FACTOID # 26: Delaware is the latchkey kid capital of America, with 71.8% of households having both parents in the labor force.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Circle Line
Circle
Colour on map Yellow
Year opened 1884
Line type Sub-Surface
Rolling stock C Stock
Stations served 27
Length (km) 22.5
Length (miles) 14
Depots Hammersmith
Neasden
Journeys made 68,485,000 (per annum)
Rail lines of
Transport for London
London Underground lines
  Bakerloo
  Central
  Circle
  District
  East London
  Hammersmith & City
  Jubilee
  Metropolitan
  Northern
  Piccadilly
  Victoria
  Waterloo & City
Other lines
  Docklands Light Railway
  Tramlink
  Overground (starts November 2007)
Portal:London Transport London Transport Portal

The Circle Line of the London Underground became known as such in 1949, when it was designated separately from its parent lines, the Metropolitan Line and the District Line, although it had been shown on Underground maps since 1947 (see history below). Because of this, it can be thought of as a "virtual line", as the Circle Line does not have any stations for its sole use and only has two short sections of track over which it operates exclusively: the chords between High Street Kensington and Gloucester Road, and between Tower Hill and Aldgate. The line has interchanges with most of the major London terminals (all but Marylebone, Euston[1], London Bridge[2] and Waterloo). Circle Line can mean: The Circle Line, in London The Circle MRT Line, in Singapore The Koltsevaya Line, in Moscow The Yamanote Line, in Tokyo Circle Line (New York), ferries and sightseeing boats Shanghai Metro Line 4, in Shanghai The Koltsevaya Line (Saint Petersburg) in Saint Petersburg (under construction) The... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... C Stock is the name given to the trains currently running on London Undergrounds Circle and Hammersmith and City lines as well as on the District Line between Edgware Road and Wimbledon. ... Transport For London (TfL) is a local government body responsible for most aspects of the transport system throughout Greater London in England. ... The London Underground is a transit system that serves much of Greater London and some neighbouring areas. ... The Bakerloo Line is a line of the London Underground and coloured brown on the Tube map. ... London Transport Portal The Central Line is a line of the London Underground and coloured red on the tube map. ... The District Line is a line of the London Underground, coloured green on the Tube map. ... London Transport Portal The East London Line is a line of the London Underground, coloured orange on the Tube map. ... The Hammersmith and City Line is a line of the London Underground, coloured salmon pink on the Tube map, running between Hammersmith and Aldgate East, extending to Barking in the rush hours. ... London Transport Portal The Jubilee Line is a line on the London Underground (the Tube), in England. ... London Transport Portal The Metropolitan Line is part of the London Underground, coloured maroon on the Tube map. ... For other uses, see Northern Line (disambiguation). ... The Piccadilly Line is a line of the London Underground, coloured dark blue on the Tube map. ... London Transport Portal The Victoria Line is a line of the London Underground, coloured light blue on the Tube map. ... The Waterloo & City Line is a short underground metro line in London, formally opened on 11 July 1898. ... London Transport Portal The Docklands Light Railway (DLR) is a light rail system serving the redeveloped Docklands area of East London, England. ... Tramlink (initially known as Croydon Tramlink) is a public transport tramway in south London, operated by FirstGroup on behalf of Transport for London. ... London Overground [1] is the network of rail services in London, United Kingdom to be provided by the London Rail division of Transport for London (TfL) from 11 November 2007. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... The London Underground is a transit system that serves much of Greater London and some neighbouring areas. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... London Transport Portal The Metropolitan Line is part of the London Underground, coloured maroon on the Tube map. ... The District Line is a line of the London Underground, coloured green on the Tube map. ... For other uses, see Circle Line (disambiguation). ... High Street Kensington is a London Underground station at High Street in Kensington. ... District line building Piccadilly line building Gloucester Road is a London Underground station in Kensington, near the intersection of Gloucester Road and Cromwell Road. ... Categories: Circle Line stations | District Line stations | London Underground stubs ... Trains at Aldgate tube station Entrance to Aldgate tube station Aldgate tube station is a London Underground station located at Aldgate in the City of London. ... The National Rail network of the United Kingdom does not have one main London railway station in London, England. ... Marylebone station or London Marylebone station is a National Rail and London Underground station in central London. ... Euston station, also known as London Euston, is a major railway station to the north of central London in the London Borough of Camden. ... London Bridge station is a National Rail and London Underground station in the London Borough of Southwark, which occupies a large area on two levels, immediately south-east of London Bridge and 1. ... Facade of Waterloo Station, London Waterloo is a major train station and transport interchange located in the Waterloo district of London, which was itself named after the Battle of Waterloo in which Napoleon was defeated near Brussels. ...


As the name implies, trains on the line run a continuous circuit. A complete journey around the line would take 45 minutes, but time-tabling constraints mean that each train has a scheduled two-minute stop at High Street Kensington and Aldgate, extending the time required for a full circuit to 49 minutes. This allows the service to operate with seven trains in each direction with a seven-minute service interval. It has 27 stations and 14 miles (22.5 km) of track. There are usually quicker routes on other lines when travelling from south to north or vice versa. In the north, east and west of central London, the Circle Line approximately outlines Travelcard Zone 1, but in the south there is a substantial portion of the zone outside the Circle Line. It and the two-stop Waterloo & City Line are the only lines completely within Zone 1. Out of the 27 stations served, all 27 are underground.(This is open to interpretation as many of the stations are in cutting or exposed to to sky. However they are still all below street level, albeit only a few feet.) “Miles” redirects here. ... “km” redirects here. ... Travelcard Zone 1 is the central zone of Transport for Londons zonal system used for calculating co-ordinated inter-modal Travelcard fares within London. ... The Waterloo & City Line is a short underground metro line in London, formally opened on 11 July 1898. ...

Contents

History

The route now known as the Circle Line was authorised when Acts of Parliament in 1853 and 1854 empowered the Metropolitan Railway (MR) and the Metropolitan District Railway (MDR) to construct the world's first underground railway in central London. From an initial section between Farringdon and Paddington stations, the route was gradually extended at each end. Financial difficulties in the construction of the section through the City of London as well as animosity between the two railway companies delayed completion of the full circuit until 6 October 1884, although it had been known as the Inner Circle since the 1870s. The Metropolitan Railway (MetR) and the Metropolitan District Railway (District) were the first two underground railways to be constructed in London, starting in the 1860s, and the first of the worlds metro systems. ... An Act of Parliament or Act is law enacted by the parliament (see legislation). ... The Metropolitan Railway (MetR) and the Metropolitan District Railway (District) were the first two underground railways to be constructed in London, starting in the 1860s, and the first of the worlds metro systems. ... The Metropolitan Railway (MetR) and the Metropolitan District Railway (District) were the first two underground railways to be constructed in London, starting in the 1860s, and the first of the worlds metro systems. ... Farringdon station platforms Farringdon station is a London Underground and National Rail station in Farringdon, just north of the City of London in the London Borough of Islington. ... Paddington Station, March 2005 during rush hour Paddington station or London Paddington station is a major National Rail and London Underground station complex in the Paddington area of London. ... Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state United Kingdom Constituent country England Region Greater London Status sui generis, City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor John Stuttard  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - City  1. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... // The invention of the telephone (1876) by Alexander Graham Bell. ...


Trains on the route were originally hauled by steam engines, but electrification was started with an experimental section in 1900. A disagreement between the two companies over the method of electrification delayed the exercise, so that the first electric trains were introduced gradually over the 11 days to 24 September 1905. One of the last mainline steam locomotives built in the UK: British Railways Standard Class 9F 2-10-0 no. ... Electrification refers to changing a thing or system to operate using electricity. ... Modern three-phase AC locomotive (DBAG Class 152) A GG1 An electric locomotive is a locomotive powered by electric motors which draws current from an overhead wire (overhead lines), a third rail, or an on-board storage device such as a battery or a flywheel energy storage system. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Other circle routes

The Inner Circle and other circular routes
The Inner Circle and other circular routes

The success of the Inner Circle led to the operation of a number of other circular routes within the capital, over existing main line routes and sections of the MR's and MDR's Inner Circle tracks: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 681 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2029 × 1787 pixel, file size: 203 KB, MIME type: image/png) Map of the Circle Routes of Victorian London showing: Inner Circle Middle Circle Outer Circle Super Outer Circle I, the creator of this work, hereby grant... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 681 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2029 × 1787 pixel, file size: 203 KB, MIME type: image/png) Map of the Circle Routes of Victorian London showing: Inner Circle Middle Circle Outer Circle Super Outer Circle I, the creator of this work, hereby grant...

These routes failed to attract the passenger numbers hoped for and were eventually cut-back or ended. Other services on the lines continued. Today parts of the Outer Circle and Super Outer Circle routes are operated by Silverlink trains on the North London Line. Plans to complete an outer rail loop have been relaunched under the name Orbirail.[3] The Middle Circle was a railway route in London which operated in the late 19th and early 20th centuries over tracks which are now mainly part of the London Underground. ... Trains at Aldgate tube station Entrance to Aldgate tube station Aldgate tube station is a London Underground station located at Aldgate in the City of London. ... Mansion House entrance Mansion House is a London Underground station in the City of London, near Mansion House (although Bank is actually closer). ... Kensington (Olympia) station is a railway and tube station in West London. ... The Outer Circle was a railway route in London operated in the late 19th and early 20th centuries over tracks which are now mainly owned by Network Rail but include parts of the London Underground. ... The Broad Street branch line in 1899 Class 501 train waiting for departure at Broad Street Broad Street station was a major railway station in the City of London, which served as the terminus for the North London Railway. ... Willesden Junction station is a Network Rail station in Harlesden, north-west London, also served by the London Underground. ... The Super Outer Circle was a railway route in London operated between 1878 and 1880 over tracks which are now mainly owned by Network Rail but include parts of the London Underground. ... St Pancras railway station is a railway station in the St Pancras area of central London, between the new British Library building to the west and Kings Cross station to the east. ... Earls Court tube station is a London Underground station in Earls Court (note the inconsistency of spelling between the tube station and the above-ground area). ... Cricklewood railway station is in the London Borough of Barnet in North London. ... South Acton railway station is in the London Borough of Ealing in West London. ... Silverlink Trains is a regional franchise in the British railway system with routes in suburban London and from London to Northampton. ... A North London Line train pulls into Stratford station during the morning rush Geographical map of the North London Line Line map of the North London Line showing connections and zones A North London Line train at North Woolwich station The North London Line is a railway line through northern... Orbirail is a suggested orbital railway system around London which would involve the extended East London Line, North London Line, West London Line, South London Line and Gospel Oak to Barking Line. ...


7 July 2005 terrorist attack

On 7 July 2005, two Circle Line trains were bombed. The blasts occurred almost simultaneously at 08:50 BST, one between Liverpool Street and Aldgate and the other on a train at Edgware Road. Locations of the bombings, overlaid onto a real-path map of the London Underground The 7 July 2005 London bombings (also called the 7/7 bombings) were a series of coordinated terrorist bomb blasts that hit Londons public transport system during the morning rush hour. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving British Summer Time (BST) is the changing of the clocks in effect in the United Kingdom and Irish Summer Time (IST) in Republic of Ireland between the last Sunday in March and the last Sunday in October each... Liverpool Street station, also called London Liverpool Street, is a mainline railway station and connected London Underground station in the north eastern corner of the City of London, the main financial district, with entrances on Bishopsgate and Liverpool Street itself. ... Trains at Aldgate tube station Entrance to Aldgate tube station Aldgate tube station is a London Underground station located at Aldgate in the City of London. ... Edgware Road tube station is a name shared by two separate stations on the London Underground. ...


Following the attacks, the whole of the Circle Line was closed. While most other lines re-opened on 8 July, the Circle remained closed for several weeks, reopening a little less than a month after the attacks, on 4 August. 14 people were killed by the blasts on the Circle Line trains. A third attack occurred on the Piccadilly Line between King's Cross St Pancras and Russell Square. is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Piccadilly Line is a line of the London Underground, coloured dark blue on the Tube map. ...


Trains

All Circle line trains are in the distinctive London Underground livery of red, white and blue and are the larger of the two sizes used on the network. These trains use C stock, introduced 1969-70, and also in 1978. They are expected to be replaced with S Stock by 2012. C Stock is the name given to the trains currently running on London Undergrounds Circle and Hammersmith and City lines as well as on the District Line between Edgware Road and Wimbledon. ... The London Underground is a transit system that serves much of Greater London and some neighbouring areas. ...


See London Underground rolling stock for more information Underground trains come in two sizes, larger sub-surface trains and smaller tube trains. ...


Future

The Circle Line could cease to exist in its current form in 2011 and be merged with the Hammersmith & City Line to form a spiral route. The new route would run from Hammersmith to Paddington and then do a complete loop of the current Circle Line, terminating at Edgware Road. The Hammersmith and City Line is a line of the London Underground, coloured salmon pink on the Tube map, running between Hammersmith and Aldgate East, extending to Barking in the rush hours. ... Hammersmith tube station is a London Underground station in Hammersmith. ... Paddington station or London Paddington is the name of a major railway station in the Paddington area of London, which is the London terminus for long distance trains to the West of England and South Wales and some West London commuter services. ... Edgware Road tube station is a name shared by two separate stations on the London Underground. ...


Orbital routes have an intrinsic timetabling robustness problem. The trains are constantly "in orbit" so there is little scope for "recovery time" if they are delayed. A single delay can have long lasting knock on effects and be much more disruptive than on a non-orbital railway. Recovery time can be created by timetabling for longer stops at some stations but this increases journey times and reduces train frequency. The proposed spiral route would remove this problem because there would be adequate recovery time at both ends of the route.[4][5][6]


Map

Image File history File links Circle_Line. ...


Stations

in order, clockwise from Paddington

Paddington Station, March 2005 during rush hour Paddington station or London Paddington station is a major National Rail and London Underground station complex in the Paddington area of London. ... Maidenhead Railway Bridge The Great Western Main Line is a main line railway in England that runs westwards from London Paddington station to Temple Meads station in Bristol. ... Edgware Road tube station is a name shared by two separate stations on the London Underground. ... Baker Street tube station is a station on the London Underground located on Baker Street. ... Great Portland Street tube station Great Portland Street is a London Underground station near Regents Park. ... Categories: Circle Line stations | Hammersmith & City Line stations | Metropolitan Line stations | London Underground stubs ... Euston station, also known as London Euston, is a major railway station to the north of central London and in the London Borough of Camden. ... The WCML running alongside the M1 motorway at Watford Gap in Northamptonshire A Virgin Pendolino and freight train on the WCML The West Coast Main Line (WCML) is one of the most important intercity railway lines in the United Kingdom, part of the British railway system. ... Kings Cross St Pancras tube station is the London Underground station serving both Kings Cross and St Pancras main line stations in the London Borough of Camden. ... Image File history File links Handicap_reverse. ... The Midland Main Line is a main railway line in the United Kingdom, part of the British railway system. ... The East Coast Main Line viaduct at Durham. ... Farringdon station platforms Farringdon station is a London Underground and National Rail station in Farringdon, just north of the City of London in the London Borough of Islington. ... Barbican tube station Barbican is a London Underground and mainline rail station serving the Barbican Centre in the City of London. ... Moorgate station is a London Underground and National Rail station in the City of London, on Moorgate, north of London Wall. ... Liverpool Street station, also called London Liverpool Street, is a mainline railway station and connected London Underground station in the north eastern corner of the City of London, the main financial district, with entrances on Bishopsgate and Liverpool Street itself. ... The Great Eastern Main Line, or the G.E., is a major railway line of the British railway system, which connects Liverpool Street station in the City of London with destinations in east London and the East of England; including Ipswich, Norwich and several coastal resorts. ... Trains at Aldgate tube station Entrance to Aldgate tube station Aldgate tube station is a London Underground station located at Aldgate in the City of London. ... Categories: Circle Line stations | District Line stations | London Underground stubs ... For the station called Monument on the Tyne and Wear Metro, see Monument Metro station Bank and Monument are interlinked stations, spanning the length of King William Street in the City of London. ... Cannon Street is a National Rail and London Underground station complex in the City of London, the financial district of London in England. ... Mansion House entrance Mansion House is a London Underground station in the City of London, near Mansion House (although Bank is actually closer). ... Blackfriars Station has most of its platforms on a bridge over the river. ... Categories: Circle Line stations | District Line stations | London Underground stubs ... Embankment station, April 2002 Embankment tube station is a London Underground station in the City of Westminster. ... For other items relating to Westminster, see Westminster (disambiguation) Westminster tube station on the London Underground serves the Circle, District and Jubilee lines. ... Image File history File links Handicap_reverse. ... Entrance to St Jamess Park Underground station St Jamess Park is a London Underground station by St Jamess Park in the City of Westminster. ... Victoria station in London is a London Underground and National Rail station in the City of Westminster. ... The Chatham Main Line is the British railway line that runs from London Victoria to Dover Priory or Ramsgate via the Medway Towns (of which Chatham is one, hence the name) and Bromley). ... The Brighton Main Line is the railway line from London Victoria and London Bridge to Brighton. ... Sloane Square tube station is a London Underground station in Sloane Square, Chelsea. ... Located on Cromwell Road in South Kensington, London, South Kensington tube station is the closest London Underground station to the Natural History, Science and Victoria and Albert Museums, as well as to Imperial College. ... District line building Piccadilly line building Gloucester Road is a London Underground station in Kensington, near the intersection of Gloucester Road and Cromwell Road. ... High Street Kensington is a London Underground station at High Street in Kensington. ... Notting Hill Gate tube station is a London Underground station in Notting Hill. ... Bayswater tube station Bayswater tube station platform Bayswater tube station platform Bayswater tube station is a London Underground station in Travelcard Zone 1 on the Circle and District lines. ...

Wheel wear

As trains are constantly running in the same direction around the line, the wear on the wheels becomes uneven. To combat this, one train per day travels from Tower Hill to Liverpool Street via Whitechapel and Aldgate East, instead of directly via Aldgate. This reverses the train. [7] Whitechapel is a London Underground station in Whitechapel in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets in East London. ... Aldgate East is a London Underground station located in Whitechapel in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. ...


Trivia

  • The Circle Line Pub Crawl aims to visit each Circle Line station in turn, drinking a half pint or shot in a pub near to each. This is a popular event on the Saturday closest to Waitangi Day.
  • There were, in 2004, three occurrences of a Circle Line Party. These were promoted by grassroots organisations such as the Space Hijackers, and involve the "hijacking" of a Circle Line train.
  • The Cast Off knitting club sometimes holds knit-ins on the Circle Line[8]

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... The Circle Line Pub Crawl is a pub crawl of London following the Circle Line. ... Waitangi Day is the national day of New Zealand. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A Circle Line Party is a planned sponteneity similar to a flash mob but with fun and revelry as its main purpose. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... Robert Steadman (born April 1, 1965) is a British composer of classical music who mostly works in a post-minimalist style but also writes lighter music, including musicals, and compositions for educational purposes. ... A Mind the gap sign in the tube station at Charing Cross, London. ... The violoncello, usually abbreviated to cello, or cello (the c is pronounced as in the ch of check), is a bowed stringed instrument, a member of the violin family. ... For the song titled Orchestra, see The Servant (band). ... A Mind the gap sign in the tube station at Charing Cross, London. ... Siouxsie and the Banshees are a British gothic rock band. ... A Kiss in the Dreamhouse is the fifth studio album released by Siouxsie & the Banshees. ...

References

  1. ^ The Circle Line station Euston Square is commonly designated on maps as having interchange with London Euston within a 'short walk'
  2. ^ Many, but not all, rail services that call at London Bridge also stop at other stations which interchange with the Circle Line, namely Charing Cross, Cannon Street or Blackfriars
  3. ^ London Overground & Orbirail. Always Touch Out (2006-09-07). Retrieved on 2007-04-24.
  4. ^ Subsurface network (SSL) upgrade. Always Touch Out. Retrieved on 2007-04-12.
  5. ^ "District Dave". Proposals for the Upgrade of the Sub-surface Lines. Retrieved on 2007-04-12.
  6. ^ "District Dave" & "Tubeprune". Proposals for the Upgrade of the Sub-surface Lines. The Tube Professionals' Rumour Network (TUBEPRUNE). Retrieved on 2007-04-12.
  7. ^ "Underground Offical Handbook", P.41, Bob Bayman, Capital Transport publishing (2000) ISBN 1854142216
  8. ^ It's a Knit-In. The Independent (2004-03-23). Retrieved on 2007-04-12.

Categories: Circle Line stations | Hammersmith & City Line stations | Metropolitan Line stations | London Underground stubs ... Charing Cross Charing Cross railway station is a central London railway terminus. ... Cannon Street is a National Rail and London Underground station complex in the City of London, the financial district of London in England. ... Blackfriars Station has most of its platforms on a bridge over the river. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Circle Line - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (589 words)
There are Circle Line ferries and sightseeing boats in Greater New York, as well as the Circle MRT Line, part of the Mass Rapid Transit system in Singapore.
The Circle Line of the London Underground became known as such in 1949, when it was separated from its parent lines, the Metropolitan Line and the District Line, although it had been shown on Underground maps since 1947.
All Circle line trains are in the distinctive London Underground livery of Red, White and Blue and are the larger size of the two sizes used on the network.
Circle Line Party - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (326 words)
A Circle Line Party is a planned sponteneity similar to a flash mob but with fun and revelry as its main purpose.
Circle Line parties are parties held on the moving trains of the London Underground train system's Circle Line.
Though the space Hijackers may have publicised the first Circle Line party, the idea has become a new meme and appears to be spreading to other cities.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m