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Encyclopedia > Circumflex
Diacritical marks

accent
A diacritical mark or diacritic, sometimes called an accent mark, is a mark added to a letter to alter a words pronunciation (i. ...

acute accent ( ˊ )
double acute accent ( ˝ )
grave accent ( ˋ )

breve ( ˘ )
caron / háček ( ˇ )
cedilla ( ¸ )
circumflex ( ˆ )
diaeresis / umlaut ( ¨ )
dot ( · )
The acute accent ( Â´ ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin and Greek scripts. ... The double acute accent ( ˝ ) is a diacritic mark of the latin script used primarily in written Hungarian. ... The grave accent ( ` ) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek until 1982 (polytonic orthography), French, Catalan, Welsh, Italian, Vietnamese, Scottish Gaelic, Norwegian, Portuguese and other languages. ... This article is about the breve breve in music, see double whole note. ... č ď Ä› Ǩ Ľ Å™ Å¡ ž A caron ( ˇ ), also known as wedge, inverted circumflex, inverted hat or by the Czech name háček (pronounced ), is a diacritic placed over certain letters to indicate present or historical palatalization or iotation in the orthography of Baltic languages and some Slavic languages, whereas some Finno-Lappic languages use it... č ď Ä› Ǩ Ľ Å™ Å¡ ž A caron ( ˇ ), also known as wedge, inverted circumflex, inverted hat or by the Czech name háček (pronounced ), is a diacritic placed over certain letters to indicate present or historical palatalization or iotation in the orthography of Baltic languages and some Slavic languages, whereas some Finno-Lappic languages use it... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ä ä Ö ö Ãœ ü The umlaut mark (or simply umlaut) and the trema or diaeresis mark (or simply diaeresis) are two diacritics consisting of a pair of dots placed over a letter. ... When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the middle dot (·), or to the glyphs combining dot above ( ) and combining dot below ( ) which may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in use in Eastern European languages and Vietnamese. ...

anunaasika ( ˙ )
anusvaara (  ̣ )

hook / dấu hỏi (  ̉ )
macron ( ˉ )
ogonek ( ˛ )
ring / kroužek ( ˚ )
rough breathing / spiritus asper (  ῾ )
smooth breathing / spiritus lenis (  ᾿ )
Anunaasika is a dot on top of a breve above a letter ( मँ ), used as a diacritic in Sanskrit written in devanagari script to represent vowel nasalization. ... Anusvaara (or anusvaaram) appears in the alphabet of Indian languages like Sanskrit which use the Devanagari script, and in the Dravidian languages. ... For other meanings of hook, see hook (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of hook, see hook (disambiguation). ... A macron, from Gr. ... Ogonek (Polish for little tail; In Lithuanian it is nosinÄ— which literally means nasal) is a diacritic hook placed under the lower right corner of a vowel in the Latin alphabet used in Polish (letters Ä…, Ä™), Lithuanian (Ä…, Ä™, į, ų), Navajo and Western Apache (Ä…, Ä…Ä…, Ä™, ęę, į, įį, , ), Chiricahua and Mescalero (Ä…, Ä…Ä…, Ä™, ęę, į, įį, ų, ųų) and Tutchone. ... In punctuation, the term ring is usually reserved for the ring above diacritic mark ˚ (looks similar to °). The ring may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets. ... In punctuation, the term ring is usually reserved for the ring above diacritic mark ˚ (looks similar to °). The ring may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets. ... The spiritus asper (rough breathing) or dasy pneuma (Greek: dasu, δασύ) is a diacritical mark used in Greek. ... The spiritus lenis (soft breathing) or psilon pneuma (Greek: psilón, ψιλόν) is a diacritical mark used in Ancient Greek. ...

Marks sometimes used as diacritics

apostrophe ( )
bar ( | )
colon ( : )
comma ( , )
hyphen ( ˗ )
tilde ( ˜ )
titlo (  ҃ )
An apostrophe An apostrophe (French, from the Greek αποστροφος προσωδια, the accent of elision) ( ’ ) is a punctuation and sometimes diacritic mark in languages written in the Latin alphabet. ... The bar or stroke can be a diacritic mark, when used with some letters in the Latin or Cyrillic alphabets. ... A colon (:) is a punctuation mark, visually consisting of two equally sized dots centered on the same vertical line. ... A comma ( , ) is a punctuation mark. ... A hyphen ( -, or ‐ ) is a punctuation mark. ... A tilde. ... Titlo is an extended diacritic symbol used in old Cyrillic manuscripts, e. ...

The circumflex ( ˆ ) (often called a "caret", a "hat" or an "uppen") is a diacritic mark used in written Greek, French, Dutch, Esperanto, Norwegian, Romanian, Slovak, Vietnamese, Japanese romaji, Welsh, Portuguese, Italian, Afrikaans and other languages, and formerly in Turkish [citation needed]. It received its English name from Latin circumflexus (bent about)--a translation of the Greek περισπωμένη (perispomene). A caret in the Arial font Caret is the name for the symbol ^ in ASCII and some other character sets. ... A diacritical mark or diacritic, sometimes called an accent mark, is a mark added to a letter to alter a words pronunciation (i. ... Look up Esperanto in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Japanese writing Kanji 漢字 Kana 仮名 Hiragana 平仮名 Katakana 片仮名 Uses Furigana 振り仮名 Okurigana 送り仮名 Romaji ローマ字 The title given to this article lacks diacritics because of certain technical limitations. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Afrikaans is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in South Africa and Namibia. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...

 â
Ê ê
Î î
Ô ô
Û û

Contents

Pitch

The circumflex accent was first used in the polytonic orthography of Ancient Greek, where it occurred (subject to certain rules) on the accented syllable of a word, on long vowels, and where there was a rise and then a fall in pitch. Sometimes it took the form of a tilde. Since Modern Greek has a stress accent instead of a pitch accent, this diacritic has been replaced with an acute accent mark in the modern monotonic orthography. Polytonic orthography for Greek uses a variety of diacritics (πολύ = many + τόνος = accent) to represent aspects of Ancient Greek pronunciation. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound. ... Pitch accent is a kind of accent system employed in many languages around the world. ... A tilde. ... Main article: Greek language Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική, lit. ... In linguistics, stress is the relative emphasis given to certain syllables in a word. ... The acute accent ( Â´ ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin and Greek scripts. ... Monotonic orthography is the simplified way for spelling modern Greek introduced in the 1980s. ...


Length

The circumflex accent marks a long vowel in the orthography or transliteration of several languages. In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound. ... The orthography of a language is the set of symbols (glyphs and diacritics) used to write a language, as well as the set of rules describing how to write these glyphs correctly, including spelling, punctuation, and capitalization. ... Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ...

  • Akkadian. In the transliteration of this language, the circumflex indicates a long vowel resulting from an aleph contraction.
  • French. The circumflex is used on â, ê, î, ô, û, and, in some varieties of the language, such as in Belgian pronunciation, these vowels are often long; fête "party" is longer than fait "fact".
  • Standard Friulian.
  • Japanese. In the Kunrei-shiki system of Romanization, and occasionally in the Hepburn system (as a surrogate for the macron).
  • Jèrriais.
  • Portuguese. A vowel with a circumflex is stressed, said longer than normal, and said slightly higher in pitch than the surrounding word.
  • Turkish. Until recently, the modern (Latin-based) Turkish alphabet introduced in the time of Kemal Atatürk used the circumflex accent to indicate when a vowel was to be pronounced in a way more native (usually by stretching it out somewhat) to Farsi and Arabic. Words featuring such an accent, such as kâtib "scribe", ilâhî "divine", or Kâmile (a woman's name) are generally loanwords distinguishable from true Turkish words, and were represented easily in the Arabic script used in the Ottoman Turkish language.
  • Welsh. The circumflex is colloquially known as the to bach — "little roof", and it gives a vowel a long sound, for example môr "sea" versus mor "as" (comparative particle).

Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Aleph or alef has several meanings: Aleph (letter) or Alef, the first letter of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet Aleph (Hebrew), the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet Aleph or Alif (Arabic), the first letter of the Arabic alphabet Aleph, first letter of the Farsi (or Persian) alphabet Aleph, a shorthand... Friulian ( or affectionately marilenghe in Friulian, friulano in Italian) is a Romance language belonging to the Rhaetian family, spoken in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region of northeastern Italy. ... Japanese writing Kanji 漢字 Kana 仮名 Hiragana 平仮名 Katakana 片仮名 Uses Furigana 振り仮名 Okurigana 送り仮名 Romaji ローマ字 Kunrei-shiki (訓令式, Cabinet-ordered system) is a romanization system, that is, a system for transcribing the Japanese language into the Roman alphabet. ... Japanese writing Kanji 漢字 Kana 仮名 Hiragana 平仮名 Katakana 片仮名 Uses Furigana 振り仮名 Okurigana 送り仮名 Romaji ローマ字 The title given to this article lacks diacritics because of certain technical limitations. ... Japanese writing Kanji 漢字 Kana 仮名 Hiragana 平仮名 Katakana 片仮名 Uses Furigana 振り仮名 Okurigana 送り仮名 Romaji ローマ字 The Hepburn romanization system (Japanese: ヘボン式, Hebon-shiki) was devised by the Reverend James Curtis Hepburn to transcribe the sounds of the Japanese language into the Roman alphabet for his Japanese–English dictionary, published in 1867. ... Surrogate (from Lat. ... A macron, from Gr. ... Jèrriais is the form of the Norman language spoken in Jersey, in the Channel Islands. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... The current 29-letter Turkish alphabet, used for the Turkish language, was established by law in Turkey on November 1, 1928 (Yazım Kılavuzu). ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881–10 November 1938), until 1934 Gazi Mustafa Kemal Pasha, Turkish army officer and revolutionist statesman, was the founder and the first President of the Republic of Turkey. ... Farsi may refer to: The name of the the Persian language among native speakers Farsi Island, an Iranian island in the Persian Gulf The Jafari Shia Tajiks of Central Asia Salman al-Farsi, one of the prophet Muhammads companions Al-Farisi (1260-1320), Persian mathematician and physicist Jalaleddin Farsi... The Arabic language ( ), or simply Arabic ( ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew, Amharic and Aramaic. ... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing the Arabic language, which is the language of the Quran, the holy book of Islam. ... Ottoman Turkish (Turkish: Osmanlıca or Osmanlı Türkçesi, Ottoman Turkish: لسان عثمانی - lisân-i Osmânî) is the variant of the Turkish language that was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ...

Letter extension

  • In Bulgarian, when transliterated with the Latin alphabet, the sound represented in Bulgarian by â, although called a schwa (misleadingly suggesting an unstressed lax sound), is more accurately described as a mid back unrounded vowel /ɤ/. Unlike English or French, but similar to Romanian and Afrikaans, it can be stressed. The Cyrillic letter 'ъ' (er goljam) is often transliterated as â or sometimes as a 'ŭ', often it is just written as 'a' or 'u'.
  • In Esperanto, it is used on ĉ, ĝ, ĥ, ĵ, ŝ. It indicates a completely different consonant from the unaccented form, and is considered a separate letter for purposes of collation. See Esperanto orthography.
  • In pinyin romanized Mandarin Chinese, the circumflex occurs only on ê, which is used to represent the sound /ɛ/ in isolation. This sound occurs rarely and is only used as an exclamation.
  • In Romanian, the circumflex is used on the vowels â and î to mark the vowel /ɨ/, similar to Russian yery. The names of these accented letters are "â din a" and "î din i", respectively. Note: the letter â appears only in the middle of words; thus, its majuscule version appears only in all-capitals inscriptions.
  • In Slovak, circumflex (vokáň) turns the letter "o" into a diphthong ô /u̯o/.

Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Afrikaans is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in South Africa and Namibia. ... Chichewa (Chicheŵa in Malawian English) is one of the two official national languages of the Republic of Malawi, the other being English. ... The voiced bilabial fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Look up Esperanto in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... In textual criticism and bibliography, collation is the reading of two (or more) texts side-by-side in order to note their differences. ... Esperanto is written in a Latin alphabet of twenty-eight letters, upper and lower case. ... Old Tupi is an extinct Tupian language which was spoken by the native people from Brazil, mostly those who lived close to the sea. ... Semivowels (also called semiconsonants or glides) are vowels that function phonemically as consonants. ... Pinyin is a system of romanization (phonemic notation and transcription to Roman script) for Standard Mandarin, where pin means spell and yin means sound. The most common variant of pinyin in use is called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Hànyǔ Pīnyīn), also known as scheme... Standard Mandarin is the official Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan) and Singapore. ... Yery (Ы, ы) is a letter in the Cyrillic alphabet. ... Majuscules or capital letters (in the Roman alphabet: A, B, C, ...) are one type of case in a writing system. ...

Other regular uses

  • In Afrikaans it simply marks a vowel with an irregular pronunciation, without indicating precisely what this pronunciation might be. Examples of circumflex use in Afrikaans are (to say), wêreld (world), môre (tomorrow) and brûe (bridges).
  • In French, it generally marks the former presence of the letter s in the spelling of the word – for example, hôpital (hospital), forêt (forest). Since the older spelling is often one on which English words are based, as in these two foregoing examples, the circumflex provides a helpful guide to Anglophone readers of French. Fenêtre (window), for instance, is derived from the Latin word fenestra. Certain close homophones are distinguished by the circumflex, for instance cote and côte (the former meaning "level", "mark", the latter meaning "rib" or "coast"). The letter ê is also normally pronounced open, like è. In the usual pronunciations of central and northern France, ô is pronounced close, like eau; in Southern France, no distinction is made between close and open o. See Use of the circumflex in French.
  • Portuguese and Vietnamese use the circumflex accent on certain high vowels, or, more precisely, on vowels pronounced higher than the default low vowels. For example, Vietnamese contrasts phonemically the low vowels a (Open back unrounded vowel /ɑ/), e (Open-mid front unrounded vowel /ɛ/), o (Open-mid back rounded vowel /ɔ/) with the high vowels â (Near-open central vowel /ɐ/), ê (Close-mid front unrounded vowel /e/), and ô (Close-mid back rounded vowel /o/). It is not a tonal mark, so that you can for instance have a circumflex and a tonal mark on the same vowel, like in , which appears in the word Việt Nam. In Portuguese, the circumflex further indicates that the vowel is stressed.
  • In Turkish, until recently (see above), the circumflex was used to indicate when a preceding consonant ("k" or "g") was to be pronounced as [c] or [ɟ].
  • In Welsh, the circumflex, apart from being used as a lengthening sign, is also used on the vowels a, e, i, o, u, w, y to differentiate between other words that have the same spelling.

Look up Wiktionary:Swadesh lists for Afrikaans and Dutch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Homonyms (in Greek homoios = identical and onoma = name) are words which have the same form (orthographic/phonetic) but unrelated meaning. ... The open-mid vowels make a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages. ... A close-mid vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... A close-mid vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... The open-mid vowels make a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages. ... The circumflex (^) is one of the five diacritics used in the French language. ... A close vowel is a type of vowel sound used in many spoken languages. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Tone (linguistics). ... In linguistics, stress is the relative emphasis given to certain syllables in a word. ... Look up K, k in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The letter G is the seventh letter in the Latin alphabet. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ...

Exceptional use

  • In English the circumflex, like other diacriticals, is sometimes retained on loanwords that used it in the original language; for example, rôle. In Britain in the eighteenth century--before the cheap penny post and an era in which paper was taxed--the circumflex was used in postal letters to save room in an analogy with the French use. Specifically, the letters "ugh" were replaced when they were silent in the most common words, e.g., "thô" for "though", "thorô" for "thorough", and "brôt" for "brought" — similar to the way in which people today abbreviate words in text messages. This could have led to spelling simplification, but did not.
  • In Italian it is used in plurals of singulars ending with -io, thus ending them with a longer i. In modern Italian this is accomplished with a double or just a single i as in varî, varj, varii, vari ("various", plural of vario).
  • In Norwegian, it is used, with the exception of loan words, on ô and ê, almost exclusively in the words "fôr" (from Norse fóðr), meaning "animal food", lêr, meaning "skin" (Norse leðr) and "vêr" (Norse veðr), meaning "weather".

The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... The Penny Post is any one of several postal systems in which normal letters could be sent for one penny. ... SMS arrival notification on a Siemens phone Short Message Service (SMS) is a service available on most digital mobile phones (and other mobile devices, e. ... Old Norse is the Germanic language spoken by the inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements during the Viking Age, until about 1300. ...

In science

  • The circumflex (or caret) character is used to represent xor in ANSI C (and other languages based on C, like JavaScript and PHP): 2^3 = 1.

A caret in the Arial font Caret is the name for the symbol ^ in ASCII and some other character sets. ... In mathematics, exponentiation (frequently known colloquially as raising a number to a power) is a process generalized from repeated (or iterated) multiplication, in much the same way that multiplication is a process generalized from repeated addition. ... There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ... A caret in the Arial font Caret is the name for the symbol ^ in ASCII and some other character sets. ... Exclusive disjunction (usual symbol xor) is a logical operator that results in true if one of the operands (not both) is true. ... JavaScript is the name of Netscape Communications Corporations implementation of the ECMAScript standard, a scripting language based on the concept of prototype-based programming. ... PHP (PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor) is a reflective programming language originally designed for producing dynamic Web pages. ... A graph of a bell curve in a normal distribution showing statistics used in educational assessment, comparing various grading methods. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with estimation theory. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, known today as the father of geometry; shown here in a detail of The School of Athens by Raphael. ... In mathematics, a unit vector in a normed vector space is a vector (often a spatial vector) whose length is 1. ... A caret in the Arial font Caret is the name for the symbol ^ in ASCII and some other character sets. ... A regular expression (abbreviated as regexp, regex or regxp) is a string that describes or matches a set of strings, according to certain syntax rules. ...

In typography

A caret is used by editors to indicate on a proof where something should be inserted. It is placed below the line in question for a line-level punctuation mark (e.g., a comma) or above for a higher character (e.g., an apostrophe). The material to be inserted can be placed inside the caret, in the margin, or opposite the caret above the word.


A caret is also used to center characters vertically. In such cases carets are placed both under and above the character facing opposite directions.


Technical notes

The ISO-8859-1 character encoding includes the letters â, ê, î, ô, û, and their respective capital forms. Dozens more letters with the circumflex are available in Unicode. Unicode also uses the circumflex as a combining character. ISO 8859-1, more formally cited as ISO/IEC 8859-1 or less formally as Latin-1, is part 1 of ISO/IEC 8859, a standard character encoding defined by ISO. It encodes what it refers to as Latin alphabet no. ... Majuscules or capital letters (in the Roman alphabet: A, B, C, ...) are one type of case in a writing system. ... Because of technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ...


External links

  • Diacritics Project — All you need to design a font with correct accents
  • Keyboard Help - Learn how to create world language accent marks and other diacriticals on a computer

See also

Look up û in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
The OSI basic Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
historypalaeographyderivationsdiacriticspunctuationnumeralsUnicodelist of letters

 
 

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