FACTOID # 21: 15% of Army recruits from South Dakota are Native American, which is roughly the same percentage for female Army recruits in the state.
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Encyclopedia > Citizenship of the European Union

Citizenship of the Union was introduced by the Maastricht Treaty signed in 1992. “EU” redirects here. ... The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty of European Union, TEU) was signed on February 7, 1992 in Maastricht, Netherlands after final negotiations in December 1991 between the members of the European Community and entered into force on November 1, 1993 during the Delors Commission. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ...

According to Article 17 of the Treaty of Rome (as amended) [1], to hold the "Citizenship of the Union" one must first hold the "nationality of a Member State". In the case of Micheletti v Delegación del Gobierno en Cantabria (C-396/90) [1992] ECR I-4239 [2], it was established that "it is for each member state, having due regard to Community law, to lay down the conditions for the acquisition and loss of nationality". According to the same case, dual nationality with only one nationality of a member state is sufficient to fulfil the requirements for "Citizenship of the Union". The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony Signatures in the Treaty The Treaty of Rome, signed by France, West Germany, Italy and Benelux (Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg) on March 25, 1957, established the European Economic Community (EEC). ...

EU citizenship offers certain rights and privileges within the EU; in many areas EU citizens have the same or similar rights as native citizens in member states. Such rights granted to EU citizens include:

  • the right of free movement and residence throughout the Union and the right to apply to work in any position (including national civil services with the exception of sensitive positions such as defence) (Article 18 [3]),
  • the right to vote and the right to stand in local and European elections in any Member State, other than the citizen's own, under the same conditions as the nationals of that state (Article 19 [4]),
  • the right to protection by the diplomatic or consular authorities of other Member States when in a non-EU Member State, if there are no diplomatic or consular authorities from the citizen's own state (Article 20 [5]).

EU member states also use a common passport design, burgundy coloured with the name of the member state, national seal and the title "European Union" (or its translation). The Byzantine civil service in action. ... Suffrage is the civil right to vote, or the exercise of that right. ... For other types of travel document, see Travel document. ... Burgundy is a shade of dark red associated with the Burgundy wine of the same name, which in turn is named after the Burgundy region of France. ... Seal on envelope A seal is an impression printed on, embossed upon, or affixed to a document (or any other object) in order to authenticate it, in lieu of or in addition to a signature. ...

Union citizenship continues to gain in status and the European Court of Justice has stated that Union citizenship will be the "fundamental status of nationals of Member States" (see Grzelczyk v Centre Public d'Aide Sociale d'Ottignes-Louvain-la-Neuve Case C-184/99 [2001] ECR I-6193, para 31) [6]. The European Commission has affirmed that Union citizenship should be the fundamental status of EU nationals with respect to matters covered by European Union treaties. Citizenship is membership in a political community (originally a city or town but now usually a country) and carries with it rights to political participation; a person having such membership is a citizen. ... European Court of Justice building, Luxembourg The Court of Justice of the European Communities, usually called the European Court of Justice (ECJ), is the highest court of the European Union (EU). ... The Commission seat in Brussels The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive body of the European Union. ...

See also

European Union Portal

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Freedom of movement for workers is a policy chapter of the acquis communotaire of the European Union. ... Kunqian Catherine Zhu also known as Catherine Chen was born on 16 September 2000 in Belfast to Chinese parents who were working for a Chinese firm in Britain. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The European Citizens’ Consultations are the first pan-European participatory project to involve citizens from all 27 Member States of the European Union into the debate about the Future of Europe. ...

Further reading

  • Maas, Willem (2007). Creating European Citizens. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-7425-5485-6; ISBN 978-0-7425-5486-3 (paperback). 
  • Meehan, Elizabeth (1993). Citizenship and the European Community. London: Sage. ISBN 978-0-8039-8429-5. 
  • O'Leary, Síofra (1996). The Evolving Concept of Community Citizenship. The Hague: Kluwer Law International. ISBN 978-9-0411-0878-4. 
  • Wiener, Antje (1998). 'European' Citizenship Practice: Building Institutions of a Non-State. Boulder: Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-3689-9. 


  • ^  Treaty of Rome (consolidated version): Article 17, Article 18, Article 19 and Article 20
  • ^  Micheletti v Delegación del Gobierno en Cantabria (Case C-396/90) [1992] ECR I-4239
  • ^  Grzelczyk v Centre Public d'Aide Sociale d'Ottignes-Louvain-la-Neuve (Case C-184/99) [2001] ECR I-6193, para. 31



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