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Encyclopedia > Citizen Kane
Citizen Kane

Theatrical poster
Directed by Orson Welles
Produced by Orson Welles
Written by Herman J. Mankiewicz
Orson Welles
Starring Orson Welles
Joseph Cotten
Dorothy Comingore
Ruth Warrick
Everett Sloane
George Coulouris
Ray Collins
Agnes Moorehead
Music by Bernard Herrmann
Cinematography Gregg Toland
Editing by Robert Wise
Distributed by RKO Radio Pictures
Release date(s) United States:
May 1, 1941
Running time 119 minutes
Country USA
Language English
Budget $686,034 (est.)
Allmovie profile
IMDb profile

Citizen Kane is a 1941 classic American dramatic film, the first feature film directed by Orson Welles, who also co-authored the screenplay. It was released by RKO Pictures. The story, often considered to be a veiled portrayal of the life of William Randolph Hearst, is fictional.[1] Upon its release, Hearst prohibited mention of the film in any of his newspapers. The film traces the life and career of Charles Foster Kane, a man whose career in the publishing world is born of idealistic social service, but gradually evolves into a ruthless pursuit of power. Narrated principally through flashbacks, the story is revealed through the research of a newspaper reporter seeking to solve the mystery of the newspaper magnate's dying word, "Rosebud". Image File history File links Citizenkane. ... George Orson Welles (May 6, 1915 – October 10, 1985) was an Academy Award-winning American director, writer, actor and producer for film, stage, radio and television. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Joseph Cheshire Cotten (May 15, 1905–February 6, 1994) was an American stage and screen actor. ... Margaret Louise Comingore (August 24, 1913 - December 30, 1971) was an American film actress, best known for her portrayal of Susan Alexander in Orson Welless critically acclaimed movie Citizen Kane. ... Dame Ruth Elizabeth Warrick, D.M., O.S.J., Regend of Cathedral of St. ... Sloane in The Enforcer Everett Sloane (October 1, 1909 – August 6, 1965) was an American television and film actor, songwriter, and theatre director. ... George Coulouris George Coulouris (October 1, 1903- April 25, 1989) was a prominent British film and stage actor. ... Collins in The Racket (1951) Ray Collins (December 10, 1889 – July 11, 1965) was an American actor in film, stage, radio, and television. ... Agnes Robertson Moorehead (December 6, 1900 – April 30, 1994) was an Oscar-nominated American character actress. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Gregg Toland (1904-1948) was an influential American cinematographer, most noted for his work on Orson Welles Citizen Kane. ... Robert Wise (September 10, 1914 – September 14, 2005) was a sound effects editor, film editor, and Academy Award-winning American film producer and director. ... RKO redirects here. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... USD redirects here. ... A drama film is a film that depends mostly on in-depth character development, interaction, and highly emotional themes. ... A reel of film, which predates digital cinematography. ... George Orson Welles (May 6, 1915 – October 10, 1985) was an Academy Award-winning American director, writer, actor and producer for film, stage, radio and television. ... Sample from a screenplay, showing dialogue and action descriptions. ... RKO redirects here. ... For other people named William Randolph Hearst, see William Randolph Hearst (disambiguation) William Randolph Hearst I (April 29, 1863 – August 14, 1951) was an American newspaper magnate. ... In literature, film, television and other media, a flashback (also called analepsis) is an interjected scene that takes the narrative back in time from the current point the story has reached. ...


Citizen Kane is often cited as being one of the most innovative works in the history of film. In 1997, the American Film Institute placed it at number one in its list of the 100 greatest U.S. movies of all time. In a recent poll of film critics and directors conducted by the British Film Institute, Citizen Kane was ranked the number one best film of all time by both groups.[2][3] While there is no agreement upon the greatest film of all time, many publications and organizations have tried to determine the films considered the greatest ever. ... The History of film spans over a hundred years, from the latter part of the 19th century to the beginning of the 21st. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The first of the AFI 100 Years. ... The British Film Institute (BFI) is a charitable organisation established by Royal Charter to encourage the development of the arts of film, television and the moving image throughout the United Kingdom, to promote their use as a record of contemporary life and manners, to promote education about film, television and...

Contents

Synopsis

When enormously-wealthy media magnate Charles Foster Kane (Orson Welles) dies, he utters the word "rosebud". An obituary newsreel documents the events in his public life. The producer of the newsreel asks a reporter, Jerry Thompson (William Alland), to find out about Kane's private life and personality, in particular to discover the meaning behind his last word. The reporter interviews the great man's friends and associates, and Kane's story unfolds as a series of flashbacks. A media proprietor is a person who controls, either through personal ownership or a dominant position in a public company, a significant part of the mass media. ... George Orson Welles (May 6, 1915 – October 10, 1985) was an Academy Award-winning American director, writer, actor and producer for film, stage, radio and television. ... Obituary for World War I death An obituary is a notice of the death of a person, usually published in a newspaper, written or commissioned by the newspaper, and usually including a short biography. ... A newsreel is a documentary film that is regularly released in a public presentation place containing filmed news stories. ... William Alland (March 4, 1916 - November 11, 1997) was an actor, producer, writer and director of science fiction and western films. ...


First, Thompson approaches Kane's second wife, Susan Alexander (Dorothy Comingore), who refuses to tell him anything. Thompson then goes to the library of Walter Parks Thatcher (George Coulouris), a banker who served as Kane's guardian during his childhood. It is there that Thompson learns about Kane's childhood. In the first flashback, Kane as a young child is forced to leave his beloved mother (Agnes Moorehead) when he becomes suddenly wealthy, and is sent to live with Mr. Thatcher, despite the misgivings of Kane's abusive father. Margaret Louise Comingore (August 24, 1913 - December 30, 1971) was an American film actress, best known for her portrayal of Susan Alexander in Orson Welless critically acclaimed movie Citizen Kane. ... George Coulouris George Coulouris (October 1, 1903- April 25, 1989) was a prominent British film and stage actor. ... Agnes Robertson Moorehead (December 6, 1900 – April 30, 1994) was an Oscar-nominated American character actress. ...


Thompson then interviews Kane's personal business manager Mr. Bernstein (Everett Sloane), best friend Jedediah Leland (Joseph Cotten), Susan for a second time, and Kane's butler Raymond (Paul Stewart). Other flashbacks show Kane's entry into the newspaper business and his profit-seeking with low-quality "yellow journalism." He takes control of the newspaper, the New York Inquirer, and hires all the best journalists (which he gets from the Chronicle, the main rival of the Inquirer). His attempted rise to power is documented, including his first marriage to Emily Monroe Norton (Ruth Warrick), a President's niece, and his campaign for the office of governor of New York State. A "love nest" scandal ends both his marriage and his political aspirations. Kane remarries, but his domineering personality destroys his relationships and pushes away his loved ones. Sloane in The Enforcer Everett Sloane (October 1, 1909 – August 6, 1965) was an American television and film actor, songwriter, and theatre director. ... Joseph Cheshire Cotten (May 15, 1905–February 6, 1994) was an American stage and screen actor. ... Paul Stewart was a movie actor who appeared in Citizen Kane, Edge of Doom and the film noir classic Kiss Me Deadly. ... Nasty little printers devils spew forth from the Hoe press in this Puck cartoon of Nov. ... Dame Ruth Elizabeth Warrick, D.M., O.S.J., Regend of Cathedral of St. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ...


Despite Thompson's interviews, he is unable to solve the mystery and concludes that "Rosebud" will forever remain an enigma. At that point, the camera pans over workers burning some of Kane's many possessions. One throws an old sled, with the word "Rosebud" painted on it, into the fire – the same sled that Kane was riding as a child the day his mother sent him away. There is a shot of a chimney with black smoke coming out. For the viewer this solves the "Rosebud" mystery: The sled is a token of the only time in his life when he was poor; but it also represents a time in which he was truly happy and wanted for nothing. After this twist ending, the film ends as it began, with the "No Trespassing" sign. A twist ending or surprise ending is an unexpected conclusion or climax to a work of fiction, and which often contains irony or causes the audience to reevaluate the narrative or characters. ...


Cast

Actor Role
Orson Welles Charles Foster Kane
William Alland Jerry Thompson
Georgia Backus Bertha Anderson
Fortunio Bonanova Signor Matiste
Sonny Bupp Charles Foster Kane III
Ray Collins Jim W. Gettys
Dorothy Comingore Susan Alexander Kane
Joseph Cotten Jedediah Leland
George Coulouris Walter Parks Thatcher
Agnes Moorehead Mary Kane
Erskine Sanford Herbert Carter
Gus Schilling The Headwaiter
Harry Shannon Kane's Father
Everett Sloane Mr. Bernstein
Paul Stewart Raymond
Buddy Swan Young Charles Foster Kane
Ruth Warrick Emily Monroe Norton Kane
Philip Van Zandt Mr. Rawlston

George Orson Welles (May 6, 1915 – October 10, 1985) was an Academy Award-winning American director, writer, actor and producer for film, stage, radio and television. ... William Alland (March 4, 1916 - November 11, 1997) was an actor, producer, writer and director of science fiction and western films. ... Fortunio Bonanova is the pseudonym of Josep Lluís Moll (January 13, 1895 - 1969), who was a baritone singer and a film, theater, and television actor, as well as occasionally functioning as a producer and director. ... Sonny Bupp (born Moyer Bupp on January 10, 1928 in New York City, New York) is a former American child actor. ... Collins in The Racket (1951) Ray Collins (December 10, 1889 – July 11, 1965) was an American actor in film, stage, radio, and television. ... Margaret Louise Comingore (August 24, 1913 - December 30, 1971) was an American film actress, best known for her portrayal of Susan Alexander in Orson Welless critically acclaimed movie Citizen Kane. ... Joseph Cheshire Cotten (May 15, 1905–February 6, 1994) was an American stage and screen actor. ... George Coulouris George Coulouris (October 1, 1903- April 25, 1989) was a prominent British film and stage actor. ... Agnes Robertson Moorehead (December 6, 1900 – April 30, 1994) was an Oscar-nominated American character actress. ... HARRY SHANNON Harry Shannon has been an actor, a singer, an Emmy-nominated songwriter, a recording artist in Europe, a music publisher, a VP of Carolco Pictures (“Terminator 2,” “Total Recall,” “Rambo”), and worked as a free-lance Music Supervisor on films such as “Basic Instinct” and “Universal Soldier. ... Sloane in The Enforcer Everett Sloane (October 1, 1909 – August 6, 1965) was an American television and film actor, songwriter, and theatre director. ... Paul Stewart was a movie actor who appeared in Citizen Kane, Edge of Doom and the film noir classic Kiss Me Deadly. ... Buddy Swan is a former American child actor. ... Dame Ruth Elizabeth Warrick, D.M., O.S.J., Regend of Cathedral of St. ... Philip Phil Van Zandt (Amsterdam, October 4, 1904 - Los Angeles, February 15, 1958) was an actor of film, stage and television. ...

Development

For some time, screenwriter Herman J. Mankiewicz had wanted to write a screenplay about a public figure – perhaps a gangster – whose story would be told by the people that knew him.[4] He had already written an unperformed play entitled, The Tree Will Grow about John Dillinger. Orson Welles liked the idea of multiple viewpoints but was not interested in playing Dillinger. Mankiewicz and Welles talked about picking someone else to use a model. They hit on the idea of using William Randolph Hearst as their central character.[4] Mankiewicz had frequented Hearst's parties until his alcoholism got him barred. Mankiewicz resented this and became obsessed with Hearst and Marion Davies.[4] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... John Dillinger (June 22, 1903 – July 22, 1934) was an American bank robber, considered by some to be a dangerous criminal, while others idealized him as a latter-day Robin Hood. ...


Once they settled on this project, Welles abandoned two other projects, The Smiler with a Knife and an adaptation of Heart of Darkness.[4] Mankiewicz was put under contract by Mercury Productions and was to receive no credit for his work as he was hired as a script doctor. According to his contract with RKO, Welles would be given sole screenplay credit. He had written a rough script consisting of 300 pages of dialogue with occasional stage directions under the title of John Citizen, USA.[4] For other uses, see Heart of Darkness (disambiguation). ...


Sources

The principal source for the story of Citizen Kane was the life of media tycoon William Randolph Hearst, and the film is seen by critics as a fictionalized, unrelentingly hostile parody of Hearst. Hearst often entertained Hollywood celebrities at Hearst Castle (just north of San Luis Obispo, California) – but only as long as they revealed secrets that would be published the following week in the Hearst newspapers. This quid pro quo resulted in Hearst drawing wide resentment from many actors and directors in Hollywood, and Citizen Kane was seen by many as payback for Hearst's exploits. Welles was also inspired by other figures of the day, and the film also contains autobiographical elements. For other people named William Randolph Hearst, see William Randolph Hearst (disambiguation) William Randolph Hearst I (April 29, 1863 – August 14, 1951) was an American newspaper magnate. ... In contemporary usage, a parody (or lampoon) is a work that imitates another work in order to ridicule, ironically comment on, or poke some affectionate fun at the work itself, the subject of the work, the author or fictional voice of the parody, or another subject. ... The Hearst Castle facade is patterned after a Spanish cathedral. ... The city of San Luis Obispo San Luis Obispo (also SLO) is the county seat of San Luis Obispo County, California, USA. Luis is pronounced as Lewis. ... Quid pro quo (Latin for something for something [1]) indicates a more-or-less equal exchange or substitution of goods or services. ...


Hearst

The most overt reference to Hearst comes early in the film, as Kane provides a quote that paraphrases an apocryphal quote attributed to Hearst on the Spanish American War: "You furnish the pictures and I'll furnish the war." Kane states, "You provide the prose poems, I'll provide the war". In real life, Hearst denied saying it, and the only source for the quote is a James Creelman memoir published several years after the statement was reportedly made. The Spanish-American War took place in 1898, and resulted in the United States of America gaining control over the former colonies of Spain in the Caribbean and Pacific. ... James Creelman (November 12, 1859 – February 12, 1915), was a bum during the height of yellow journalism. ...


Welles himself insisted that there were also differences between the men. In 1968, he told Peter Bogdanovich, "You know, the real story of Hearst is quite different from Kane's. And Hearst himself—-as a man, I mean—-was very different." In his documentary F for Fake, Welles claims Kane was originally intended to be based on Howard Hughes (who was to be played by Joseph Cotten) but he later changed it to Hearst. Hearst's biographer, David Nasaw, finds the film's depiction of Hearst unfair: Peter Bogdanovich Serbian Cyrillic Петар Богдановић (born July 30, 1939) is a Serbian-American film director, writer and actor. ... F for Fake (1974) (original French title, Vérités et Mensonges) is the last major film completed by Orson Welles. ... For the Welsh murderer, see Howard Hughes (murderer). ...

Welles' Kane is a cartoon-like caricature of a man who is hollowed out on the inside, forlorn, defeated, solitary because he cannot command the total obedience, loyalty, devotion, and love of those around him. Hearst, to the contrary, never regarded himself as a failure, never recognized defeat, never stopped loving Marion [Davies] or his wife. He did not, at the end of his life, run away from the world to entomb himself in a vast, gloomy art-choked hermitage.[5]

Several other candidates for the basis of the Kane personality have been suggested, the most likely being that of Jules Brulatour, millionaire head of distribution for Eastman Kodak and co-founder of Universal Pictures. Brulatour's second and third wives, Dorothy Gibson and Hope Hampton, both fleeting stars of the silent screen who later had marginal careers in opera, are also believed to have provided inspiration for the Susan Alexander character. Jules Brulatour in 1911 Jules Brulatour (ne Pierre Ernest Jules Brulatour, 1870-1946), was a pioneering figure in US silent cinema. ... Eastman Kodak Company (NYSE: EK) is an American multinational public company which produces photographic materials and equipment. ... Universal Pictures is the main motion picture production/distribution arm of Universal Studios, a subsidiary of NBC Universal. ... Dorothy Gibson in a 1911 publicity photo Dorothy Gibson (nee Dorothy Winifred Brown, May 17, 1889 – February 17, 1946) was a pioneering actress in American silent film and a popular artists model, active in the early 20th century. ... Hope Hampton Hope Hampton (Mae Elizabeth Hampton) (19 February 1897 - 23 January 1982) was a silent motion picture actress, who was noted for her seemingly effortless incarnation of siren and flapper types in silent-picture roles during the 1920s. ...


Orson Welles also claimed that Harold Fowler McCormick's lavish promotion of his second wife Ganna Walska's opera career–despite her renown as a terrible singer–was a direct influence on the screenplay. Roger Ebert, in his DVD commentary on Citizen Kane, suggests that the Alexander character had very little to do with Davies, but, rather, that it was based on Walska, mistress and later wife of Chicago heir Harold Fowler McCormick.[6] McCormick spent thousands of dollars on voice lessons for her and even arranged for Walska to take the lead in a production of Zaza at the Chicago Opera in 1920. But unlike Alexander, Walska got into an argument with director Pietro Cimini during dress rehearsal and stormed out of the production before she appeared. George Orson Welles (May 6, 1915 – October 10, 1985) was an Academy Award-winning American director, writer, actor and producer for film, stage, radio and television. ... Harold Fowler McCormick (1872–1941) was chairman of the board of International Harvester Company. ... Ganna Walska was the owner of Lotusland, a 37 acre garden in Santa Barbara, California. ... Roger Joseph Ebert (born June 18, 1942) is a Pulitzer Prize-winning American film critic. ... Harold Fowler McCormick (1872–1941) was chairman of the board of International Harvester Company. ... Zaza may refer to: The Zaza people, an ethnic group in Eastern Anatolia (Southeastern Turkey). ...


Like the Susan Alexander character, she had a terrible voice, pleasing only to McCormick. Other sources say the Alexander role - and the disastrous opera singing - is a composite of Hampton, Davies, Walska, and the story of Samuel Insull, who built the Chicago Civic Opera House in 1929 for his daughter, who hoped to become famous and sing at the Metropolitan Opera but never did. Samuel Insull (November 11, 1859 - July 16, 1938) was an investor in Chicago who was known for purchasing utilities and railroads. ... Exterior of the Civic Opera House The Chicago Civic Opera House is the permanent home of the Chicago Lyric Opera. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, the lead section of this article may need to be expanded. ...


Welles as Kane

Orson Welles as Charles Foster Kane

There are autobiographical elements to the film. Orson Welles lost his mother when he was only nine years old and his father when he was 15. After this, he became the ward of Chicago's Dr. Maurice Bernstein--and Bernstein is the last name of the only major character in Citizen Kane who receives a completely positive portrayal. Image File history File links Kane1. ... Image File history File links Kane1. ...


The documentary The Battle Over Citizen Kane points out the great irony that Welles's own life story resembled that of Kane far more than Hearst's: an overreaching wunderkind who ended up mournful and lonely in his old age. Citizen Kane's editor Robert Wise summarized: "Well, I thought often afterwards, only in recent years when I saw the film again two or three years ago when they had the fiftieth anniversary, and I suddenly thought to myself, well, Orson was doing an autobiographical film and didn't realize it, because it's rather much the same, you know. You start here, and you have a big rise and tremendous prominence and fame and success and whatnot, and then tail off and tail off and tail off. And at least the arc of the two lives were very much the same..."[1] There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Prodigies are masters of a specific skill or art, a talent which manifests itself at an early age. ... Robert Wise (September 10, 1914 – September 14, 2005) was a sound effects editor, film editor, and Academy Award-winning American film producer and director. ...


Jim Gettys

The character of political boss Jim Gettys is based on Charles F. Murphy, a political leader in New York City's infamous Tammany Hall political machine, who was an enemy of Hearst. In one scene Gettys admonishes Kane for printing a cartoon showing him in prison stripes. This is based on the fact that Murphy, who was a horse-cart driver and owned several bars, was depicted in a 1903 Hearst cartoon wearing striped prison clothes. A caption, referring to the restaurant Murphy frequented, said: "Look out, Murphy. It’s a short lock-step from Delmonico’s to Sing Sing." Charles Francis Murphy (1858 - 1924) was a U.S. political figure. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Tammany Hall was the Democratic Party political machine that played a major role in controlling New York City politics from the 1790s to the 1960s. ... Alternative meaning: Sing Sing (band) Sing Sing Correctional Facility is a prison in Ossining, New York. ...


Rosebud

Orson Welles himself described Rosebud as: "It's a gimmick, really, and rather dollar-book Freud".[7] The symbolic sled 'Rosebud' used in the film was bought for $60,500 by film director Steven Spielberg in 1982. Spielberg commented, "Rosebud will go over my typewriter to remind me that quality in movies comes first".[8][9] Steven Allan Spielberg KBE (born December 18, 1946)[1] is an American film director, producer and screenwriter. ...


According to Louis Pizzitola, author of Hearst Over Hollywood, "Rosebud" was a nickname that Orrin Peck, a friend of William Randolph Hearst, gave to his mother, Phoebe Hearst.[10] It was said that Phoebe was as close, or even closer, to Orrin than she was to her own son, lending a bitter-sweet element to the word's use in a film about a boy being separated from his mother's love.


In 1989, essayist Gore Vidal cited contemporary rumors that "Rosebud" was a nickname Hearst used for his mistress Marion Davies; a reference to her clitoris,[11][12] a claim repeated as fact in the 1996 documentary The Battle Over Citizen Kane. A resultant joke noted, with heavy innuendo, that Hearst and/or Kane died "with 'Rosebud' on his lips."[1] Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Eugene Luther Gore Vidal (born October 3, 1925) (pronounced and , ) is an American author of novels, stage plays, screenplays, and essays, and the scion of a prominent political family. ... Marion Davies (January 3, 1897 – September 22, 1961) was an American actress. ...


Production

During production, Citizen Kane was referred to as RKO 281. Filming took place between July 29 and September 23, 1934. Welles prevented studio executives of RKO from visiting the set. He understood their desire to control projects and he knew they were expecting him to do an exciting film that would correspond to his The War of the Worlds radio broadcast. Welles' RKO contract had given him complete control over the production of the film when he signed on with the studio, something that he never again was allowed to exercise when making motion pictures. RKO 281 is a 1999 dramatic film directed by Benjamin Ross and starring Liev Schreiber, James Cromwell, Melanie Griffith, John Malkovich, and Roy Scheider. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... RKO redirects here. ... For other uses, see The War of the Worlds (disambiguation). ...


Filmmaking innovations

A deep focus shot: everything, including the hat in the foreground and the boy in the distance, is in sharp focus.
A deep focus shot: everything, including the hat in the foreground and the boy in the distance, is in sharp focus.

Film scholars and historians view Citizen Kane as Welles' attempt to create a new style of filmmaking by studying various forms of movie making, and combining them all into one. The most innovative technical aspect of Citizen Kane is the extended use of deep focus.[13] In nearly every scene in the film, the foreground, background and everything in between are all in sharp focus. This was done by renowned cinematographer Gregg Toland through his experimentation with lenses and lighting. Specifically, Toland often used telephoto lenses to shoot close-up scenes. Anytime deep focus was impossible — for example in the scene when Kane finishes a bad review of Alexander's opera while at the same time firing the person who started the review — Toland used an optical printer to make the whole screen appear in focus (visually layering one piece of film onto another). However, some apparently deep-focus shots were the result of in-camera effects, as in the famous example of the scene where Kane breaks into Susan Alexander's room after her suicide attempt. In the background, Kane and another man break into the room, while simultaneously the medicine bottle and a glass with a spoon in it are in closeup in the foreground. The shot was an in-camera matte shot. The foreground was shot first, with the background dark. Then the background was lit, the foreground darkened, the film rewound, and the scene re-shot with the background action. Image File history File links Citizen_Kane_deep_focus. ... Image File history File links Citizen_Kane_deep_focus. ... A film being made in Warsaw, Bracka street Filmmaking is the process of making a film, from an initial story idea or commission through scriptwriting, shooting, editing and finally distribution to an audience. ... A scene from William Wylers film, The Best Years of Our Lives, exemplifies deep focus. ... Gregg Toland (1904-1948) was an influential American cinematographer, most noted for his work on Orson Welles Citizen Kane. ... An optical printer with two projector heads, used in producing movie special effects. ... An in-camera effect is any special effect in a video or movie that is created solely by using techniques in and on the camera and/or its parts. ...


Another unorthodox method used in the film was the way low-angle shots were used to display a point of view facing upwards, thus allowing ceilings to be shown in the background of several scenes.[14] Since movies were primarily filmed on sound stages and not on location during the era of the Hollywood studio system, it was impossible to film at an angle that showed ceilings because the stages had none. In some instances, Welles' crew used muslin draped above the set to produce the illusion of a regular room with a ceiling, while the boom mikes were hidden above the cloth. Low Angle Shots are usualy when the camera is down low (often knee height)and the shot is upwards. ... Soundstage redirects here. ... ... The studio system was a means of film production and distribution dominant in Hollywood from the early 1920s through the early 1950s. ... Muslin is a type of finely-woven cotton fabric, introduced to Europe from the Middle East in the 17th century. ...


One of the story-telling techniques introduced in this film was using an episodic sequence on the same set while the characters changed costume and make-up between cuts so that the scene following each cut would look as if it took place in the same location, but at a time long after the previous cut. In this way, Welles chronicled the breakdown of Kane's first marriage, which took years of story time, in a matter of minutes. Matrimony redirects here. ...


Welles also pioneered several visual effects in order to cheaply shoot things like crowd scenes and large interior spaces. For example, the scene where the camera in the opera house rises dramatically to the rafters to show the workmen showing a lack of appreciation for the second Mrs. Kane's performance was shot by panning a camera upwards over the performance scene, then a curtain wipe to a miniature of the upper regions of the house, and then another curtain wipe matching it again with the scene of the workmen. Other scenes effectively employed miniatures to make the film look much more expensive than it truly was, such as various shots of Xanadu. A loud, full screen closeup of the typewriter typing a single word magnifies the review for the Chicago Inquirer—"weak".[15] A shot featuring the construction of Xanadu Xanadu is the fictional estate of Charles Foster Kane, the title character of the film Citizen Kane. ...


The film broke new ground with its use of special effects makeup, created by makeup artist Maurice Seiderman, believably aging the cast many decades over the course of the story. The details extended down to hazy contact lenses to make Cotten's eyes look rheumy as an old man.[citation needed] Welles later claimed that his own dashing appearance as a young man also involved a lot of makeup (including some strategically applied surgical gauze and tape) skillfully applied by Maurice Seiderman to give him a mini-facelift.[citation needed]


Welles brought his experience with sound from radio along to filmmaking, producing a layered and complex soundtrack. In one scene, the elderly Kane strikes Susan in a tent on the beach, and the two characters silently glower at each other while a woman at the nearby party can be heard hysterically laughing in the background, her giddiness in grotesque counterpoint to the misery of Susan and Kane. Elsewhere, Welles skillfully employed reverberation to create a mood, such as the chilly echo of the monumental library, where the reporter is confronted by an intimidating, officious librarian.


In addition to expanding on the potential of sound as a creator of moods and emotions, Welles pioneered a new aural technique, known as the "lightning-mix". Welles used this technique to link complex montage sequences via a series of related sounds or phrases. In offering a continuous sound track, Welles was able to join what would otherwise be extremely rough cuts together into a smooth narrative. For example, the audience witnesses Kane grow from a child into a young man in just two shots. As Kane's guardian hands him his sled, Kane begrudingly wishes him a "Merry Christmas". Suddenly we are taken to a shot of his guardian fifteen years later, only to have the phrase completed for us: "and a Happy New Year". In this case, the continuity of the soundtrack, not the image, is what makes for a seamless narrative structure.[16] Film editing is the connecting of one or more shots to form a sequence, and the subsequent connecting of sequences to form an entire movie. ... In film, a shot is a continuous strip of motion picture film, created of a series of frames, that runs for an uninterrupted period of time. ...


Welles also carried over techniques from radio not yet popular in the movies (though they would become staples). Using a number of voices, each saying a sentence or sometimes merely a fragment of a sentence, and splicing the dialogue together in quick succession, the result gave the impression of a whole town talking - and, equally important, what the town was talking about. Welles also favored the overlapping of dialogue, considering it more realistic than the stage and movie tradition of characters not stepping on each other's sentences. He also pioneered the technique of putting the audio ahead of the visual in scene transitions (an L-cut); as a scene would come to a close, the audio would transition to the next scene before the visual did. In cinema, an L cut, also known as a split edit, is a transition from one shot to another, where the picture transition does not occur coincidentally with the audio transition. ...


Reception

In a 1941 review, Jorge Luis Borges called Citizen Kane a "metaphysical detective story," in that "... [its] subject (both psychological and allegorical) is the investigation of a man's inner self, through the works he has wrought, the words he has spoken, the many lives he has ruined..." Borges noted that "Overwhelmingly, endlessly, Orson Welles shows fragments of the life of the man, Charles Foster Kane, and invites us to combine them and reconstruct him." As well, "Forms of multiplicity and incongruity abound in the film: the first scenes record the treasures amassed by Kane; in one of the last, a poor woman, luxuriant and suffering, plays with an enormous jigsaw puzzle on the floor of a palace that is also a museum." Borges points out, "At the end we realize that the fragments are not governed by a secret unity: the detested Charles Foster Kane is a simulacrum, a chaos of appearances."[17] Borges redirects here. ... Simulacrum (plural: simulacra), from the Latin simulare, to make like, to put on an appearance of, originally meaning a material object representing something (such as a cult image representing a deity, or a painted still-life of a bowl of fruit). ...


Despite numerous positive reviews from critics at the time,[18] the film was not a box office success, just making back enough to cover the budget, but not enough to make a profit. This resulted in Welles's career suffering a crippling blow. He spent the rest of his life struggling to make films on his own terms. He did live long enough to see his debut film acknowledged as a classic, and late in life he famously remarked that he'd started at the top and spent the rest of his life working his way down. In accountancy, Hollywood accounting is the practice of distributing the profit earned by a large project to corporate entities which, though distinct from the one responsible for the project itself, are typically owned by the same people. ...


Due to the Second World War, Citizen Kane was little seen and virtually forgotten until its release in Europe in 1946, where it gained considerable acclaim, particularly from French film critics such as André Bazin. In the United States, it was neglected and forgotten until its revival in the late 1950s, and its critical fortunes have skyrocketed since. Critics worldwide began listing it among the best films ever made. The Sight & Sound Top Ten list, revised every ten years, began in 1952 and first listed Citizen Kane in 1962.[19] Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... France has been influential in the development of film as a mass medium and as an art form. ... Film criticism is the analysis and evaluation of films. ... André Bazin on the cover of the third volume of the original edition of Quest-ce que le cinéma? André Bazin (April 18, 1918 – November 11, 1958) was a renowned and influential French film critic and film theorist. ... While it is impossible to objectively determine the greatest film of all time, it is possible to discuss the films that have been regarded as the greatest ever. ... Sight & Sound is a British monthly magazine about film. ...


Hearst's response

Hearing about the film enraged Hearst so much that he offered RKO Pictures $800,000 to destroy all prints of the film and burn the negative. Although it is often said that Hearst was upset because the film was about him, one alternative theory is that Hearst was more upset about the portrayal of his mistress, Marion Davies (as singer Susan Alexander) than himself in the film. Davies was a light comedic actress who was talked by Hearst into starring in pompous costume dramas many thought were out of her depth.[citation needed]


When RKO rejected Hearst's offer to suppress the film, Hearst flew into so extreme a rage that he banned every newspaper and station in his media conglomerate from reviewing — or even mentioning — the movie. The documentary The Battle Over Citizen Kane lays the blame for Citizen Kane's relative failure squarely at the feet of Hearst. Even though it did decent business at the box-office and went on to be the sixth highest grossing film in its year of release, this fell short of its creators's expectations but was still acceptable to its backers. In The Chief: The Life of William Randolph Hearst, David Nasaw points out that Hearst's actions were not the only reason Kane failed, however: the innovations Welles made with narrative, as well as the dark message at the heart of the film (that the pursuit of success is ultimately futile) meant that a popular audience could not appreciate its merits (Nasaw, 572-573). There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


In a series of documentaries about Welles's career made and broadcast by the BBC in 1982, Welles claimed that during opening week, a policeman approached him one night and told him: "Do not go to your hotel room tonight; Hearst has set up an undressed woman to leap into your arms when you enter and a photographer to take pictures of you. Hearst is planning to publish it in all of his papers." Welles thanked the man and stayed out all night. However, it is not confirmed whether this was true or not. Welles also described his only meeting with William Randolph Hearst: in an elevator in a building in San Francisco, where the film was being premiered. Welles offered Hearst some free tickets but the tycoon declined to answer; Welles later stated that Charles Foster Kane would probably have accepted the offer. For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...


Although Hearst's efforts to suppress it damaged the film's success, they backfired in the long run, since almost every reference of Hearst's life and career made today typically includes a reference to the film's parallel to it. The irony of Hearst's efforts is that the film is now inexorably connected to him. This connection was reinforced by the publication in 1961 of W. A. Swanberg's extensive biography titled Citizen Hearst. The Streisand effect is a category of Internet phenomena in which an attempt to censor or remove (in particular, by the means of cease-and-desist letters) a certain piece of information (for example, a photograph, file, or even a whole website) instead backfires, causing the information in question to... For other uses, see Biography (disambiguation). ...


Awards

Academy Awards

Theatrical release poster
Theatrical release poster

Win: Download high resolution version (489x643, 43 KB)Citizen Kane film poster File links The following pages link to this file: Citizen Kane Movies that have been considered the greatest ever Categories: Fair use posters ... Download high resolution version (489x643, 43 KB)Citizen Kane film poster File links The following pages link to this file: Citizen Kane Movies that have been considered the greatest ever Categories: Fair use posters ...

Nominations: // The Academy Award for Writing Original Screenplay is the Academy Award for the best script not based upon previously published material. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Boos were heard almost every time Citizen Kane was referred to during the Oscars ceremony that year.[20] Most of Hollywood did not want the film to see the light of day considering the threats that William Randolph Hearst had made if it did. ©A.M.P.A.S.® The Academy Award for Best Motion Picture is one of the Awards of Merit presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) to artists working in the motion picture industry. ... The Academy Award for Directing is one of the awards given to directors working in the motion picture industry by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. ... Performance by an Actor in a Leading Role is one of the Academy Awards of Merit presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) to recognize an actor who has delivered an outstanding performance while working within the film industry. ... The Academy Award for Film Editing was first given for films issued in 1934. ... Robert Wise (September 10, 1914 – September 14, 2005) was a sound effects editor, film editor, and Academy Award-winning American film producer and director. ... The Academy Awards are the oldest awards ceremony for achievements in motion pictures. ... Charles Rosher the first recipient in 1928 The Academy Award for Best Cinematography is awarded each year to a cinematographer for his work in one particular motion picture. ... Gregg Toland (1904-1948) was an influential American cinematographer, most noted for his work on Orson Welles Citizen Kane. ... The Academy Award for Sound Mixing is an Academy Award that recognizes the finest or most aesthetic sound mixing or recording, and is generally awarded to the production sound mixers and re-recording mixers of the winning film. ... The Academy Award for Original Music Score is presented to the best substantial body of music in the form of dramatic underscoring written specifically for the film by the submitting composer. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The American Film Institute put the film at the top of its "100 Greatest Movies" lists, having the top on the 1997 and 2007 lists. In 1989, the United States Library of Congress deemed the film "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant" and selected it for preservation in the National Film Registry. This film is consistently in the top 25 on the Internet Movie Database. Beginning in 1962, and every ten years since, it has been voted the best film ever made by the Sight and Sound critics' poll. The quote, "Rosebud," was listed as no. 17 on the American Film Institute's AFI's 100 Years... 100 Movie Quotes. The film has also ranked number one in the following film "best of" lists: Editorial Jaguar, FIAF Centenary List, France Critics Top 10, Kinovedcheskie Russia Top 10, Romanian Critics Top 10, Time Out Magazine Greatest Films, and Village Voice 100 Greatest Films. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The first of the AFI 100 Years. ... Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888 to May 15, 1894. ... The National Film Registry is the registry of films selected by the United States National Film Preservation Board for preservation in the Library of Congress. ... For the in-memory database management system, see In-memory database. ... Sight and Sound is a British monthly magazine about film. ... Part of the AFI 100 Years. ...


Other Awards

7th New York Film Critics Circle Awards December 31, 1941 The 7th New York Film Critics Circle Awards, announced on 31 December 1941, honored the best filmmaking of 1941. ...

Debate over authorship

One of the long standing academic debates of Citizen Kane has been the nature of the authorship of the original screenplay, which the opening credits attributes to both Welles and Herman J. Mankiewicz. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Most famously, film critic Pauline Kael, in an essay titled "Raising Kane" (originally published in The New Yorker in 1971 and later reprinted in The Citizen Kane Book and in her omnibus collection For Keeps) claims that Welles downplayed veteran screenwriter Herman J. Mankiewicz's contribution. Kael argues that Mankiewicz was the true author of the screenplay and therefore responsible for much of what made the movie great. This angered many critics of the day, most notably critic-turned-filmmaker (and close friend of Welles) Peter Bogdanovich, who rebutted many of Kael's claims. Pauline Kael (June 19, 1919 – September 3, 2001) was an American film critic who wrote for The New Yorker magazine from 1968 to 1991. ... For other uses, see New Yorker. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Peter Bogdanovich Serbian Cyrillic Петар Богдановић (born July 30, 1939) is a Serbian-American film director, writer and actor. ...


Bernard Herrmann was equally vocal in his criticism of Kael's claim not only on her position that it was Mankiewicz, not Welles, who made the main thrust of the film but also in her assumptions about the use of music in the film without consulting him: This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Pauline Kael has written in The Citizen Kane Book (1971), that the production wanted to use Massenet’s "Thais" but could not afford the fee. But Miss Kael never wrote or approached me to ask about the music. We could easily have afforded the fee. The point is that its lovely little strings would not have served the emotional purpose of the film.[21]

Robert L. Carringer, in a 1978 essay titled "The Scripts Of Citizen Kane," and in his 1985 book The Making Of Citizen Kane, refutes Kael's claim that Mankiewicz was the sole author of the screenplay. After analysis of the seven script revisions of the film, Carringer found the film's dual credit for both Welles and Mankiewicz to be accurate. The script revisions indicate the different contributions and the author of each of those contributions and prove, according to Carringer, that Mankiewicz did not write the script entirely on his own and that Welles contributed to it significantly.


Criticism

Despite its status, Citizen Kane is not entirely without its critics. Boston University film scholar Ray Carney, although noting its technical achievements, criticized what he saw as the film's lack of emotional depth, shallow characterization and empty metaphors. Listing it among the most overrated works within the film community, he accused the film of being "an all-American triumph of style over substance... indistinguishable from the opera production within it: attempting to conceal the banality of its performances by wrapping them in a thousand layers of acoustic and visual processing." Of its director, he went on to state, "Welles is Kane — in a sense he couldn't have intended — substituting razzle-dazzle for truth and hoping no one notices the sleight of hand." He also criticized critics and scholars of allowing themselves to be pandered to, stating "critics obviously enjoy being told what to think or they'd never sit still for the hammy acting, cartoon characterizations, tendentious photography, editorializing blockings, and absurdly grandiose (and annoyingly insistent) metaphors....When will film studies grow up? Even Jedediah Leland, the opera reviewer in the film, knew better than to be taken in by Salammbo's empty reverberations."[22] For the similarly named institution in Chestnut Hill, see Boston College. ... Ray Carney, also known as Raymond Carney, is an American interdisciplinary arts scholar primarily known for his work as a film theorist. ... Jedediah Leland, played by Joseph Cotten, is a main character in the 1941 film Citizen Kane. ...


Similarly, James Agate wrote, "I thought the photography quite good, but nothing to write to Moscow about, the acting middling, and the whole thing a little dull...Mr. Welles's high-brow direction is of that super-clever order which prevents you from seeing what that which is being directed is all about."[23] James Agate (1877-1947) was a British writer famous for his witticisms. ...


Prints

Welles' original master film negative of Citizen Kane was destroyed in a fire in the 1970s at his villa in Madrid, Spain, along with the only known print of Welles' 1938 short film Too Much Johnson. Until 1991, all existing theatrical prints of the film were made from copies of the original. When the rights to the film were purchased by Ted Turner's Turner Entertainment (which bought the rights to the MGM and RKO film libraries), film restoration techniques were used to produce a pristine print for a 50th Anniversary theatrical revival reissue in 1991 (released by Paramount Pictures). The 2003 British DVD edition is taken from an interpositive held by the British Film Institute. The current US DVD version (released by Warner Home Video) is taken from another digital restoration, supervised by Turner. The transfer to Region 1 DVD has been criticised by some film experts for being too bright. Also, in the scene in Bernstein's office (chapter 10) rain falling outside the window has been digitally erased, probably because it was thought to be excessive film grain. These alterations are not present in the UK Region 2, which is also considered to be more accurate in terms of contrast and brightness. This article is about the Spanish capital. ... Turner Entertainment Company was established August 4, 1986 to oversee Turner Broadcastings film library after its acquisition of MGM/UA. In addition to the studio, Turner got its library, which included all of MGMs films, Warner Bros. ... MGM logo Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer or MGM, is a large media company, involved primarily in the production and distribution of cinema and television programs. ... The film preservation, or film restoration, movement is an ongoing project among film historians, archivists, museums, and non-profit organizations to rescue decaying film stock and preserve the images which they contain. ... Paramount Pictures Corporation is an American motion picture production and distribution company, based in Hollywood, California. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc - see Etymology) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The British Film Institute (BFI) is a charitable organisation established by Royal Charter to encourage the development of the arts of film, television and the moving image throughout the United Kingdom, to promote their use as a record of contemporary life and manners, to promote education about film, television and...


In 2003, Orson Welles' daughter Beatrice sued Turner Entertainment and RKO Pictures, claiming that the Welles estate is the legal copyright holder of the film. Her attorney said that Orson Welles had left RKO with an exit deal terminating his contracts with the studio, meaning that Welles still had an interest in the film and his previous contract giving the studio the copyright of the film was null and void. Beatrice Welles also claimed that, if the courts did not uphold her claim of copyright, RKO nevertheless owes the estate 20% of the profits, from a previous contract which has not been lived up to. Not to be confused with copywriting. ...


On May 30, 2007, the appeals panel agreed that Beatrice Welles could proceed with the lawsuit against Turner Entertainment, the opinion partially overturns the 2004 decision by a lower court judge who had found in favor of Turner Entertainment on the issue of video rights.[24] is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


In the 1980s, this film became the catalyst in the controversy over the colorization of black and white films. When Ted Turner told members of the press that he was considering colorizing Citizen Kane, his comments led to an immediate public outcry. The uproar was for naught, as Turner Pictures had never actually announced that this was an upcoming planned project. Turner later claimed that this was a joke designed to needle colorization critics, and that he had never had any intention of colorizing the film. Turner could not have colorized the film had he wanted to. Welles' original contract prevented any alteration to the film without his, and eventually his estate's, express consent. A colorized image of Laurel and Hardy, from March of the Wooden Soldiers (formally Babes in Toyland). ...


See also

RKO 281 is a 1999 dramatic film directed by Benjamin Ross and starring Liev Schreiber, James Cromwell, Melanie Griffith, John Malkovich, and Roy Scheider. ... Beyond Citizen Kane is an English language documentary made by Simon Hartog in 1993. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... While it is impossible to objectively determine the greatest film of all time, it is possible to discuss the films that have been regarded as the greatest ever. ... A twist ending or surprise ending is an unexpected conclusion or climax to a work of fiction, and which often contains irony or causes the audience to reevaluate the narrative or characters. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c Epstein, Michael; Thomas Lennon. "The Battle Over Citizen Kane", PBS, 1996. Retrieved on 2008-01-14. 
  2. ^ "Critics' Top Ten Poll", British Film Institute, 2002. Retrieved on 2008-01-14. 
  3. ^ "Directors' Top Ten Poll", British Film Institute, 2002. Retrieved on 2008-01-14. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Callow, Simon. "Orson Welles: The Road to Xanadu", Penguin Books, 1995, pp. 484. 
  5. ^ Nasaw, David. "The Chief: The Life of William Randolph Hearst", Houghton Mifflin, 2000, pp. 574. 
  6. ^ Ebert, Roger. "Citizen Kane DVD commentary", Turner Home Entertainment, 2001. 
  7. ^ Cowie, Peter, The Citizen Kane Book (Boston, 1971).
  8. ^ Video Viewer (August, 1982).
  9. ^ Time Magazine, Monday, June 21, 1982
  10. ^ Pizzitola, Louis. "Hearst Over Hollywood." Columbia University Press, 2002.
  11. ^ Vidal, Gore. "Remembering Orson Welles." New York Times, June 1, 1989. Retrieved: 14 January 2008.
  12. ^ Vidal, Gore. "Rosebud." [[New York Times]], August 17, 1989. Retrieved: 14 January 2008.
  13. ^ Ogle, Patrick L; Bill Nichols. "Technological and Aesthetic Influences Upon the Development of Deep Focus Cinematography in the United States", Movies and Methods, University of California Press, 1985, pp. 73. 
  14. ^ Toland, Gregg. "The Motion Picture Cameraman", Theater Arts magazine, September 1941. Retrieved on 2008-01-14. 
  15. ^ Thomas, François. in Naremore, James: Citizen Kane: The Sound Track, in Orson Welles's Citizen Kane: A Casebook. US: Oxford University Press via Google Books limited preview, 173. ISBN 0-1951-5891-1. Retrieved on 2007-11-10. 
  16. ^ Cook, 330.
  17. ^ Borges, Jorge Luis. "Selected Non-Fictions", Viking Press, 1999. 
  18. ^ Griffith, Richard; Arthur Mayer and Eileen Bowser. "The Movies", Simon and Schuster, 1981. 
  19. ^ "The Sight & Sound Top Ten Poll: 1962", British Film Institute, 1962. Retrieved on 2008-01-14. 
  20. ^ Robert Wise's interview, found in The Battle Over Citizen Kane, PBS
  21. ^ http://www.wellesnet.com/?p=176
  22. ^ http://people.bu.edu/rcarney/carncult/orfilms.shtml
  23. ^ http://www.tookeysfilmguide.com/Film.asp?id=2874
  24. ^ Heir to sue for 'Citizen Kane' video rights ABC local, retrieved May 31, 2007

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Further reading

  • Callow, Simon. Orson Welles : Hello Americans London, Johnathon Cape, 2006. ISBN 0-224-038-532
  • Carringer, Robert L. The Making of Citizen Kane. University of California Press, 1985. ISBN 0-520-05876-3
  • Focus on Citizen Kane. Edited by Ronald Gottesman. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1971, 178 pp. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 74-153434
  • Nasaw, David. The Chief: The Life of William Randolph Hearst.New York, Houghton Mifflin, 2000.

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:

  Results from FactBites:
 
Citizen Kane - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3989 words)
Citizen Kane is rumored to be based on the lives of the newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst, the reclusive aerospace and movie mogul Howard Hughes, and the Chicago utilities magnate Samuel Insull.
Kane dies in the opening scene of the film at his estate Xanadu; this is followed by a newsreel pastiche documenting Kane's public life (this segment was produced by RKO's actual newsreel department).
Citizen Kane (1941) • The Magnificent Ambersons (1942) • The Stranger (1946) • The Lady from Shanghai (1947) • Macbeth (1948) • Othello (1952) • Mr.
Citizen Kane (1100 words)
In one of the film's most memorable images, Kane, having torn apart in anger the bedroom of his wife (who's finally worked up the strength to leave him), walks trance-like down an echoing corridor lined with mirrors, where his reflection is multiplied a hundred-fold into the distance.
Citizen Kane is about those images that we all reflect and project, the sum total of which -- the impressions we make on other people -- are all we that leave behind us.
Citizen Kane is a portrait of a public and private figure that, by design, remains tantalizingly unfinished.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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