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Encyclopedia > Circulatory system
Diagram of the human circulatory system. Arteries are shown red, veins are shown blue.

The circulatory system (or cardiovascular system) is an organ system that moves nutrients, gases, and wastes to and from cells, and helps stabilize body temperature and pH to maintain homeostasis. While humans, as well as other vertebrates have a closed circulatory system, some invertebrate groups have open circulatory system. The most primitive animal phyla lack circulatory systems. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Cross section of celery stalk, showing vascular bundles, which include both phloem and xylem. ... For transport in plants, see Vascular tissue. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (350x700, 123 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (350x700, 123 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article is about the biological unit. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... Homeostasis is the property of either an open system or a closed system, especially a living organism, which regulates its internal environment so as to maintain a stable, constant condition. ... Typical classes Petromyzontidae (lampreys) Placodermi - extinct Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish) Acanthodii - extinct Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish) Actinistia (coelacanths) Dipnoi (lungfish) Amphibia (amphibians) Reptilia (reptiles) Aves (birds) Mammalia (mammals) Vertebrata is a subphylum of chordates, specifically, those with backbones or spinal columns. ... Invertebrate is an English word that describes any animal without a spinal column. ... In biological taxonomy, a phylum (Greek plural: phyla) is a taxon in the rank below kingdom and above class. ...

Contents

Human circulatory system

The main components of the human circulatory system are the heart, the blood, and the blood vessels. The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... f you all The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ...


Furthermore, these components can either belong to the systemic circulation and the pulmonary circulation. The systemic circulation is the main part of the circulatory system, while the pulmonary system oxygenates the blood. Systemic circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygenated blood away from the heart, to the body, and returns deoxygenated blood back to the heart. ... Pulmonary circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygen-depleted blood away from the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood back to the heart. ... Oxygenated substances have been infused with oxygen. ...


Systemic circulation

Main article: Systemic circulation

Systemic circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygenated blood away from the heart, to the body, and returns deoxygenated blood back to the heart. Systemic circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygenated blood away from the heart, to the body, and returns deoxygenated blood back to the heart. ... The circulatory system or cardiovascular system is the organ system which circulates blood around the body of most animals. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... For other uses, see Body (disambiguation). ...


In the systemic circulation, arteries bring oxygenated blood to the tissues. As blood circulates through the body, oxygen diffuses from the blood into cells surrounding the capillaries, and carbon dioxide diffuses into the blood from the capillary cells. Veins bring deoxygenated blood back to the heart. Section of an artery An artery or arterial is also a class of highway. ... In the circulatory system, a vein is a blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart. ...


The release of oxygen from red blood cells or erythrocytes is regulated in mammals. It increases with an increase of carbon dioxide in tissues, an increase in temperature, or a decrease in pH. Such characteristics are exhibited by tissues undergoing high metabolism, as they require increased levels of oxygen. Human red blood cells Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and are the vertebrate bodys principal means of delivering oxygen to body tissues via the blood. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... A biological tissue is a group of biological cells that perform a similar function. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ...


Pulmonary circulation

Main article: Pulmonary circulation

Pulmonary circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygen-depleted blood away from the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood back to the heart. Pulmonary circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygen-depleted blood away from the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood back to the heart. ... The circulatory system or cardiovascular system is the organ system which circulates blood around the body of most animals. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... The heart and lungs (from an older edition of Grays Anatomy) The lung is an organ belonging to the respiratory system and interfacing to the circulatory system of air-breathing vertebrates. ...


De-oxygenated blood enters the right atrium of the heart and flows into the right ventricle where it is pumped through the pulmonary arteries to the lungs. Pulmonary veins return the now oxygen-rich blood to the heart, where it enters the left atrium before flowing into the left ventricle. From the left ventricle the oxygen-rich blood is pumped out via the aorta, and on to the rest of the body.


Coronary circulation

Within the heart. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


Heart

In the heart there is one atrium and one ventricle for each circulation, and with both a systemic and a pulmonary circulation there are four chambers in total: left atrium, left ventricle, right atrium and right ventricle. The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... In anatomy, the atrium (plural: atria) refers to a chamber or space. ... In the heart, a ventricle is a heart chamber which collects blood from an atrium (another heart chamber that is smaller than a ventricle) and pumps it out of the heart. ... Anterior (frontal) view of the opened heart. ... In the heart, a ventricle is a chamber which collects blood from an atrium (another heart chamber) and pumps it out of the heart. ... This page is about the muscular organ, the Heart. ... The right ventricle is one of four chambers (two atria and two ventricles) in the human heart. ...


Closed circulatory system

The circulatory systems of humans is closed, meaning that the blood never leaves the system of blood vessels. In contrast, oxygen and nutrients diffuse across the blood vessel layers and enters interstitial fluid, which carries oxygen and nutrients to the target cells, and carbon dioxide and wastes in the opposite direction. The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... Interstitial fluid (or tissue fluid, or intercellular fluid) is a solution which bathes and surrounds the cells of multicellular animals. ...


Other vertebrates

The circulatory systems of all vertebrates, as well as of annelids (for example, earthworms) and cephalopods (squid and octopus) are closed, just as in humans. Still, the systems of fish, amphibians, reptiles, and birds show various stages of the evolution of the circulatory system. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Classes and subclasses Class Polychaeta (paraphyletic?) Class Clitellata*    Oligochaeta - earthworms, etc. ... For the LPG album, see The Earthworm (album). ... Orders Subclass Nautiloidea †Plectronocerida †Ellesmerocerida †Actinocerida †Pseudorthocerida †Endocerida †Tarphycerida †Oncocerida †Discosorida Nautilida †Orthocerida †Ascocerida †Bactritida Subclass †Ammonoidea †Goniatitida †Ceratitida †Ammonitida Subclass Coleoidea †Belemnoidea †Aulacocerida †Belemnitida †Hematitida †Phragmoteuthida Neocoleoidea (most living cephalopods) ?†Boletzkyida Sepiida Sepiolida Spirulida Teuthida Octopoda Vampyromorphida The cephalopods (Greek plural (kephalópoda); head-foot) are the mollusk class... For other uses, see Squid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Octopus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Amphibian (disambiguation). ... Reptilia redirects here. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... This article is about evolution in biology. ...


In fish, the system has only one circuit, with the blood being pumped through the capillaries of the gills and on to the capillaries of the body tissues. This is known as single circulation. The heart of fish is therefore only a single pump (consisting of two chambers). In amphibians and most reptiles, a double circulatory system is used, but the heart is not always completely separated into two pumps. Amphibians have a three-chambered heart. For other uses, see Gill (disambiguation). ... In the first circuit, the blood is pumped to the lungs, where it acquires oxygen. ...


Birds and mammals show complete separation of the heart into two pumps, for a total of four heart chambers; it is thought that the four-chambered heart of birds evolved independently from that of mammals.


Open circulatory system

The open circulatory system is an arrangement of internal transport present in animals such as molluscs and arthropods, in which fluid (called hemolymph) in a cavity called the hemocoel bathes the organs directly and there is no distinction between blood and interstitial fluid; this combined fluid is called hemolymph or haemolymph. Muscular movements by the animal during locomotion can facilitate hemolymph movement, but diverting flow from one area to another is limited. When the heart relaxes, blood is drawn back toward the heart through open-ended pores (ostia). Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora - Chitons Monoplacophora Bivalvia - Bivalves Scaphopoda - Tusk shells Gastropoda - Snails and Slugs Cephalopoda - Squids, Octopuses, etc. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... Hemolymph (or haemolymph) is the blood analogue used by all arthropods and most mollusks that have an open circulatory system. ... A Hemocoel is a cavity or series of spaces between the organs of organisms with open circulatory systems like most arthropods and mollusks. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... Interstitial fluid (or tissue fluid, or intercellular fluid) is a solution which bathes and surrounds the cells of multicellular animals. ... In biology and physics, animal locomotion is the study of how animals move, and is part of biophysics. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ...


Hemolymph fills all of the interior hemocoel of the body and surrounds all cells. Hemolymph is composed of water, inorganic salts (mostly Na+, Cl-, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+), and organic compounds (mostly carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids). The primary oxygen transporter molecule is hemocyanin. Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and reactions of inorganic compounds. ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... For sodium in the diet, see Edible salt. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, halogens as well... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Some common lipids. ... Single Oxygenated Hemocyanin protein from Octopus Hemocyanins (also spelled haemocyanins) are respiratory proteins containing two copper atoms that reversibly bind a single oxygen molecule (O2). ...


There are free-floating cells, the hemocytes, within the hemolymph. They play a role in the arthropod immune system. A hemocyte is a cell that plays a role in the immune system of an arthropod. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ...


No circulatory system

Circulatory systems are absent in some animals, including flatworms (phylum Platyhelminthes). Their body cavity has no lining or enclosed fluid. Instead a muscular pharynx leads to an extensively branched digestive system that facilitates direct diffusion of nutrients to all cells. The flatworm's dorso-ventrally flattened body shape also restricts the distance of any cell from the digestive system or the exterior of the organism. Oxygen can diffuse from the surrounding water into the cells, and carbon dioxide can diffuse out. Consequently every cell is able to obtain nutrients, water and oxygen without the need of a transport system.=] Classes Monogenea Trematoda Cestoda Turbellaria The flatworms (Platyhelminthes, Greek platy: flat; helminth: worm) are a phylum of relatively simple soft-bodied invertebrate animals. ... Classes Monogenea Trematoda Cestoda Turbellaria The flatworms (Platyhelminthes, Greek platy: flat; helminth: worm) are a phylum of relatively simple soft-bodied invertebrate animals. ... Picture of Human body cavities - dorsal body cavity to the left and ventral body cavity to the right. ... The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the neck and throat situated immediately posterior to the mouth and nasal cavity, and cranial, or superior, to the esophagus, larynx, and trachea. ... what was here was sick and improperly spelled. ... diffusion (disambiguation). ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ...


Measurement techniques

“QRS” redirects here. ... BP 126/70 mmHg as result on electronic sphygmomanometer A sphygmomanometer (often condensed to sphygmometer[1]) or blood pressure meter is a device used to measure blood pressure, comprising an inflatable cuff to restrict blood flow, and a mercury or mechanical manometer to measure the pressure. ... Photo of a heart rate monitor (made by Polar) showing chest strap and watch This article refers to a device used by laypersons. ... Look up stethoscope in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... ˌ For other uses, see Pulse (disambiguation). ...

Health and disease

Cardiovascular disease refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins). ... A congenital heart defect is a defect in the structure of the heart and great blood vessels of the newborn. ...

History of discovery

The valves of the heart were discovered by a physician of the Hippocratean school around the 4th century BC. However their function was not properly understood then. Because blood pools in the veins after death, arteries look empty. Ancient anatomists assumed they were filled with air and that they were for transport of air. The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ...


Herophilus distinguished veins from arteries but thought that the pulse was a property of arteries themselves. Erasistratus observed that arteries that were cut during life bleed. He ascribed the fact to the phenomenon that air escaping from an artery is replaced with blood that entered by very small vessels between veins and arteries. Thus he apparently postulated capillaries but with reversed flow of blood. Herophilos, sometimes Latinized Herophilus (335-280 BC), was a Greek physician. ...


The 2nd century AD Greek physician, Galen knew that blood vessels carried blood and identified venous (dark red) and arterial (brighter and thinner) blood, each with distinct and separate functions. Growth and energy were derived from venous blood created in the liver from chyle, while arterial blood gave vitality by containing pneuma (air) and originated in the heart. Blood flowed from both creating organs to all parts of the body where it was consumed and there was no return of blood to the heart or liver. The heart did not pump blood around, the heart's motion sucked blood in during diastole and the blood moved by the pulsation of the arteries themselves. The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... For other uses, see Galen (disambiguation). ...


Galen believed that the arterial blood was created by venous blood passing from the left ventricle to the right by passing through 'pores' in the interventricular septum, air passed from the lungs via the pulmonary artery to the left side of the heart. As the arterial blood was created 'sooty' vapors were created and passed to the lungs also via the pulmonary artery to be exhaled.


In 1242 the Arab physician Ibn al-Nafis became the first person to accurately describe the process of blood circulation in the human body, including pulmonary circulation. He stated: // Events April 5 - During a battle on the ice of Chudskoye Lake, Russian forces rebuff an invasion attempt by the Teutonic Knights. ... Umar Naeem SUCKS. In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation. ... Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Arabic: علاء الدين أبو الحسن عليّ بن أبي حزم القرشي الدمشقي ) known as ibn Al-Nafis (Arabic: ابن النفيس ), was an Arab physician who is mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood. ... Pulmonary circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygen-depleted blood away from the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood back to the heart. ...

"...the blood from the right chamber of the heart must arrive at the left chamber but there is no direct pathway between them. The thick septum of the heart is not perforated and does not have visible pores as some people thought or invisible pores as Galen thought. The blood from the right chamber must flow through the vena arteriosa (pulmonary artery) to the lungs, spread through its substances, be mingled there with air, pass through the arteria venosa (pulmonary vein) to reach the left chamber of the heart and there form the vital spirit..." The pulmonary arteries carry blood from the heart to the lungs. ... The pulmonary veins carry oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart. ...

Contemporary drawings of this process have survived. In 1552, Michael Servetus described the same, and Realdo Colombo proved the concept, but it remained largely unknown in Europe. Events April - War between Henry II of France and Emperor Charles V. Henry invades Lorraine and captures Toul, Metz, and Verdun. ... Michael Servetus. ... Matteo Realdo Colombo or Renaldus Columbus (c. ...


Finally William Harvey, a pupil of Hieronymus Fabricius (who had earlier described the valves of the veins without recognizing their function), performed a sequence of experiments and announced in 1628 the discovery of the human circulatory system as his own and published an influential book about it. This work with its essentially correct exposition slowly convinced the medical world. Harvey was not able to identify the capillary system connecting arteries and veins; these were later described by Marcello Malpighi. William Harvey William Harvey (April 1, 1578 – June 3, 1657) was an English medical doctor, who is credited with being the first to correctly describe, in exact detail, the properties of blood being pumped around the body by the heart. ... Girolamo Fabrizi d Acquapendente. ... 1628 was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus, (An Anatomical Exercise on the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals) is the best-known work of the physician William Harvey. ... Marcello Malpighi (March 10, 1628 - September 30, 1694) was an Italian doctor, who gave his name to several physiological features. ...


See also

Cardiology is the branch of medicine pertaining to the heart. ... The human lymphatic system The lymphatic system is a complex network of lymphoid organs, lymph nodes, lymph ducts, lymphatic tissues, lymph capillaries and lymph vessels that produce and transport lymph fluid from tissues to the circulatory system. ... Roadway noise is the main source of exposure Noise health effects, the collection of health consequences of elevated sound levels, constitute one of the most widespread public health threats in industrialized countries. ... The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... Vital heat, also called innate or natural heat, or calidum innatum, is a term that has generally referred to the heat produced within the body, usually the heat produced by the heart and the circulatory system. ... Cardiac muscle is a type of involuntary striated muscle found within the heart. ... The major systems of the human body consist of: Circulatory system Digestive system Endocrine system Immune system Integumentary system Lymphatic system Muscular system Nervous system Reproductive system Respiratory system Skeletal system Urinary system Category: ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... João Rodrigues de Castelo Branco better known as Amato Lusitano was a notable portuguese jewish physician of the 16th Century. ... William Harvey William Harvey (April 1, 1578 – June 3, 1657) was an English medical doctor, who is credited with being the first to correctly describe, in exact detail, the properties of blood being pumped around the body by the heart. ...

External links

  • The Circulatory System, a comprehensive overview
  • The InVision Guide to a Healthy Heart An interactive website
  • NCP Cardiovascular Medicine A Journal Covering Clinical Cardiovascular Medicine

During development of the veins, the first indication of a parietal system consists in the appearance of two short transverse veins, the ducts of Cuvier, which open, one on either side, into the sinus venosus. ... During development of the veins, the first indication of a parietal system consists in the appearance of two short transverse veins, the ducts of Cuvier (or common cardinal veins[1]), which open, one on either side, into the sinus venosus. ... The Vitelline Veins run upward at first in front, and subsequently on either side of the intestinal canal. ... In the fetus, the ductus venosus connects the left umbilical vein with the upper inferior vena cava. ... Fetal circulation; the umbilical vein is the large, red vessel at the far left The umbilical vein is a blood vessel present during fetal development that carries oxygenated blood from the placenta to the growing fetus. ... The heart is the first functional organ in a vertebrate embryo. ... The primitive heart tube is the earliest stage of heart development. ... For the medical condition with the same name, see Truncus arteriosus. ... When the heart assumes its S-shaped form the bulbus cordis lies ventral to and in front of the primitive ventricle. ... The primitive ventricle becomes divided by a septum, the septum inferius or ventricular septum, which grows upward from the lower part of the ventricle, its position being indicated on the surface of the heart by a furrow. ... The primitive atrium grows rapidly and partially encircles the bulbus cordis; the groove against which the bulbus cordis lies is the first indication of a division into right and left atria. ... Sinus venosus can refer to: Another name for the embryological structure Sinus venarum A type of atrial septal defect This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... The cavity of the primitive atrium becomes subdivided into right and left chambers by a septum, the septum primum, which grows downward into the cavity. ... In the developing heart, for a time the atria communicate with each other by an opening, the ostium primum of Born (interatrial foramen primum), below the free margin of the septum. ... The ostium secundum (or foramen secundum) is a foramen in the septum primum. ... The septum secundum, semilunar in shape, grows downward from the upper wall of the atrium immediately to the right of the primary septum and foramen ovale. ... In the fetal heart, the foramen ovale allows blood to enter the left atrium from the right atrium. ... The lumen of the atrial canal is reduced to a transverse slit, and two thickenings appear, one on its dorsal and another on its ventral wall. ... Endocardial cushions project into the atrial canal, and, meeting in the middle line, unite to form the septum intermedium which divides the canal into two channels, the future right and left atrioventricular orifices. ... The aorticopulmonary septum (also called the spiral septum) is developmentally formed from neural crest, specifically the cardiac neural crest, and actively separates the aorta and pulmonary arteries and fuses with the interventricular septum within the heart during development. ... In the developing heart, the constriction between the atrium and ventricle constitutes the atrial canal, and indicates the site of the future atrioventricular valves. ... A renal cell carcinoma (chromophobe type) viewed on a hematoxylin & eosin stained slide Pathologist redirects here. ... For other forms of hypertension, see Hypertension (disambiguation). ... In kidney, as a result of benign arterial hypertension, hyaline (pink, amorphous, homogeneous material) accumulates in the wall of small arteries and arterioles, producing the thickening of their walls and the narrowing of the lumens - hyaline arteriolosclerosis. ... While most forms of hypertension have no known underlying cause (and are thus known as essential hypertension or primary hypertension), in about 10% of the cases, there is a known cause, and thus the hypertension is secondary hypertension (or, less commonly, inessential hypertension). ... Renovascular hypertension (or renal hypertension) is a form of secondary hypertension. ... Ischaemic (or ischemic) heart disease is a disease characterized by reduced blood supply to the heart. ... Prinzmetals angina, also known as variant angina or angina inversa, is a syndrome typically consisting of angina (cardiac chest pain) at rest that occurs in cycles. ... Heart attack redirects here. ... Dresslers syndrome is a form of pericarditis that occurs in the setting of injury to the heart or the pericardium (the outer lining of the heart). ... Pulmonary circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygen-depleted blood away from the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood back to the heart. ... Cor pulmonale, also known as right heart failure, is a medical term used to describe a change in structure and function of the right ventricle of the heart as a result of a respiratory disorder. ... The pericardium is a double-walled sac that contains the heart and the roots of the great vessels. ... Pericarditis is inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart, the pericardium. ... Pericardial effusion is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pericardial cavity. ... Cardiac tamponade, also known as pericardial tamponade, is a medical emergency condition where liquid accumulates in the pericardium in a relatively short time. ... In the heart, the endocardium is the innermost layer of tissue that lines the chambers of the heart. ... Grays Fig. ... Endocarditis is an inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium. ... The mitral valve (also known as the bicuspid valve or left atrioventricular valve), is a dual flap (bi = 2) valve in the heart that lies between the left atrium (LA) and the left ventricle (LV). ... Mitral regurgitation (MR), also known as mitral insufficiency, is the abnormal leaking of blood through the mitral valve, from the left ventricle into the left atrium of the heart. ... Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a heart valve condition marked by the displacement of an abnormally thickened mitral valve leaflet into the left atrium during systole. ... Mitral stenosis is a narrowing of the orifice of the mitral valve of the heart. ... The aortic valve is one of the valves of the heart. ... Aortic valve stenosis (AS) is a heart condition caused by the incomplete opening of the aortic valve. ... Aortic insufficiency (AI), also known as aortic regurgitation (AR), is the leaking of the aortic valve of the heart that causes blood to flow in the reverse direction during ventricular diastole, from the aorta into the left ventricle. ... The pulmonary valve, also known as pulmonic valve, is the semilunar valve of the heart that lies between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery and has three cusps. ... Pulmonary valve stenosis is a medical condition in which outflow of blood from the right ventricle of the heart is obstructed at the level of the pulmonic valve. ... Pulmonary valve insufficiency (or incompetence, or regurgitation) is a condition where the pulmonary valve is not strong enough to prevent backflow into the right ventricle. ... The tricuspid valve is on the right side of the heart, between the right atrium and the right ventricle. ... Tricuspid valve stenosis is a valvular heart disease which results in the narrowing of the orifice of the tricuspid valve of the heart. ... Tricuspid insufficiency, also termed Tricuspid regurgitation, refers to the failure of the hearts tricuspid valve to close properly during systole. ... Myocardium is the muscular tissue of the heart. ... In medicine (cardiology), myocarditis is inflammation of the myocardium, the muscular part of the heart. ... Dilated cardiomyopathy or DCM (also known as congestive cardiomyopathy), is a disease of the myocardium (the muscle of the heart) in which a portion of the myocardium is dilated, often without any obvious cause. ... Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, or HCM, is a disease of the myocardium (the muscle of the heart) in which a portion of the myocardium is hypertrophied (thickened) without any obvious cause. ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) is the least common cardiomyopathy. ... Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD, also known as arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy or ARVC) is a type of nonischemic cardiomyopathy that involves primarily the right ventricle. ... The normal electrical conduction in the heart allows the impulse that is generated by the sinoatrial node (SA node) of the heart to be propagated to (and stimulate) the myocardium (Cardiac muscle). ... A heart block is a disease in the electrical system of the heart. ... A heart block denotes a disease in the electrical system of the heart. ... First degree AV block or PR prolongation is a disease of the electrical conduction system of the heart in which the PR interval is lengthened. ... Second degree AV block is a disease of the electrical conduction system of the heart. ... Third degree AV block, also known as complete heart block, is a defect of the electrical system of the heart, in which the impulse generated in the atria (typically the SA node on top of the right atrium) does not propagate to the ventricles. ... Bundle branch block refers to a disorder of the hearts electrical conducting system. ... ECG characteristics of a typical LBBB showing wide QRS complexes with abnormal morphology in leads V1 and V6. ... Right bundle branch block (RBBB) is a cardiac conduction abnormality seen on electrocardiogram (EKG). ... Bifascicular block is a conduction abnormality in the heart where two of the three main fascicles of the His/Purkinje system are blocked. ... Trifascicular heart block is the triad of first degree heart block, right bundle branch block, and either left anterior or left posterior hemi block seen on an electrocardiogram (EKG). ... Pre-excitation syndrome is a condition where the the ventricles of the heart become depolarized too early, which leads to their premature contraction, causing arrhythmia. ... Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) is a syndrome of pre-excitation of the ventricles of the heart due to an accessory pathway known as the Bundle of Kent. ... Lown-Ganong-Levine syndrome (LGL) is a syndrome of pre-excitation of the ventricles due to an accessory pathway providing an abnormal electrical communication from the atria to the ventricles. ... The long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a heart disease in which there is an abnormally long delay between the electrical excitation (or depolarization) and relaxation (repolarization) of the ventricles of the heart. ... The term Stokes-Adams Attack refers to a sudden, transient episode of syncope, occasionally featuring seizures. ... Cardiac arrhythmia is any of a group of conditions in which the electrical activity of the heart is irregular or is faster or slower than normal. ... A supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is a rapid rhythm of the heart in which the origin of the electrical signal is either the atria or the AV node. ... AV nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) is a type of reentrant tachycardia (fast rhythm) of the heart. ... Ventricular tachycardia (V-tach or VT) is a fast rhythm that originates in one of the ventricles of the heart. ... Atrial flutter is an abnormal fast heart rhythm that occurs in the atria of the heart. ... Atrial fibrillation (AF or afib) is a cardiac arrhythmia (abnormal heart rhythm) that involves the two upper chambers (atria) of the heart. ... Ventricular fibrillation (V-fib or VF) is a cardiac condition which consists of a lack of coordination of the contraction of the muscle tissue of the large chambers of the heart that eventually leads to the heart stopping altogether. ... pac This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An ectopic pacemaker or ectopic focus is an excitable group of cells that causes a premature heart beat outside the normally functioning SA node of the human heart. ... Sick sinus syndrome, also called Bradycardia-tachycardia syndrome is a group of abnormal heartbeats (arrhythmias) presumably caused by a malfunction of the sinus node, the hearts natural pacemaker. ... Cardiovascular disease refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins). ... Cardiomegaly is a medical condition wherein the heart is enlarged. ... Although ventricular hypertrophy may occur in either the left or right or both ventricles of the heart , left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is more commonly encountered. ... Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is the thickening of the myocardium (muscle) of the left ventricle of the heart. ... Right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) is a form of ventricular hypertrophy affecting the right ventricle. ... Cerebrovascular disease is damage to the blood vessels in the brain, resulting in a stroke. ... This article needs cleanup. ... A cerebral hemorrhage is a bleed into the substance of the cerebrum. ... Extra-axial hematoma, or extra-axial hemorrhage is a subtype of intracranial hemorrhage, or bleeding within the intracranial space, that occurs within the skull but outside of the brain tissue itself. ... Nontraumatic epidural hematoma in a young woman. ... A subdural hematoma (SDH) is a form of traumatic brain injury in which blood collects between the dura (the outer protective covering of the brain) and the arachnoid (the middle layer of the meninges). ... Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is bleeding into the subarachnoid space surrounding the brain, i. ... Intra-axial hemorrhages, or intra-axial hematomas, are a subtype of intracranial hemorrhage that occur within the brain tissue itself. ... Intraventricular hemorrhage (or IVH) is a bleeding of the ventricles, where the cerebrospinal fluid is produced and circulates through towards the subarachnoid space. ... Intra-axial hemorrhages, or intra-axial hematomas, are a subtype of intracranial hemorrhage that occur within the brain tissue itself. ... Ischemia or infarction of the spinal cord in the distribution of the anterior spinal artery, which supplies the ventral two-thirds of the spinal cord and Medulla. ... Binswangers disease is a rare form of multi-infarct dementia caused by damage to deep white brain matter. ... Moyamoya disease is an extremely rare disorder in most parts of the world except in Japan. ... Section of an artery An artery or arterial is also a class of highway. ... An arteriole is a blood vessel that extends and branchs out from an artery and leads to capillaries. ... The word capillary is used to describe any very narrow tube or channel through which a fluid can pass. ... Renal artery stenosis is the narrowing of the renal artery. ... Aortic dissection is a tear in the wall of the aorta (the largest artery of the body). ... An aortic aneurysm is a general term for any swelling (dilatation or aneurysm) of the aorta, usually representing an underlying weakness in the wall of the aorta at that location. ... A plate from Grays Anatomy with yellow lines depicting the most common infrarenal location of the AAA. Abdominal aortic aneurysm, also written as AAA and often pronounced triple-A, is a localized dilatation of the abdominal aorta, that exceeds the normal diameter by more than 50%. The normal diameter... Post surgical photo of brain aneurysm survivor. ... Raynauds phenomenon (RAY-noz), in medicine, is a vasospastic disorder causing discoloration of the fingers, toes, and occasionally other extremities, named for French physician Maurice Raynaud (1834 - 1881). ... Raynauds disease (RAY-noz) is a condition that affects blood flow to the extremities which include the fingers, toes, nose and ears when exposed to temperature changes or stress. ... Buergers disease (also known as thromboangiitis obliterans) is an acute inflammation and thrombosis (clotting) of arteries and veins of the hands and feet. ... Arteritis is inflammation of the walls of arteries, usually as a result of infection or auto-immune response. ... Aortitis is the inflammation of the aorta. ... Intermittent claudication is a cramping sensation in the legs that is present during exercise or walking and occurs as a result of decreased oxygen supply. ... An arteriovenous fistula is an abnormal connection or passageway between an artery and a vein. ... In medicine, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), also known as Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome, is a genetic disorder that leads to vascular malformations. ... A spider angioma (also known as a nevus araneus, spider nevus, or vascular spider) is a type of angioma found slightly below the skins surface, often containing a central red spot and reddish extensions which radiate outwards like a spiders web. ... In the circulatory system, a vein is a blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart. ... Lymph originates as blood plasma lost from the circulatory system, which leaks out into the surrounding tissues. ... Lymph nodes are components of the lymphatic system. ... Thrombosis is the formation of a clot or thrombus inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. ... Phlebitis is an inflammation of a vein, usually in the legs. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into deep vein thrombosis. ... This article is about Deep-vein thrombosis. ... May-Thurner syndrome is deep vein thrombosis of the iliofemoral vein due to compression of the left common iliac vein by overlying right common iliac artery. ... A venous thrombosis is a blood clot that forms within a vein. ... In medicine (gastroenterology and hepatology), Budd-Chiari syndrome is the clinical picture caused by occlusion of the hepatic vein. ... Renal vein thrombosis (RVT) is the formation of a clot or thrombus obstructing the renal vein, leading to a reduction in drainage of the kidney. ... Paget-Schroetter disease (also Paget-von Schrötter disease) refers to deep vein thrombosis of an upper extremity vein, including the axillary vein or subclavian vein. ... Vein gymnastics in the barefoot park Dornstetten, Germany. ... A portacaval anastomosis is a specific type of anastomosis that occurs between the veins of portal circulation and those of systemic circulation. ... Hemorrhoids (AmE), haemorrhoids (BrE), emerods, or piles are varicosities or swelling and inflammation of veins in the rectum and anus. ... In medicine (gastroenterology), esophageal varices are extreme dilations of sub mucosal veins in the mucosa of the esophagus in diseases featuring portal hypertension, secondary to cirrhosis primarily. ... Cross section showing the pampiniform plexus Varicocele is an abnormal enlargement of the veins in the scrotum draining the testicles. ... Gastric varices are dilated submucosal veins in the stomach. ... Caput medusae means dilated veins around the umbilicus. ... Superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) is a result of obstruction of the superior vena cava. ... Lymphadenopathy is a term meaning disease of the lymph nodes. ... Azskeptic 17:34, 10 July 2007 (UTC) Lymphedema, also spelled lymphoedema, also known as lymphatic obstruction, is a condition of localized fluid retention caused by a compromised lymphatic system. ... Lymphadenopathy is swelling of one or more lymph nodes. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Circulatory system (470 words)
An open circulatory system is an arrangement of internal transport present in some invertebrates like mollusks and arthropods in which circulatory fluid in a cavity called the hemocoel (also spelled haemocoel) bathes the organs directly and there is no distinction between blood and interstitial fluid; this combined fluid is called hemolymph (also spelled haemolymph).
The circulatory systems of all vertebrates, as well as of annelids (for example, earthworms) and cephalopods (squid and octopus) are closed, meaning that the blood never leaves the system of blood vessels consisting of arteries, capillaries and veins.
Circulatory System, or cardiovascular system, in humans, the combined function of the heart, blood, and blood vessels to transport oxygen and nutrients to organs and tissues throughout the body and carry away waste products.
Circulatory system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1178 words)
The digestive system is very branched, and because the worm is so flat, digested materials can be diffused to all the cells of the flat worm.
The main components of the circulatory system are the heart, the blood, and the blood vessels.
In fish, the system has only one circuit, with the blood being pumped through the capillaries of the gills and on to the capillaries of the body tissues.
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