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Encyclopedia > Citizenship
Legal status of Persons
Concepts

Citizenship
Nationality
Naturalization
Leave to Remain
Immigration
Illegal immigration
Statelessness The word citizen may refer to: A person with a citizenship Citizen Watch Co. ... This article is about the 2006 film. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... In law legal status refers to the concept of individuals having a particular place in society, relative to the law, as it determines the laws which affect them. ... For other uses, see Person (disambiguation). ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... A judge swears in a new citizen. ... The Leave to Remain is the legal status of a person issued by a government office of internal affairs to one who is not yet a citizen. ... Illegal alien and Illegal aliens redirect here. ... It has been suggested that Stateless person be merged into this article or section. ...

Legal designations

Citizen
Native-born citizen
Naturalized citizen
Dual-citizen
Alien
Migrant worker
Refugee
Illegal immigrant
Political prisoner
Stateless person
Administrative detainee
A native-born citizen or natural-born citizen of a country is a person who is legally recognized as that countrys citizen as of the moment of birth, rather than by acquiring citizenship afterwards through naturalization. ... Naturalization is the process whereby a person becomes a national of a nation, or a citizen of a country, other than the one of his birth. ... Multiple citizenship is simultaneous citizenship in two or more countries (whether it is recognized by all countries or not). ... In U.S. law, an alien is a term Americans use for a person who owes political allegiance to another country or government and not a native or naturalized citizen of the land where they are found. ... Migrant farm worker, New York A migrant worker is someone who regularly works away from home, if they even have a home. ... Illegal alien and Illegal aliens redirect here. ... A political prisoner is someone held in prison or otherwise detained, perhaps under house arrest, because their ideas or image are deemed by a government to either challenge or threaten the authority of the state. ... A stateless person is someone with no citizenship or nationality. ... Administrative detention is a military term used in Israel to refer to political prisoners —people held as criminals while not actually being charged. ...

Social politics

Immigration law
Nationality law
Nationalism
Nativism (politics)
Immigration debate
Immigration law refers to national government policies which control the phenomenon of immigration to their country. ... Nationality law is the branch of a countrys legal system wherein legislation, custom and court precedent combine to define the ways in which that countrys nationality and citizenship are transmitted, acquired or lost. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Illegal immigration refers to a mass-immigration of people across national borders —in direct violation of the immigration laws of the country of destination. ...

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Citizenship is membership in a political community (originally a city or town but now usually a country) and carries with it rights to political participation; a person having such membership is a citizen. It is largely coterminous with nationality,[citation needed] although it is possible to have a nationality without being a citizen (i.e., be legally subject to a state and entitled to its protection without having rights of political participation in it); it is also possible to have political rights without being a national of a state. In most nations, a non-citizen is a non-national and called either a foreigner or an alien. In the United States, because there is state citizenship, foreign is the legal term for someone not a citizen of the state, and alien is reserved for someone not a citizen of the United States. Thus New York insurance companies are foreign in New Jersey, while a Dutch insurer is alien. For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... For the direction right, see left and right or starboard. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ...


Citizenship, which is explained above, is the political rights of an individual within a society. Thus, you can have a citizenship from one country and be a national of another country. One example might be as follows: A Cuban-American might be considered a national of Cuba due to his being born there, but he could also become an American citizen through naturalization. Nationality most often derives from place of birth (i.e. jus soli) and, in some cases, ethnicity (i.e. jus sanguinis). Citizenship derives from a legal relationship with a state. Citizenship can be lost, as in denaturalization, and gained, as in naturalization. Jus soli (Latin for right of the territory), or birthright citizenship, is a right by which nationality or citizenship can be recognised to any individual born in the territory of the related state. ... Jus sanguinis (Latin for right of blood) is a right by which nationality or citizenship can be recognised to any individual born to a parent who is a national or citizen of that state. ... Please note: Any racial comments are not intended to be racist. ... A judge swears in a new citizen. ...


The term Active Citizenship implies working towards the betterment of one's community through economic participation, public service, volunteer work, and other such efforts to improve life for all citizens. In this vein, schools in England provide lessons in citizenship.[1] In Wales the model used is Personal and Social Education.[2][3] Active citizenship generally refers to a philosophy espoused by some organizations and educational institutions. ... For other uses, see Community (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Volunteer (disambiguation). ... Students in Rome, Italy. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Personal and Social Education (PSE) is a component of the state school curriculum in Wales. ...

Contents

Supranational citizenship

In recent years, some intergovernmental organizations have extended the concept and terminology associated with citizenship to the international level, where it is applied to the totality of the citizens of their constituent countries combined. Two examples are given below, of citizenship in the European Union, and also of citizenship within the Commonwealth of Nations. Citizenship at this level is a secondary concept, with rights deriving from national citizenship. For the political science journal, see: International Organization An international organization (also called intergovernmental organization) is an organization of international scope or character. ...


European Union (EU) citizenship

The Maastricht Treaty introduced the concept of citizenship of the European Union. Article 17 (1) of the amended EC Treaty[4] states that Citizenship of the Union was introduced by the Maastricht Treaty signed in 1992. ... The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty of European Union, TEU) was signed on February 7, 1992 in Maastricht, Netherlands after final negotiations in December 1991 between the members of the European Community and entered into force on November 1, 1993 during the Delors Commission. ... Citizenship of the Union was introduced by the Maastricht Treaty signed in 1992. ... The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony Signatures in the Treaty The Treaty of Rome refers to the treaty which established the European Economic Community (EEC) and was signed by France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg on March 25, 1957. ...

Citizenship of the Union is hereby established. Every person holding the nationality of a Member State shall be a citizen of the Union. Citizenship of the Union shall complement and not replace national citizenship.

The amended EC Treaty[4] establishes certain minimal rights for EU citizens. Article 12 of the amended EC Treaty guarantees a general right of non-discrimination within the scope of the Treaty. Article 18 provides a limited right to free movement and residence in Member States other than that of which the EU citizen is a national. Articles 18-21 and 225 provide certain political rights. The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony Signatures in the Treaty The Treaty of Rome refers to the treaty which established the European Economic Community (EEC) and was signed by France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg on March 25, 1957. ...


Union citizens have also extensive rights to move in order to exercise economic activity in any of the Member States (Articles 39, 43, 49 EC), which predate the introduction of Union citizenship. For the substantive law on the single market of the European Union, see Four Freedoms (European Union). ...


Commonwealth citizenship

The concept of "Commonwealth Citizenship" has been in place ever since the establishment of the Commonwealth of Nations. As with the EU, one holds Commonwealth citizenship only by being a citizen of a Commonwealth member state. This form of citizenship offers certain privileges within some Commonwealth countries: A Commonwealth citizen, formerly known as a British subject, is generally a person who is a national of any country within the Commonwealth of Nations. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2007 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Kamalesh Sharma Appointed 24 November 2007 Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total...

  • Some such countries do not require tourist visas of citizens of other Commonwealth countries.
  • In some Commonwealth countries resident citizens of other Commonwealth countries are entitled to political rights, e.g., the right to vote in local and national elections and in some cases even the right to stand for election.
  • In some instances the right to work in any position (including the civil service) is granted, except for certain specific positions (e.g. defense, Governor-General or President, Prime Minister).

Whilst Commonwealth citizenship is sometimes enshrined in the written constitutions (where applicable) of Commonwealth states and is considered by some to be a form of multiple citizenship, there have never been, nor are there any plans for a common passport. Entry visa valid in Schengen treaty countries. ... Permanent residency refers to a persons status such that the person is allowed to reside indefinitely within the country despite not having citizenship. ... Suffrage is the civil right to vote, or the exercise of that right. ... The Roman civil service in action. ... Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Countries that do (yellow) and do not (red) permit multiple citizenship. ... For Microsoft Corporation’s “universal login” service, formerly known as Microsoft Passport Network, see Windows Live ID. For other types of travel document, see Travel document. ...


Although the Republic of Ireland left the Commonwealth in 1949, it is often treated as if it were a member, with references being made in legal documents to 'the Commonwealth and the Republic of Ireland', and its citizens are not classified as foreign nationals, particularly in the United Kingdom.


Canada departed from the principle of nationality being defined in terms of allegiance in 1921. In 1935 the Irish Free State was the first to introduce its own citizenship (However, Irish citizens were still treated as subjects of the Crown, and they are still not regarded as foreign, even though Ireland is not a member of the Commonwealth; Murray v Parkes [1942] All ER 123). This article is about the prior state. ... Irish nationality law is the law of the Republic of Ireland governing citizenship. ... In British nationality law, the term British subject has at different times had different meanings. ...


The Canadian Citizenship Act which came into effect on January 1, 1947 provided for a distinct Canadian Citizenship, automatically conferred upon most individuals born in Canada (with certain exceptions) and defined the conditions under which one could become a naturalized citizen. The concept of Commonwealth citizenship was introduced in 1948 in the British Nationality Act 1948. Other Dominions adopted this principle, in New Zealand, in the British Nationality and New Zealand Citizenship Act 1948. Citizenship has replaced allegiance, a more than symbolic change. The Canadian Citizenship Act is an Act of the Government of Canada, which came into effect on July 1, 1947, recognizing the definition of a Canadian, including reference to them being British subjects. ... This article concerns the History of British nationality law. ... This article is about Dominions of the British Empire and of the Commonwealth of Nations. ...


Subnational citizenship

Citizenship most usually relates to membership of the nation state, but the term can also apply at subnational level. Subnational entities may impose requirements, of residency or otherwise, which permit citizens to participate in the political life of that entity, or to enjoy benefits provided by the government of that entity. But in such cases, those eligible are also sometimes seen as "citizens" of the relevant state, province, or region. An example of this is how the fundamental basis of Swiss citizenship is citizenship of an individual commune, and thus of a canton and of the Confederation.


Honorary citizenship

Some countries extend "honorary citizenship" to those whom they consider to be especially admirable or worthy of the distinction.


By act of United States Congress and presidential assent, honorary United States citizenship has been awarded to only six individuals. Note, this is not immigration to another country, it is when another country requests one to be a citizen. An Act of Vaginapenis is a bill or resolution adopted by both houses of the United States Congress to which one of the following events has happened: Acceptance by the President of the United States, Inaction by the President after ten days from reception (excluding Sundays) while the Congress is... A non-United States citizen of exceptional merit may be declared an Honorary Citizen of the United States by the President pursuant to an Act of Congress. ...


Honorary Canadian citizenship requires the unanimous approval of Parliament. The only people to ever receive honorary Canadian citizenship are Raoul Wallenberg posthumously in 1985, Nelson Mandela in 2001, the 14th Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso in 2006, and Aung San Suu Kyi in 2007. Raoul Wallenberg, the first honorary citizen of Canada. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Senate Chamber of Parliament Hill in Ottawa. ... Raoul Gustav Wallenberg (August 4, 1912 – July 16, 1947?)[1][2][3] was a Swedish humanitarian sent to Budapest, Hungary under diplomatic cover to rescue Jews from the Holocaust. ... For other people named Mandela, or other uses, see Mandela. ... This article is about the Dalai Lama lineage. ... Tenzin Gyatso is the fourteenth and current Dalai Lama. ... Aung San Suu Kyi (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ; IPA: [6]); born 19 June 1945 in Yangon (Rangoon), is a pro-democracy activist and leader of the National League for Democracy in Myanmar (Burma), and a noted prisoner of conscience and advocate of nonviolent resistance. ...


In 2002 South Korea awarded honorary citizenship to Dutch football (soccer) coach Guus Hiddink who successfully and unexpectedly took the national team to the semi-finals of the 2002 FIFA World Cup. Honorary citizenship was also awarded to Hines Ward, a black Korean American football player, in 2006 for his efforts to minimize discrimination in Korea against half-Koreans. Also see: 2002 (number). ... Guus Hiddink (born 8 November 1946 in Varsseveld) is a Dutch football manager. ... 2002 World Cup redirects here. ... Hines E. Ward, Jr. ... A Korean American is a person of Korean ancestry who was either born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ...


American actress Angelina Jolie received an honorary Cambodian citizenship in 2005 due to her humanitarian efforts. Angelina Jolie (born Angelina Jolie Voight on June 4, 1975) is an American film actor, a former fashion model, and a Goodwill Ambassador for the UN Refugee Agency. ...


Cricketers Matthew Hayden and Herschelle Gibbs were awarded honorary citizenship of St. Kitts and Nevis in March 2007 due to their record-breaking innings' in the 2007 Cricket World Cup. Matthew Lawrence Hayden (born 29 October 1971 in Kingaroy, Queensland to Laurence and Moya Hayden) is an Australian and Queensland cricketer. ... Herschelle Herman Gibbs (born 23 February 1974 in Cape Town) is a South African cricketer, more specifically a batsman. ... The 2007 ICC Cricket World Cup was a mens cricket tournament that took place in the West Indies from 13 March to 28 April 2007, using the sports one-day international format. ...


In Germany the honorary citizenship is awarded by cities, towns and sometimes federal states. The honorary citizenship ends with the death of the honored or is denied by the council or parliament of the city , town or state. In the case of the of war criminals the honors are denied by "Article VIII, cypher II, letter i of the directive 38 of the Allied Control Council for Germany on October 12, 1946. In some cases for example Berlin honorary citizenship is also denied to members of the former GDR regime e.g. Erich Honecker. Disambiguation Page Global Depositary Receipt East Germany ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Historical citizenship

Historically, many states limited citizenship to only a proportion of their population, thereby creating a citizen class with political rights superior to other sections of the population, but equal with each other. The classical example of a limited citizenry was Athens where slaves, women, and resident foreigners (called metics) were excluded from political rights. The Roman Republic forms another example (see Roman citizenship), and, more recently, the nobility of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth had some of the same characteristics. Athenian democracy (sometimes called Direct democracy) developed in the Greek city-state of Athens. ... In ancient Greece, the term metic meant resident alien, a person who did not have citizen rights in their Greek city-state (polis) of residence. ... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... The toga was the characteristic garment of the Roman citizen. ... Stanisław Antoni Szczuka, a Polish nobleman Szlachta ( ) was the noble class in Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the two countries that later jointly formed the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Polis citizenship

Main article: Polis

The first form of citizenship was based on the way people lived in the ancient Greek times, in small-scale organic communities of the polis. In those days citizenship was not seen as a public matter, separated from the private life of the individual person. The obligations of citizenship were deeply connected into one’s everyday life in the polis. To be truly human, one had to be an active citizen to the community, which Aristotle famously expressed: “To take no part in the running of the community's affairs is to be either a beast or a god!” This form of citizenship was based on obligations of citizens towards the community, rather than rights given to the citizens of the community. This was not a problem because they all had a strong affinity with the polis; their own destiny and the destiny of the community were strongly linked. Also, citizens of the polis saw obligations to the community as an opportunity to be virtuous, it was a source of honour and respect. In Athens, citizens were both ruler and ruled, important political and judicial offices were rotated and all citizens had the right to speak and vote in the political assembly. A polis (πόλις, pronunciation pol-is) plural: poleis (πόλεις) is a city, a city-state and also citizenship and body of citizens. ...


However, an important aspect of polis citizenship was exclusivity. Citizenship in ancient Greece and Rome, as well as Medeval cities that practiced polis citizenship, was exclusive and inequality of status was widely accepted. Citizens had a much higher status than non-citizens: Women, slaves or ‘barbarians’. For example, women were seen to be irration and incapable of political participation (although some, most notably Plato, disagreed). Methods used to determine whether someone could be a citizen or not could be based on wealth (the amount of taxes one paid), political participation, or heritage (both parents had to be born in the polis). For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ...


In the Roman Empire, polis citizenship changed form: Citizenship was expanded from small scale communities to the entire empire. Romans realised that granting citizenship to people from all over the empire legitimised Roman rule over conquered areas. They also found that taxes were more easily collected and the need for expensive military power in those areas with citizenship was reduced. Citizenship in the Roman era was no longer a status of political agency; it had been reduced to a judicial safeguard and the expression of rule and law.


After the collapse of the Roman Empire, the importance of citizenship became less. During the Middle Ages, the search for personal salvation had replaced the pursuit of honour through the exercise of citizenship. The Church replaced the political community as the focus for moral guidance and loyalty.


School subject

Citizenship education is taught as a major subject of the National Curriculum in English schools. It is compulsory in all state schools. Some state schools offer an examination in this subject, all state schools have a statutory requirement to report student's progress in Citizenship.[1] citizenship ...


Citizenship is not taught as a subject in Scottish schools, however they do teach a subject called "Modern Studies" which covers the social, political and economic study of local, national and international issues.[5]


Responsibilities of citizenship

The legally enforceable duties of citizenship vary depending on one's country, and may include such items as:[6]

  • paying taxes (although tourists and illegal aliens also pay some taxes such as sales taxes,etc)
  • serving in the country's armed forces when called upon (in the US even illegal immigrants must serve in case of a draft[7]).
  • obeying the criminal laws enacted by one's government, even while abroad.

Purely ethical and moral duties tend to include: “Conscript” redirects here. ...

  • demonstrating commitment and loyalty to the democratic political community and state
  • constructively criticizing the conditions of political and civic life
  • participating to improve the quality of political and civic life
  • respecting the rights of others
  • defending one's own rights and the rights of others against those who would abuse them
  • exercising one's rights

Bibliography

  • Carens, Joseph (2000). Culture, Citizenship, and Community: A Contextual Exploration of Justice as Evenhandedness. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0198297680. 
  • Heater, Derek (2004). A Brief History of Citizenship. NYU Press. ISBN 978-0814736722. 
  • Kymlicka, Will (1995). Multicultural Citizenship: A Liberal Theory of Minority Rights. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0198290919. 
  • Maas, Willem (2007). Creating European Citizens. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0742554863. 
  • Marshall, T.H. (1950). Citizenship and Social Class and Other Essays. Cambridge University Press. 
  • Smith, Rogers (2003). Stories of Peoplehood: The Politics and Morals of Political Membership. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521520034. 
  • Turner, Bryan S. (1994). Citizenship and Social Theory. Sage. ISBN 978-0803986114. 

Joseph Carens is a Professor at the Department of Political Science of the University of Toronto, Canada. ...

See also

Blood Quantum Laws is an umbrella term that describes legislation enacted to define membership in Native American groups. ... The term Canadians of convenience became prominent in 2006 in conjunction with the evacuation of Canadian citizens from Lebanon during the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict. ... citizenship ... Citizenship of the Union was introduced by the Maastricht Treaty signed in 1992. ... The first people to identify themselves as world citizens were the Stoic philosophers (see Zeno of Citium). ... A global citizens movement refers to a number of organized and overlapping citizens groups who seek to influence public policy often with the hope of establishing global solidarity on an issue. ... Jus sanguinis (Latin for right of blood) is a right by which nationality or citizenship can be recognised to any individual born to a parent who is a national or citizen of that state. ... Jus soli (Latin for right of the territory), or birthright citizenship, is a right by which nationality or citizenship can be recognised to any individual born in the territory of the related state. ... Countries that do (yellow) and do not (red) permit multiple citizenship. ... Nationality law is the branch of a countrys legal system wherein legislation, custom and court precedent combine to define the ways in which that countrys nationality and citizenship are transmitted, acquired or lost. ... Nationality law is the branch of a countrys legal system wherein legislation, custom and court precedent combine to define the ways in which that countrys nationality and citizenship are transmitted, acquired or lost. ... A judge swears in a new citizen. ... A judge swears in a new citizen. ... Permanent residency refers to a persons visa status: the person is allowed to reside indefinitely within a country despite not having citizenship. ... Second class citizen is an informal term used to describe a person who is discriminated against or generally treated unequally within a state or other political jurisdiction. ... A stateless person is someone with no citizenship or nationality. ... A design for a World Citizen flag World Citizen badge World citizen is a term with a variety of meanings, often referring to a person who disapproves of traditional geopolitical divisions derived from national citizenship and approves world government and democracy. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Citizenship; the national curriculum for England. British Government, Department for Children, Schools and Families. Retrieved on 2007-08-09.
  2. ^ NAFWC 13/2003 Personal and Social Education (PSE) and Work-Related Education (WRE) in the Basic Curriculum. Education (WRE) in the Basic Curriculum.. Welsh Assembly Government (15 June 2003). Retrieved on 2007-06-09.
  3. ^ Personal and Social Education Framework: Key Stages 1 to 4 in Wales. Welsh Assembly Government. Retrieved on 2007-06-09.
  4. ^ a b Treaty of Rome (consolidated version)
  5. ^ Modern Studies Association. Retrieved on 2007-08-09.
  6. ^ Patrick, John J. The Concept of Citizenship in Education for Democracy. ERICDigests.org. Retrieved on 2007-08-09.
  7. ^ Who must register?. Selective Service System of the United States. Retrieved on 2007-08-21.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Citizenship - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2112 words)
Citizenship is membership in a political community (originally a city but now usually a state) and carries with it rights to political participation; a person having such membership is a citizen.
In recent years, some intergovernmental organisations have extended the concept and terminology associated with citizenship to the international level, where it is applied to the totality of the citizens of their constituent countries combined.
Whilst Commonwealth citizenship is sometimes enshrined in the written constitutions (where applicable) of Commonwealth states and is considered by some to be a form of dual citizenship, there have never been, nor are there any plans for a common passport.
United States nationality law - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1335 words)
As a historical matter, U.S. citizenship could be forfeited upon the undertaking of various acts, including naturalization in a foreign state, service in foreign armed forces, and voting in a foreign political election.
Rusk (1967) constitutionally limited the government's capacity to terminate citizenship to those cases in which an individual engaged in conduct with an intention of abandoning their citizenship.
There are also special provisions for persons who are deemed to have renounced citizenship for purposes of avoiding U.S. taxation (which is, in theory, applicable up to ten years after the official loss of citizenship), which can result in loss of right to entry into the United States.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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