FACTOID # 21: 15% of Army recruits from South Dakota are Native American, which is roughly the same percentage for female Army recruits in the state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Citation" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Citation
For Wikipedia's citation guideline, see Wikipedia:Citing sources
"Citation needed" redirects here. For the Wikipedia tag, see Template:Fact.

A citation or bibliographic citation is a reference to a book, article, web page, or other published item, with sufficient detail to identify the item uniquely.[1] Different citation systems and styles are used in scientific citation, legal citation, prior art, and the humanities. Look up citation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For Wikipedia guidelines, see Wikipedia:What is an article. ... A screenshot of a web page. ... Scientific citation is the process by which conclusions of previous scientists are used to justify experimental procedures, apparatus, goals or theses. ... Legal citation is the style of crediting and referencing other documents or sources of authority in legal writing. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... For other uses, see Humanities (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Citation content

Citation content may include:

  • of a book: author(s), book title, publisher, date of publication, and page number(s) if appropriate;[2][3]
  • of a journal article: author(s), article title, journal title, volume and issue numbers, date of publication, and page number(s);
  • of a newspaper: author(s), article title, name of newspaper, section title and page number(s) if desired, date of publication;
  • of a work on the Web: author(s), article and publication title where appropriate, as well as a URL, and a date when the site was accessed.
  • of a play: inline citations offer part, scene, and line numbers, the latter separated by periods: 4.452 refers to scene 4, line 452. For example, "In Eugene Onegin, Onegin rejects Tanya when she is free to be his, and only decides he wants her when she is already married" (Pushkin 4.452-53).[4]
  • of a poem: If the text is more than one line of the poem, use a slash (/) with a space before and after it to indicate the separate lines. Include the word "line" or "lines" in the Harvard reference. For example: "For I must love because I live / And life in me is what you give." (Brennan, lines 15-16).[4]

// Uniform Resource Locator (URL) formerly known as Universal Resource Locator, is a technical, Web-related term used in two distinct meanings: In popular usage and many technical documents, it is a synonym for Uniform Resource Identifier (URI); Strictly, the idea of a uniform syntax for global identifiers of network-retrievable...

Unique identifiers

Along with information such as author(s), date of publication, title and page numbers, citations may also include unique identifiers depending on the type of work being referred to.

ISBN redirects here. ... The Serial Item and Contribution Identifier (SICI) is a code (ANSI/NISO standard Z39. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... PMID is an acronym for PubMed Identifier or more specifically PubMed Unique Identifier which is a unique number assigned to each PubMed citation of life sciences and biomedical scientific journal articles. ...

Citation systems

There are broadly two citation systems:[5][6][7]


Parenthetical systems

In-text parenthetical citations include abbreviated source information (for example, author and page number) in parentheses in the article text. This is supplemented by complete source information in a list of Works Cited, References, or Bibliography at the end of the paper.


For example, an excerpt from the text of a paper using a parenthetical reference system might look like this:

The five stages of grief are denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance (Kubler-Ross, 1969, chap.3).

The entry in the References list would look like this:

Kubler-Ross, E. (1969). On death and dying. New York: Macmillian.

Note systems

Note systems involve the use of sequential numbers in the text which refer to either footnotes (notes at the end of the page) or endnotes (a note on a separate page at the end of the paper) which give the source detail. The notes system may or may not require a full bibliography, depending on whether the writer has used a full note form or a shortened note form.


For example, an excerpt from the text of a paper using a notes system without a full bibliography could look like this:

The five stages of grief are denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance.1

The note, located either at the foot of the page (footnote) or at the end of the paper (endnote) would look like this:

1. Elisabeth Kubler-Ross, On Death and Dying (New York: Macmillian, 1969), 45-60.

In a paper which contains a full bibliography, the shortened note could look like this:

1. Kubler-Ross, On Death and Dying, 45-60.

and the bibliography entry, which would be required with a shortened note, would look like this:

Kubler-Ross, Elisabeth. On Death and Dying. New York: Macmillian, 1969.

Citation styles

Style guides

Citation styles can broadly be divided into styles common to the Humanities and the Sciences, though there is considerable overlap. Some style guides, such as the Chicago Manual of Style, are quite flexible and cover both parenthetical and note citation systems.[7] Others, such as MLA and APA styles, specify formats within the context of a single citation system.[6] These may be referred to as citation formats as well as citation styles.[8][9][10] The various guides thus specify order of appearance, for example, of publication date, title, and page numbers following the author name, in addition to conventions of punctuation, use of italics, emphasis, parenthesis, quotation marks, etc, particular to their style. An Identity Standards Manual page—for the graphic design branch of corporate identity design and branding. ... The ACS style, a standard method of citation in academic publications, originated with the American Chemical Society (ACS). ... AP Stylebook, 2004 edition The Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law, usually called the AP Stylebook, is the primary style and usage guide for most newspapers and newsmagazines in the United States. ... The Chicago Manual of Style (abbreviated CMS or CMOS, and spoken as Chicago) is a style guide for American English published by the University of Chicago Press (hence its title), prescribing a writing style widely used in publishing. ... Robert Bringhurst authored three editions of a book entitled The Elements of Typographic Style. ... ISO 690 is an ISO standard, that specifies the elements to be included in bibliographic references to published monographs and serials, to chapters, articles, etc. ... The MHRA Style Guide (formerly the MHRA Style Book) is a widely-used style guide for academic essays and publications in the arts and humanities published by the Modern Humanities Research Association. ... The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (1977; 6th ed. ... The MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (1998), published for the Modern Language Association of America, by Joseph Gibaldi, is the second edition of The MLA Style Manual (1985). ... The New York Times Manual of Style and Usage is a style guide (copyright 1999) by Allan M. Siegal and William G. Connolly. ... Harts Rules for Compositors and Readers at the University Press, Oxford is a reference book and style guide first published in 1893. ... Harts Rules for Compositors and Readers at the University Press, Oxford is a reference book and style guide first published in 1893. ... Further information: MLA Style Manual American Psychological Association (APA) style is a widely-accepted style of documentation for APA style specifies the names and order of headings, formatting and organization of citations and references, and the arrangement of tables, figures, footnotes, and appendices, as well as other manuscript and documentation... Further information: MLA Style Manual American Psychological Association (APA) style is a widely-accepted style of documentation for APA style specifies the names and order of headings, formatting and organization of citations and references, and the arrangement of tables, figures, footnotes, and appendices, as well as other manuscript and documentation... The Modern Language Associations (MLA) style manual is an academic style guide. ... The Chicago Manual of Style (abbreviated CMS or CMOS, and spoken as Chicago) is a style guide for American English published by the University of Chicago Press (hence its title), prescribing a writing style widely used in publishing. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... ASA style is a widely accepted format for writing university research papers that specifies such the arrangement and punctuation of footnotes and bibliographies. ... Harvard referencing — also known as the author-date system [1] and parenthetical system [2] — is a format for writing and organizing citations of source materials. ... The Vancouver system, also known as the author-number system, is a way of writing references in academic papers. ... The MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (2nd ed. ... Further information: MLA Style Manual American Psychological Association (APA) style is a widely-accepted style of documentation for APA style specifies the names and order of headings, formatting and organization of citations and references, and the arrangement of tables, figures, footnotes, and appendices, as well as other manuscript and documentation...


A number of organizations have created styles to fit their needs, consequently a number of different guides exist. Individual publishers often have their own in-house variations as well, and some works are so long established as to have their own citation methods too: Stephanus pagination for Plato; Bekker numbers for Aristotle; Bible citation by book, chapter and verse; or Shakespeare notation by play, act and scene. Stephanus pagination is the system of reference and organisation used in the works of Plato. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Aristotelis Opera Omnia from year 1837. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... A Bible citation is usually referenced with the book name, chapter number and verse number. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ...


Some examples of style guides include:


Humanities

  • The American Political Science Association (APSA) relies on the Style Manual for Political Science, a style often used by political science scholars and historians. It is largely based on that of the Chicago Manual of Style.
  • The ASA style of American Sociological Association is one of the main styles used in sociological publications.
  • The Chicago Style was developed and its guide is The Chicago Manual of Style. Some social sciences and humanities scholars use the nearly identical Turabian style. Used by writers in many fields.
  • The Columbia Style was made by Janice R. Walker and Todd Taylor to give detailed guidelines for citing internet sources. Columbia Style offers models for both the humanities and the sciences.
  • Harvard referencing (or author-date system) is recommended by the British Standards Institution and involves a short reference (e.g Smith, 2000) being inserted after the cited text in parenthesis and the full reference being listed at the end of the article.
  • The MHRA Style Guide is published by the Modern Humanities Research Association, and is most often used in the arts and humanities, particularly in the United Kingdom where the MHRA is based. It is fairly similar to the MLA style, but with some differences. The style guide uses footnotes that fully reference a citation and has a bibliography at the end. Its major advantage is that a reader does not need to consult the bibliography to find a reference as the footnote provides all the details. The guide is available for free download.[11]
  • MLA style was developed by the Modern Language Association and is most often used in the humanities, particularly in English studies, comparative literature, and foreign-language literary criticism. Harvard referencing is used within the text, keyed to an alphabetical list of sources on a Works Cited page at the end of the paper. See the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers.

The American Political Science Association, founded in 1903, serves more than 15,000 members in more than 80 countries, bringing a variety of services to political scientists both inside and outside academic institutions. ... ASA style is a widely accepted format for writing university research papers that specifies such the arrangement and punctuation of footnotes and bibliographies. ... The American Sociological Association (ASA), founded in 1905, is a non-profit organization dedicated to advancing the discipline and profession of sociology by serving sociologists in their work and promoting their contributions. ... Sociology is the study of the social lives of humans, groups and societies. ... The Chicago Manual of Style (abbreviated CMS or CMOS, and spoken as Chicago) is a style guide for American English published by the University of Chicago Press (hence its title), prescribing a writing style widely used in publishing. ... Turabian is the popular name of a format for the writing style of research papers (such as the arrangement and punctuation of footnotes and bibliographies). ... Harvard referencing — also known as the author-date system [1] and parenthetical system [2] — is a format for writing and organizing citations of source materials. ... BSI Group, also known in its home market as the British Standards Institution (or BSI) is a multinational business services provider whose principal activity is the production of standards and the supply of standards-related services. ... The MHRA Style Guide (formerly the MHRA Style Book) is a widely-used style guide for academic essays and publications in the arts and humanities published by the Modern Humanities Research Association. ... The Modern Humanities Research Association (MHRA) is an international organisation that aims to encourage and promote advanced study and research of humanities. ... The MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (2nd ed. ... The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Fifth Edition The Modern Language Association of America (MLA) is the principal professional association in the United States for scholars of literature and literary criticism. ... English studies is an academic discipline that includes the study of literatures written in the English language (including literatures from the U.K., U.S., Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong, the Philippines, India, South Africa, and the Middle East, among other areas), English linguistics (including English phonetics, phonology... Comparative literature (sometimes abbreviated Comp. ... Literary criticism is the study, discussion, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. ... Harvard referencing — also known as the author-date system [1] and parenthetical system [2] — is a format for writing and organizing citations of source materials. ...

Legal

  • The Bluebook is a citation system traditionally used in American academic legal writing, and the Bluebook (or similar systems derived from it) are used by many courts.[12] At present, academic legal articles are always footnoted, but motions submitted to courts and court opinions traditionally use inline citations which are either separate sentences or separate clauses.

The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... An inline citation (or inline reference) is a citation placed at the end of a sentence or paragraph for the purpose of cataloging where the said information came from. ...

Sciences

  • The ACS style is the American Chemical Society style, often used in chemistry.[13]
  • In the AIP style of the American Institute of Physics, references are numbered in the text and the reference list.
  • The AMS styles, e.g., AMS-LaTeX, are styles developed for the American Mathematical Society (AMS), typically implemented using the BibTeX tool in the LaTeX typesetting environment. Brackets with author’s initials and year are inserted in the text and at the beginning of the reference. Typical citations are listed in-line with alphabetic-label format, e.g. [AB90]. This type of style is also called a "Authorship trigraph."
  • The Vancouver system, recommended by the Council of Science Editors, is used in medical and scientific papers and research.
    • In one major variant, citation numbers are included in the text in square brackets rather than as superscripts. All bibliographical information is exclusively included in the list of references at the end of the document, next to the respective citation number.[14]
  • The APA style is the American Psychological Association style, which is most often used in social sciences. APA style uses Harvard referencing within the text, listing the author's name and year of publication, keyed to an alphabetical list of sources at the end of the paper on a References page.
  • Pechenik is a style described in "A Short Guide to Writing about Biology" by Jan A. Pechenik.[15]
  • IEEE is a style used by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers which encloses citation numbers within square brackets. The reference list is arranged by the order of citation, not by alphabetical order.

The ACS style, a standard method of citation in academic publications, originated with the American Chemical Society (ACS). ... The American Chemical Society (ACS) is a learned society (professional association) based in the United States that supports scientific inquiry in the field of chemistry. ... The American Institute of Physics (AIP) is a professional body representing American physicists and publishing physics related journals. ... , written as AMS-LaTeX or AmS-LaTeX in plain text, is a collection of (LaTeX) document classes and packages developed for the American Mathematical Society. ... The American Mathematical Society (AMS) is dedicated to the interests of mathematical research and education, which it does with various publications and conferences as well as annual monetary awards to mathematicians. ... The BibTeX logo , written as BibTeX in plain text, is a tool for formatting lists of references. ... This article is about the typesetting system. ... The Vancouver system, also known as the author-number system, is a way of writing references in academic papers. ... The Council of Science Editors (CSE) is the organization that publishes Scientific Style and Format: The CBE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers, an influential style guide for scientific papers. ... Further information: MLA Style Manual American Psychological Association (APA) style is a widely-accepted style of documentation for APA style specifies the names and order of headings, formatting and organization of citations and references, and the arrangement of tables, figures, footnotes, and appendices, as well as other manuscript and documentation... The American Psychological Association (APA) is a professional organization representing psychology in the US. It has around 150,000 members and an annual budget of around $70m. ... The social sciences are a group of academic disciplines that study human aspects of the world. ... Harvard referencing — also known as the author-date system [1] and parenthetical system [2] — is a format for writing and organizing citations of source materials. ... Not to be confused with the Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE). ...

See also

In the creative arts and scientific literature, an acknowledgment (also spelled acknowledgement) is an expression of gratitude for assistance in creating a literary or artistic work. ... // The United States Reports, the official reporter of the Supreme Court of the United States Case citation is the system used in many countries to identify the decisions in past court cases, either in special series of books called reporters or law reports, or in a neutral form which will... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Reference management software. ... A citation signal indicates how a writer views the relationship of a citation to some statement being made. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... In general, the term credit in the artistic or intellectual sense refers to an acknowledgement of those who contributed to a work, whether through ideas or in a more direct sense. ... In a catalogue or index, a direction that leads a user from one entry or subject heading to another. ... Scholarly method - or as it is more commonly called, scholarship - is the body of principles and practices used by scholars to make their claims about the world as valid and trustworthy as possible, and to make them known to the scholarly public. ... Source evaluation is the skill of analysing information sources in order to assess their credibility. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Google: Definitions of Bibliographic Citation on the Web
  2. ^ Long Island University.
  3. ^ Duke University Libraries 2007.
  4. ^ a b Brigham Young University 2008.
  5. ^ University of Maryland 2006.
  6. ^ a b Yale University 2008.
  7. ^ a b Colorado State University 2008.
  8. ^ California State University 2007.
  9. ^ Lesley University 2007.
  10. ^ Rochester Institute of Technology 2003.
  11. ^ Modern Humanities Research Association 2007.
  12. ^ Martin 2007.
  13. ^ University of California Berkeley 2006.
  14. ^ American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
  15. ^ Pechenik 2003.

References

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Not to be confused with the Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

Guidelines
Examples
  • Illustrated examples, generated using BibTeX, of several major styles, including more than those listed above.
  • PDF file bibstyles.pdf illustrates how several bibliographic styles appear with citations and reference entries, generated using BibTeX.
Style guides
The BibTeX logo , written as BibTeX in plain text, is a tool for formatting lists of references. ... The BibTeX logo , written as BibTeX in plain text, is a tool for formatting lists of references. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Historical Stories - Horse Racing (1341 words)
Citation had won eight of nine starts at two, his only loss coming to his stablemate Bewitch (champion juvenile filly), when trainer Ben Jones had ordered that whoever was in front in the stretch (the Calumet entry finished 1-2-3) should be allowed to win.
Citation, who was still a two-year-old on the human calendar (his actual third birthday was April 15, 1948), carried 113 pounds to 130 for Armed.
Citation's loss was blamed on three things: Saggy's love for the mud; the fact that another horse had carried Big Cy very wide; and Arcaro -- riding the champion for the first time -- was instructed not to abuse the champ so close to the Triple Crown.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Citation (338 words)
Real citation is had recourse to, when the accused is suspected of meditating flight or is contumacious; edictal citation, when the defendant can be reached in no other way; peremptory citation only under extraordinary circumstances.
A peremptory citation is held to be the equivalent in effect to three simple citations.
There are many requisites for a legitimate citation, as that it be asked for by one party to the suit, that it contain the names of plaintiff and defendant, the cause of the summons, the day and place of judgment and so forth.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m