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Encyclopedia > Circuit Court

Circuit courts previously were United States federal courts established in each federal judicial district. The old United States circuit courts exercised both original and appellate jurisdiction. They existed from 1789 to 1912. The original jurisdiction formerly exercised by the United States circuit courts is now exercised by the United States district courts, and their appellate jurisdiction is now exercised by the United States courts of appeals. ... For purposes of the federal judicial system, Congress has divided the United States into judicial districts. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1912 is a leap year starting on Monday. ... The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system. ... The United States Courts of Appeals (or circuit courts) are the mid-level appellate courts of the United States federal court system. ...


The name circuit court is also informally used to refer to a United States court of appeals. Those courts were officially known as United States circuit courts of appeals from their establishment in 1894 until their name was changed to United States courts of appeals in 1947. The United States Courts of Appeals (or circuit courts) are the mid-level appellate courts of the United States federal court system. ... 1894 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1947 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


In some U.S. states, including Illinois and many of the Southern states, the state court of superior general original jurisdiction is known as the circuit court. A U.S. state is any one of the 50 states which have membership of the federation known as the United States of America (USA or U.S.). The separate state governments and the U.S. federal government share sovereignty. ... State nickname: Land of Lincoln, The Prairie State Other U.S. States Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Governor Rod Blagojevich Official languages English Area 149,998 km² (25th)  - Land 143,968 km²  - Water 6,030 km² (4. ... Under the laws of the United States, most disputes are properly taken to the courts of the state in which the dispute arose. ... In law, and more specifically, in the Anglo-American common law legal tradition, a superior court is a court of general jurisdiction over all, or major, civil and criminal cases. ... The original jurisdiction of a court refers to matters on which the court rules on directly, rather than on matters which are referred to it after being heard by another court. ...


In Virginia, a circuit court is a court of record that has appellate jurisdiction over a county's general district court and juvenile and domestic relations court and hears all the county's felony cases. A circuit court has power to issue death sentences and empanel grand juries. The court's decisions become legal precedents [1] (http://www.fauquiercounty.gov/government/departments/circuitcourt/index.cfm?action=court). State nickname: Old Dominion Other U.S. States Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Governor Mark R. Warner Official languages English Area 110,862 km² (35th)  - Land 102,642 km²  - Water 8,220 km² (7. ... In common law jurisdictions, a court of record is a court that keeps permanent records of its proceedings. ... A felony, in many common law legal systems, is the term for a very serious crime; misdemeanors are considered to be less serious. ... Capital punishment, also referred to as the death penalty, is the judicially ordered execution of a prisoner as a punishment for a serious crime, often called a capital offense or a capital crime. ... A grand jury is a type of common law jury; responsible for investigating alleged crimes, examining evidence, and issuing indictments. ... Precedent is the principle in law of using the past in order to assist in current interpretation and decision-making. ...


In the Republic of Ireland a circuit court is part of the Courts of First Instance, they replaced the Assize Court used before the Irish Free State reformed the justice system. The circut court system includes and judge and jury system, but is not allowed to hear, among others, murder, treason or rape cases. The court is generally limited to fines of £30,000 (Punt) (about €38,100). See also: Courts of the Republic of Ireland. The Courts of Assize, or Assizes, were periodic criminal courts held around England and Wales until 1972, when together with the Quarter Sessions they were abolished by the Courts Act 1971 and replaced by a single permanent Crown Court. ... The Irish Free State (Irish: Saorstát Éireann) was (1922–1937) the name of the state comprising the 26 of Irelands 32 counties which were separated from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland under the Irish Free State Agreement (or Anglo-Irish Treaty) signed by British and Irish... A IR£1 coin, featuring the Irish red deer. ... The courts system in the Republic of Ireland consists of the Supreme Court, the High Court and a number of lower courts. ...


References


  Results from FactBites:
 
Virginia Circuit Courts (1829 words)
Circuit court judges are required to reside in the circuit they serve and must have been admitted to the Virginia Bar at least five years prior to election or appointment.
The clerk of the circuit court is a constitutional official and is elected to an eight-year term by the voters of the locality.
The circuit court also has jurisdiction over juveniles age 14 and older who are charged with felonies and whose cases have been certified or transferred by the judge of a juvenile and domestic relations district court for trial in a circuit court.
Kentucky: Court of Justice - Overview (335 words)
The Circuit Court is the court of general jurisdiction over cases involving capital offenses, felonies, land disputes, contested probates of wills, and general civil litigation in disputes involving more than $4,000.
Circuit courts have the power to issue injunctions, writs of prohibition, writs of mandamus and hear appeals from district courts and administrative agencies.
As a division of Circuit Court with general jurisdiction, the family court division of Circuit Court further retains primary jurisdiction in cases involving dissolution of marriage; child custody; visitation; maintenance and support; equitable distribution of property in dissolution cases; adoption; and, termination of parental rights.
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