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Encyclopedia > Circular folds
Circular folds
Interior of the descending portion of the duodenum, showing bile papilla.
Latin plicae circulares
Gray's subject #248 1173
Dorlands/Elsevier p_24/12648947

The circular folds (valves of Kerkring) are large valvular flaps projecting into the lumen of the bowel. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Elseviers logo Elsevier, the worlds largest publisher of medical and scientific literature, forms part of the Reed Elsevier group. ... The intestine is the portion of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine. ...


They are composed of reduplications of the mucous membrane, the two layers of the fold being bound together by submucous tissue; unlike the folds in the stomach, they are permanent, and are not obliterated when the intestine is distended. The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of ectodermic origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ... In anatomy, the stomach (in ancient Greek στόμαχος) is an organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... The intestine is the portion of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine. ...


The majority extend transversely around the cylinder of the intestine for about one-half or two-thirds of its circumference, but some form complete circles, and others have a spiral direction; the latter usually extend a little more than once around the bowel, but occasionally two or three times.


The larger folds are about 8 mm. in depth at their broadest part; but the greater number are of smaller size.


The larger and smaller folds alternate with each other.


They are not found at the commencement of the duodenum, but begin to appear about 2.5 or 5 cm. beyond the pylorus. In anatomy of the digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube connecting the stomach to the jejunum. ... From Greek pylorus; pyl- = gate, -orus = guard. ...


In the lower part of the descending portion, below the point where the bile and pancreatic ducts enter the intestine, they are very large and closely approximated. X-Ray of the bile duct during a laprascopic cholecystectomy A bile duct is any of a number of long tube-like structures that carry bile. ... A duct joining the pancreas to the bile duct to supply pancreatic juice which aid in digestion provided by the exocrine pancreas. ...


In the horizontal and ascending portions of the duodenum and upper half of the jejunum they are large and numerous, but from this point, down to the middle of the ileum, they diminish considerably in size. Diagram of the Human Intestine In anatomy of the digestive system, the jejunum is the central of the three divisions of the small intestine and lies between the duodenum and the ileum. ...


In the lower part of the ileum they almost entirely disappear; hence the comparative thinness of this portion of the intestine, as compared with the duodenum and jejunum.


The circular folds retard the passage of the food along the intestines, and afford an increased surface for absorption. Look up absorption in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


External links

  • SUNY Labs 39:12-0302 - "Intestines and Pancreas: The Jejunum and the Ileum"
  • Diagram at clarion.edu

This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained herein may be outdated. Please edit the article if this is the case, and feel free to remove this notice when it is no longer relevant. The State University of New York Health Science Center at Brooklyn, better known as SUNY Downstate Medical Center, is an academic medical center and is the only one of its kind in the Borough of Brooklyn in New York City. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... An illustration from the 1918 edition Henry Grays Anatomy of the Human Body, commonly known as Grays Anatomy, is an anatomy textbook widely regarded as a classic work on human anatomy. ...

Gastrointestinal tract
v  d  e
Upper gastrointestinal tract

Mouth | Pharynx (nasopharynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx) | Esophagus | Crop | Stomach (rugae, gastric pits, cardia, pylorus) The gastrointestinal tract or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal, (nourishment canal) or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste. ... Look up Mouth in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the neck and throat situated immediately posterior to the mouth and nasal cavity, and cranial to the esophagus, larynx, and trachea. ... The pharynx is the part of the digestive system of many animals immediately behind the mouth and in front of the esophagus. ... The pharynx is the part of the digestive system of many animals immediately behind the mouth and in front of the esophagus. ... In human anatomy, the hypopharynx is the bottom part of the pharynx, and is the part of the throat that connects to the esophagus. ... The esophagus (also spelled oesophagus/œsophagus), or gullet is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the mouth area to the stomach. ... The crop is a thin-walled expanded portion of the alimentary tract used for the storage of food prior to digestion that is found in many animals, including earthworms, leeches, insects, and birds. ... In anatomy, the stomach (in ancient Greek στόμαχος) is an organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... Rugae are the mucus-covered ridges, or folds, located on the inside of the stomach wall. ... The cardia is the anatomical term for the junction orifice of the stomach and the esophagus. ... From Greek pylorus; pyl- = gate, -orus = guard. ...


Lower gastrointestinal tract


Small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum) | Vermiform appendix In biology the small intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract (gut) between the stomach and the large intestine. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube connecting the stomach to the jejunum. ... Diagram of the Human Intestine In anatomy of the digestive system, the jejunum is the central of the three divisions of the small intestine and lies between the duodenum and the ileum. ... Grays Fig. ... In human anatomy, the vermiform appendix (or appendix, pl. ...


Large intestine: Cecum | Colon (ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon) | Rectum (Houston valve, rectal ampulla, pectinate line) | Anal canal (anal valves, anal sinuses, anal columns) The large intestine, or colon is the last part of digestive system: the final stage of the alimentary canal in vertebrate animals. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the cecum or caecum is a pouch connected to the large intestine between the ileum. ... In the anatomy of the digestive system, the colon (> Greek ) is the part of the intestine from the caecum to the rectum. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the colon or large intestine or large bowel is the part of the intestine from the cecum to the rectum. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the colon is the part of the intestine from the cecum to the rectum. ... The Descending Colon passes downward through the left hypochondriac and lumbar regions along the lateral border of the left kidney. ... The sigmoid colon is the part of the large intestine after the descending colon and before the rectum. ... The rectum (from the Latin rectum intestinum, meaning straight intestine) is the final straight portion of the large intestine in some mammals, and the gut in others, terminating in the anus. ... The anal canal is the terminal part of the large intestine. ... The rectal sinuses, end in small valve-like folds, termed anal valves, which join together the lower ends of the rectal columns. ... The rectal columns are separated from one another by furrows, or rectal sinuses, which end below in small valve-like folds, termed anal valves. ... The lumen of the anal canal presents, in its upper half, a number of vertical folds, produced by an infolding of the mucous membrane and some of the muscular tissue. ...


Anus: Sphincter ani internus muscle | Sphincter ani externus muscle Female Human Anatomy Male Human Anatomy Anal redirects here. ... The Sphincter ani internus muscle is a muscle of the human body. ... The Sphincter ani externus muscle is a muscle of the human body. ...


Enteric nervous system: Meissner's plexus | Auerbach's plexus The enteric nervous system (ENS) is an interdependent part of the autonomic nervous system. ... The nerves of the small intestines are derived from the plexuses of sympathetic nerves around the superior mesenteric artery. ... Part of the enteric nervous system, Auerbachs plexus exists between the longitudinal and circular layers of muscle in the gastrointestinal tract and provides motor innervation to both layers and secretomotor innervation to the mucosa. ...


Enteroendocrine cells: G cells | Enterochromaffin cells | Enterochromaffin-like cell In medicine, the G cell is a type of cell in the stomach that secrets gastrin. ... Enterochromaffin-like cells or ECL cells are a type of neuroendocrine cells found in the gastric mucosa beneath the epithelium, particularly in the vicinity of parietal cells. ...


GALT: Peyer's patches | M cells Overview About 70% of the bodys immune system is found in the digestive tract. ... Peyers patches are secondary lymphoid organs named after the 17th-century Swiss anatomist Hans Conrad Peyer. ...


parietal cells | chief cells | goblet cells | Brunner's glands | Paneth cells | enterocytes Parietal cells (also called oxyntic cells) are cells located in the stomach epithelium. ... Goblet cells are glandular simple columnar epithelial cells whose sole function is to secrete mucus. ... Brunners glands are submucosal glands located throughout the duodenum. ... Paneth cells provide host defense against microbes in the small intestine. ... Enterocyte is a type of epithelial cell of the superficial layer of the small and large intestine tissue. ...


intestinal villus/microvillus | crypts of Lieberkühn | circular folds | taenia coli | haustra | epiploic appendix A microvillus (usually not occurring alone, so usually referred to as the plural microvilli) is a small (0. ... The crypts of Lieberkühn are glands found in the epithelial lining of the small intestine. ...


 
 

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