FACTOID # 30: If Alaska were its own country, it would be the 26th largest in total area, slightly larger than Iran.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Citron" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Citron
Citron

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Sapindales
Family: Rutaceae
Genus: Citrus
Species: C. medica
Binomial name
Citrus medica
L.

The Citron is a fragrant fruit with the botanical name Citrus Medica L. which apply to both, the Swingle and Tanaka systems. It is a prominent member in the genus Citrus belonging to the Rutaceae or Rue family, sub-family Aurantoideae. Its different names Citrus Media, Median Apple etc. were influenced by the Theophrastus who considered it being native to Media, Persia or Assyria. However, those names are now rarely in use. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 197 KB) Fruit of the Citron (Citrus medicus). ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class of flowering plants. ... Families See text Sapindales is a botanical name for an order of flowering plants. ... Genera About 160 genera; selected important genera: Amyris - West Indian Sandalwood Choisya - Mexican orange Citrus - Citrus Dictamnus - Burning-bush Fortunella - Kumquat Melicope - Corkwood, Alani Murraya - Curry tree Phellodendron - Cork-trees Poncirus - Trifoliate orange Ptelea - Hoptree Ruta - Rue Skimmia - Skimmia Tetradium (Euodia) - Euodias Zanthoxylum - Toothache trees Rutaceae is a family of... Species & major hybrids Species Citrus aurantifolia - Key lime Citrus maxima - Pomelo Citrus medica - Citron Citrus reticulata - Mandarin & Tangerine Major hybrids Citrus ×sinensis - Sweet Orange Citrus ×aurantium - Bitter Orange Citrus ×paradisi - Grapefruit Citrus ×limon - Lemon Citrus ×limonia - Rangpur lime Citrus ×latifolia - Persian lime See also main text for other hybrids Citrus... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Look up citron in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Walter Tennyson Swingle (January 8, 1871–January 19, 1952) was an American agricultural botanist who was born in Canaan, Pennsylvania and moved with his family to Kansas two years later. ... Tanaka (田中 in the ricefield) is the 4th most common Japanese surname. ... Species & major hybrids Species Citrus aurantifolia - Key lime Citrus maxima - Pomelo Citrus medica - Citron Citrus reticulata - Mandarin & Tangerine Major hybrids Citrus ×sinensis - Sweet Orange Citrus ×aurantium - Bitter Orange Citrus ×paradisi - Grapefruit Citrus ×limon - Lemon Citrus ×limonia - Rangpur lime Citrus ×latifolia - Persian lime See also main text for other hybrids Citrus... Genera About 160 genera; selected important genera: Amyris - West Indian Sandalwood Choisya - Mexican orange Citrus - Citrus Dictamnus - Burning-bush Fortunella - Kumquat Melicope - Corkwood, Alani Murraya - Curry tree Phellodendron - Cork-trees Poncirus - Trifoliate orange Ptelea - Hoptree Ruta - Rue Skimmia - Skimmia Tetradium (Euodia) - Euodias Zanthoxylum - Toothache trees Rutaceae is a family of... Theophrastus (Greek Θεόφραστος, 370 — about 285 BC), a native of Eressos in Lesbos, was the successor of Aristotle in the Peripatetic school. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ...


The citron is not the ordinary citrus fruit like the Lemon or Orange. While the most popular citrus species are peeled off in order to consume the inner pulpy and juicy segments – the citron contains extreme dry pulp which has no value comparing to the Orange. Moreover, its mostly content is the thick white rind which is extremely adherent to the segments, and cannot peel off at all. This article is about the fruit. ... Binomial name (L.) Osbeck Orange—specifically, sweet orange—refers to the citrus tree Citrus sinensis (syn. ... For other uses, see Juice (disambiguation). ... A cross-section of an orange, with the flavedo labelled The flavedo (also known as the exocarp or, in culinary applications, zest) is the outer part of the rind of citrus fruit, which bears oil glands and pigments. ...


Thus, the Citron was from ancient thru medieval mainly used only for the fragrance of its outer peel or for derived medicine against seasickness, pulmonary troubles, intestinal ailments and other disorders. Citron juice with wine was considered an effective antidote to poison. The essential oil of the peel was regarded as an antibiotic. For the span of recorded history starting roughly 5,000-5,500 years ago, see Ancient history. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... Odor receptors on the antennae of a Luna moth An odor is the object of perception of the sense of olfaction. ... Seasickness is hazardous for scuba divers Seasickness is the feeling of nausea and, in extreme cases, vertigo experienced after spending time on a craft on water. ... The heart and lungs (from an older edition of Grays Anatomy) The lung is an organ belonging to the respiratory system and interfacing to the circulatory system of air-breathing vertebrates. ... In anatomy, the intestine is the segment of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... An antidote is a substance which can counteract a form of poisoning. ... The skull and crossbones symbol (Jolly Roger) traditionally used to label a poisonous substance. ... An essential oil is a concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aromatic compounds from plants. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ...


The most important part of the citron is the peel which is a fairly important article in international trade. The fruits are halved, depulped, immersed in seawater or ordinary salt water to ferment for about 40 days, the brine being changed every 2 weeks; rinsed, put in denser brine in wooden barrels for storage and for export. After partial de-salting and boiling to soften the peel, it is candied in a strong sugar solution. The candied peel is sun-dried or put up in jars for future use. Candying is done mainly in England, France and the United States. The candied peel is widely employed in the food industry, especially as an ingredient in fruit cake, plum pudding, buns, sweet rolls and candy. [1] International trade is the exchange of goods and services across international boundaries or territories. ... For the sports equipment manufacturer, see Brine, Corp. ... It has been suggested that Candy be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Fruitcake is a heavy cake made of dried or candied fruits and nuts that are soaked in brandy or rum, often used in the celebration of weddings and Christmas. ... Christmas pudding is the dessert traditionally served on Christmas day in Britain and Ireland, as well as in some Commonwealth countries. ... For other uses, see Candy (disambiguation). ...


Today there is an uprising market for the citron is the United States for the soluble fiber which is found in its thick rind, also called albedo. The citron is also used by Jews for a religious ritual during the Feast of Tabernacles, they are calling it Etrog. A cross-section of an orange, with the flavedo labelled The flavedo (also known as the exocarp or, in culinary applications, zest) is the outer part of the rind of citrus fruit, which bears oil glands and pigments. ... A ritual is a set of actions, performed mainly for their symbolic value, which is prescribed by a religion or by the traditions of a community. ... Sukkot (סוכות or סֻכּוֹת sukkōt, booths) or Succoth is an 8-day Biblical pilgrimage festival, also known as the Feast of Booths, the Feast of Tabernacles, or Tabernacles. ... Trinomial name Citrus medica var. ...


The citron has many similar names in diverse languages, e.g. cederat, cedro, etc. Most confusing is the French language, in which the false friend "citron" refers to a lemon in English (similarly, "limon" is the French word for lime). Look up False friend in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the fruit. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ...

Contents

Origin and distribution

Today, authorities agree that all citrus species are native to Southeast Asia where they are found wild and at an uncultivated form; the fascinating story about how they spread to the Mediterranean has been reported by many (Calabrese, 1998; Chapot, 1975; Tolkowsky, 1938). [2] For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...


The citron especially sounds to be native to India bordering Burma, where it is found in valleys at the foot of the Himalaya Mountains, and in the Western Ghauts.[3], [4] It is still considered that by the time of Theophrastus, the citron was mostly cultivated in the Persian Gulf on its way to the Mediterranean basin, where it was cultivated during the later centuries in different areas as described by Erich Isaac. [5]. Many are mentioning the role of Alexander the Great and his armies, to be responsible for the spread of the citron westward, reaching the European countries like Greece and Italy. Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


The citron is already mentioned in the Torah for the ritual use during the Feast of Tabernacles (Lev. 23:40). It is considered that the Jews brought it along by The Exodus from Egypt, where archeological evidence found it to be in since the times of Thutmosis III. The Torah () is the most important document in Judaism, revered as the inspired word of G-d (the vocal is never spelled), traditionally said to have been revealed to Moses. ... Sukkot (סוכות or סֻכּוֹת sukkōt, booths) or Succoth is an 8-day Biblical pilgrimage festival, also known as the Feast of Booths, the Feast of Tabernacles, or Tabernacles. ... The Exodus or Ytsiyat Mitsrayim (Hebrew: יציאת מצרים, Tiberian: , the going out of Egypt) refers to the Exodus of the Israelites out of Egypt. ... Thutmose III (also written as Tuthmosis III; called Manahpi(r)ya in the Amarna letters) (? - 1426 BC), was Pharaoh of Egypt in the Eighteenth Dynasty. ...


The opinion that the citron was the attractive fruit which Eva shared with Adam in the Hesperides of Eden is not providing any geographical positioning, since the exact orientation of the Hesperidies is unclear. Besides, there are enough reasons to conclude that it was in the Far East for e.g. India or Yemen, where the citron is likely to be found since ever. Michelangelos The Creation of Eve, a fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, shows God creating Eve from the side of Adam. ... For other uses, see Adam (disambiguation). ... For the ancient Greek city Hesperides see Benghazi. ... For other uses, see Garden of Eden (disambiguation). ... The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ...


Description and Variation

The citron fruit is usually ovate or oblong, narrowing up till the stylar end. However, the citron's fruit shape is highly variable, due to the big quantity of albedo which forms independently according to the fruits' position on the tree, twig orientation and many other factors. This could also be the reason of its being protuberant, forming a "v" shape after the end of the segments pointing to the stylar end. Amaryllis style and stigmas A carpel is the outer, often visible part of the female reproductive organ of a flower; the basic unit of the gynoecium. ... A cross-section of an orange, with the flavedo labelled The flavedo (also known as the exocarp or, in culinary applications, zest) is the outer part of the rind of citrus fruit, which bears oil glands and pigments. ...


The rind is leathery, furrowed, and adherent. The inner portion thick, white and fleshy, the outer uniformly thin, and very fragrant. The pulp is usually acidic, but also sweet and even pulpless varieties are found.


Most citron varieties are containing a large amount of seeds. The monoembryonic seeds are white colored with dark innercoat and red-purplish chalazal spot for the acidic varieties, and colorless or white for the sweet ones. Some citron varieties are also distinct with their persistent style, which is highly appreciated by the Jewish community. Monoembryony is when one only one seedling emerges from a seed. ... The chalaza (from Greek - khalaze - meaning hailstone) is a structure inside animal eggs and plant ovules. ... Amaryllis style and stigmas A carpel is the outer, often visible part of the female reproductive organ of a flower; the basic unit of the gynoecium. ...


Citrons could be of very special beauty. The nicer ones are those with medium sized oil bubbles at the outer surface, which are medially distant each to another. Some of them are ribbed and faintly warted in outer surface, adding life and attraction to its beauty. There is also a fingered citron variety called Buddha's Hand. Buddhas Hand, Buddhas Hand citron, or Fingered citron (Citrus medica var. ...


Color is changing from green when unripe, till yellow-orange when ripe or overripe. The citron would never fall off the tree and could reach 8-10 pounds (4-5 kg) if not picked off timely or even early [6]. However they should be picked off before the winter as the branches might brake, or bend to the ground which may cause numerous fungal diseases for the tree. Ripening is a process in fruit that causes them to become more edible. ...


The slow-growing shrub or small tree is reaching a height of about 8 to 15 ft (2.4-4.5 m); it has irregular straggling branches and stiff twigs and long spines in the leaf axils. The evergreen leafs are pale-green and lemon scented with slightly serrate edges, ovate-lanceolate or ovate elliptic 2 1/2 to 7 inch long. Petioles are usually wingless or with minor wings. The flowers are generally unisexual providing self-pollination, but some male individuals could be found due to pistil abortion. Flowers of the acidic varieties are purplish tinted from outside, but the sweet ones are white-yellowish. A broom shrub in flower A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ... Trees can be identified by examination of several characteristics. ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Self-pollination is the activity that arises when a flower has both stamen and pistils. ... The Pistil is the part of the flower made up of one or more carpels. ...


The citron tree is very vigorous with almost no dormancy, blooming several times a year, therefore fragile and extremely sensitive.[7] The farmer's choice is to graft it onto foreign rootstock, but since this practice is forbidden by Jewish Law, the progeny will not be kosher for the Jewish ritual. The circled U indicates that this can of tuna is certified kosher by the Union of Orthodox Congregations. ...


The citron was always considered as a Jewish symbol, and is found on various Hebrew antiques and archeological foundlings. ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ...


The Citron in antiquity

As everybody agrees, the citron is cultivated since the most ancient times, prior to any other citrus specie. Despite its minor importance today being hardly consumed as is, it seems that in different times it was playing a big role in life. We could see that from the way how it was described by numerous writings and poets during centuries. It is suggested that when the other citrus species arrived, they pushed the citron of the road, since most of its benefits could nearly by found in the Lemon which is much easier to cultivate. For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ...


The following is from the writings of Theophrastus[8] Theophrastus (Greek Θεόφραστος, 370 — about 285 BC), a native of Eressos in Lesbos, was the successor of Aristotle in the Peripatetic school. ...


"In the east and south there are special plants... i.e. in Media and Persia there are many types of fruit, between them there is a fruit called Median or Persian Apple. The tree has a leaf similar to and almost identical with that of the andrachn (Arbutus andrachne L.), but has thorns like those of the apios (the wild pear, Pyrus amygdaliformis Vill.) or the oxyacanthos (the fire thorn, Cotoneaster pyracantha Spach.), except that they are white, smooth, sharp and strong. Species See text. ... Raised thorns on the stem of the wait-a-bit climber Prickles on rose stems Thorns of the Ocotillo A spine is a rigid, pointed surface protuberance or needle-like structure on an animal, shell, or plant, presumably serving as a defense against attack by predators. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Species See text Cotoneaster (Cotoneaster) is a genus of woody plants in the rose family Rosaceae, native to the Palaearctic region (temperate Asia, Europe, north Africa), with a high diversity found in the mountains of southwestern China and the Himalaya. ...


"The fruit is not eaten, but is very fragrant, as is also the leaf of the tree; and the fruit is put among clothes, it keeps them from being moth-eaten. It is also useful when one has drunk deadly poison, for when it is administered in wine; it upsets the stomach and brings up the poison. It is also useful to improve the breath, for if one boils the inner part of the fruit in a dish or squeezes it into the mouth in some other medium, it makes the breath more pleasant. Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... (See also List of types of clothing) Introduction Humans often wear articles of clothing (also known as dress, garments or attire) on the body (for the alternative, see nudity). ... A moth is an insect closely related to the butterfly. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... Breathing transports oxygen into the body and carbon dioxide out of the body. ...


"The seed is removed from the fruit and sown in the spring in carefully tilled beds, and it is watered every fourth or fifth day. As soon the plant is strong it is transplanted, also in the spring, to a soft, well watered site, where the soil is not very fine, for it prefers such places. For other uses, see Spring. ... In agriculture and gardening, transplanting is the technique of starting a plant from seed in optimal conditions, such as in a greenhouse or protected nursery bed, then replanting it in another, usually outdoor, growing location. ...


"And it bears its fruit at all seasons, for when some have gathered, the flower of the others is on the tree and is ripening others. Of the flowers I have said[9] those which have a sort of distaff [meaning the pistil] projecting from the middle are fertile, while those which do not have this are sterile. It is also sown, like date palms, in pots punctured with holes. This article is about divisions of a year. ... Wildflowers A flower is the reproductive organ of those plants classified as angiosperms ( flowering plants; Division Magnoliophyta). ... Amaryllis style and stigmas A carpel is the outer, often visible part of the female reproductive organ of a flower; the basic unit of the gynoecium. ... Binomial name Phoenix dactylifera L. The Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is a palm extensively cultivated for its edible fruit. ...


"This tree, as has been remarked, grows in Media and Persia."


Later with about 400 years it was also described by Pliny the Elder,[10] who was calling it nata Assyria malus. Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ...


"The Assyrian fruit, which some call Median, is an antidote for poisons. Its leaf is like that of the andrachn (Arbutus andrachne L.), but with thorns running between. The fruit is notable for the fact that it is not eaten and has a strong odor, as also do the leaves, which impregnates clothes stored with them and keeps away harmful insects. Species See text. ...


"The tree itself bears fruit continuously; some dropping off, others ripening, and still others budding.


"People have tried to introduce the tree into their land in clay vessels because of its medicinal efficacy, providing breathing for the roots by making holes in the vessels; …but except among Media and in Persia, it has refused to grow. For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ...


"This is the fruit whose pips we have related Parthian nobles boiled in foods in order to eliminate bad breath. No other tree is so highly praised in Media."


Genetics and Hybridization

There is molecular evidence, that all cultivated citrus species arisen by hybridization among the ancestral types, which are the citron, pummelo, mandarin and papedas. The citron is believed to be the purest of them all since it is usually fertilized by self-pollination, it hardly excepts foreign pollen, and is therefore considered to be the male parent rather than a female one.[11][12][13][14][15] In genetics, hybridisation is the process of mixing different species or varieties of organisms. ... Binomial name Citrus maxima The Pummelo or Shaddock (Citrus maxima) is a citrus fruit, usually a pale green to yellow when ripe, larger than a grapefruit, with sweet flesh and thick spongy rind. ... Binomial name The Mandarin orange or mandarin (瓯柑) is a small citrus tree (Citrus reticulata) with fruit resembling the orange. ... | name = Papeda | familia = Rutaceae | genus = Citrus | subgenus = Papeda Papeda is a subgenus from the genus Citrus, including the Ichang Lemon, the Yuzu and all wild and uncultivated types. ... Categories: Biology stubs ... Self-pollination is the activity that arises when a flower has both stamen and pistils. ...


See also

Species & major hybrids Species Citrus aurantifolia - Key lime Citrus maxima - Pomelo Citrus medica - Citron Citrus reticulata - Mandarin & Tangerine Major hybrids Citrus ×sinensis - Sweet Orange Citrus ×aurantium - Bitter Orange Citrus ×paradisi - Grapefruit Citrus ×limon - Lemon Citrus ×limonia - Rangpur lime Citrus ×latifolia - Persian lime See also main text for other hybrids Citrus... Trinomial name Citrus medica var. ...

References

  1. ^ The Purdue University The Citron in Crete
  2. ^ The Citrus Industry ^The Purdue University ^The Search for the Authentic Citron: Historic and Genetic Analysis; HortScienc 40(7):1963-1968. 2005
  3. ^ Sir Joseph Hooker (Flora of British India, i. 514)
  4. ^ COUNTRY REPORT TO THE FAO INTERNATIONAL TECHNICAL CONFERENCE ON PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES (Leipzig, 1996); Prepared by: Nepal Agricultural Research Council; Kathmandu, June 1995; CHAPTER 2.2
  5. ^ The Citron in the Mediterranean: a study in religious influences; economic Geography, Vol. 35 No. 1. (Jan. 1959) pp. 71-78
  6. ^ Un curieux Cedrat marocain, Chapot 1950. The Search for the Authentic Citron: Historic and Genetic Analysis; HortScienc 40(7):1963-1968. 2005
  7. ^ The citrus Industry, The Purdue University
  8. ^ Historia plantarum 4.4.2-3 (exc. Athenaeus Deipnosophistae 3.83.d-f); cf. Vergil Georgics 2.126-135; Pliny Naturalis historia 12.15,16.
  9. ^ Historia plantarum 1.13.4.
  10. ^ Naturalis historia 16.135; 13.103; 17.64.
  11. ^ Citrus phylogeny and genetic origin of important species as investigated by molecular markers. 2000
  12. ^ Phylogenetic relationships in the “true citrus fruit trees” revealed by PCR-RFLP analysis of cpDNA. 2004
  13. ^ The Search for the Authentic Citron: Historic and Genetic Analysis; HortScienc 40(7):1963-1968. 2005
  14. ^ Chromosome Numbers in the Subfamily Aurantioideae with Special Reference to the Genus Citrus; C. A. Krug. Botanical Gazette, Vol. 104, No. 4 (Jun., 1943), pp. 602-611
  15. ^ The relationships among lemons, limes and citron: a chromosomal comparison. by R. Carvalhoa, W.S. Soares Filhob, A.C. Brasileiro-Vidala, M. Guerraa.

External links

  • USDA
  • Citrus Diversity by the University of Callifornia
  • Palestine Under the Muslems
  • Proceedings, Google Book Search
  • International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: A-D By Geoffrey William Bromiley
  • Citrus medica used as a medicinal plant.

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m