non-toxic.
  • The orange blossom, which is the state flower of Florida, is traditionally associated with good fortune, and was popular in bridal bouquets and headwreaths for weddings for some time. The petals of orange blossom can also be made into a delicately citrus-scented version of rosewater.
  • Orange blossom honey (really citrus honey) is produced by putting beehives in the citrus groves during bloom, which also pollinates seeded citrus varieties. Orange blossom honey is highly prized, and tastes much like orange.

See also

Tangerine, Mandarin orange, Kumquat, Orangewater, Lue Gim Gong


External links

  • Sweet Oranges: The Biogeography of Citrus sinensis (http://www.aquapulse.net/knowledge/orange)
  • Nutrition data from nutririondata.com (http://www.nutritiondata.com/facts-001-02s01im.html)



  Results from FactBites:
 
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Citrus (3981 words)
Citrus is a common term and genus of flowering plants in the family Rutaceae, originating in tropical and subtropical southeast Asia.
The Minneola tangelo is a citrus fruit hybrid of a grapefruit and a tangerine.
Citrus is a common term and genus of flowering plant in the Family Rutaceae, comprising trees such as orange, lemon, grapefruit, lime, and tangerine.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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