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Encyclopedia > Cingulate cortex
Brain: Cingulate cortex
Medial surface of left cerebral hemisphere.
Medial surface.
Latin gyrus cingulatus
Gray's subject #189 825
Part of Cerebral cortex
Artery Anterior cerebral
Vein Superior sagittal sinus
Acronym(s) Cg
NeuroNames hier-141
MeSH Gyrus+Cinguli

The cingulate cortex is a part of the brain situated in the medial aspect of the cortex. It is extended from the corpus callosum below to the cingulate sulcus above, at least anteriorly. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (960x720, 212 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Entorhinal cortex Cingulate cortex Brodmann area Nucleus accumbens Brodmann area 24 Posterior cingulate ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Location of the cerebral cortex Slice of the cerebral cortex, ca. ... The anterior cerebral artery supplies oxygen to most medial portions of frontal lobes and superior medial parietal lobes. ... The superior sagittal sinus lies within the superior border of the falx cerebri, a two-layered dural structure separating the two cerebral hemispheres. ... NeuroNames is a system of nomenclature for the brain and related structures. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... In animals the brain, or encephalon (Greek for in the head), is the control center of the central nervous system. ... Location of the cerebral cortex Slice of the cerebral cortex, ca. ...

Contents

History

Cingulum means belt in Latin. The name has been likely selected to assess that this cortex, in great part, surrounds the corpus callosum. Cingulate is an adjective (cingularis or cingulatus). The cingulate cortex is a part of the "grand lobe limbique" of Broca (1898) that comprised (in addition to the olfactory part, which is no more considered there today) a superior cingulate part, supracallosal and an inferior hippocampic part, infracallosal. The limbic cortex was separated from the remaining of the cortex by Broca on two arguments. The first was that it is not convoluted. The second is that the gyri are directed parasagitally (contrary to the transverse gyrification). Since the parasagittal gyrification is observed in non-primate species, the limbic lobe was thus declared to be "bestial". As well as other parts of the cortex, there has been and continue to be discrepancies concerning boundaries and naming. Brodmann (1909), a student of C. and O.Vogt, who worked on cercopithecus (and not much in human (Bailey and von Bonin, ), elaborated a system of numeration that had unfortunately no typological logics (1 is sensory,as well as 2 and 3 but 4 is motor, 5 is parietal and 6 is premotor 7 is again parietal!). Area 25 was even not placed by him in the same place in the human brain. Area 24 (anterior) was distinguished from 23 (posterior) on the fact that it was agranular. Later appeared the typographical von Economo's system adopted by Bailey and von Bonin. Simple typographical naming should be preferred for an evident heuristic purpose. The cingulum is a collection of white matter fibers projecting from the cingulate gyrus to the entorhinal cortex in the brain, allowing for communication between components of the limbic system. ... The corpus callosum is a structure of the mammalian brain in the longitudal fissure that connects the left and right cerebral hemispheres. ...


Subdivisions

Based on cytoarchitectonics it has been divided into the Brodmann areas 23, 24, 26, 29, 30, 31 and 32. The areas 26, 29 and 30 are usually referred to as the retrosplenial areas. Cytoarchitectonics represents the study of the microscopic, cellular composition of structures within the body. ... A Brodmann area is a region in the brain cortex defined in many different species based on its cytoarchitecture. ... Brodmann area 23 (BA23) is a region in the brain corresponding to some portion of the posterior cingulate cortex. ... 24 - ventral anterior cingulate (area cingularis anterior ventralis). ... This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. ... This area is known as granular retrolimbic area 29, and it refers to a cytoarchitecturally defined portion of the retrosplenial region of the cerebral cortex. ... This area is known as agranular retrolimbic area 30, and it refers to a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined retrosplenial region of the cerebral cortex. ... This area is known as dorsal posterior cingulate area 31, and it refers to a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined cingulate region of cerebral cortex. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. ... This area is known as granular retrolimbic area 29, and it refers to a cytoarchitecturally defined portion of the retrosplenial region of the cerebral cortex. ... This area is known as agranular retrolimbic area 30, and it refers to a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined retrosplenial region of the cerebral cortex. ...


Anterior cingulate cortex

This corresponds to the area 24 of Brodmann LA of von Economo and Bailey and von Bonin. It is continued anteriorly by the subgenual cortex (area 25). It is cytoarchitectonically agranular. It has a gyral part on the surface and a sulcal part. Anterior cingulate cortex can further be divided in the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex and midcingulate cortex. The anterior cingulate cortex receives primarily its afferent axons from the anterior nucleus (nucleus anterior of the thalamus, see thalamus). The nucleus anterior receives mamillo-thalamic afferences. The mamillary neurons receive axons from the subiculum. The whole forms a part of Papez' circuit.The anterior cingulate cortex sends axons to the anterior nucleus and through the cingulum to other Broca's limbic areas. Grays FIG. 727– Medial surface of left cerebral hemisphere. ... Grays FIG. 727– Medial surface of left cerebral hemisphere. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Papez circuit of the limbic system of the brain was first described by James Papez in 1937. ...


Posterior cingulate cortex

Corresponds to area 23 of Brodmann, LP of von Economo and Bailey and von Bonin. It is granular. It is followed posteriorly by the retrosplenial cortex (area 29). Dorsally is the granular area 31. The posterior cingulate cortex receives a great part of its afferent axons from the superficial nucleus (or nucleus superior- falsely LD-) of the thalamus (see thalamus), which itself receives axons from the subiculum. To some extent it thus duplicates Papez' circuit. It receives also direct afferents from the subiculum of the hippocampus. The posterior cingulate cortex is the backmost part of the cingulate cortex. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Cingulum and interconnections

At the base of the cingulate cortex is a thick parasagittal bundle , strongly increasing in evolution, the cingulum. In humans, it can even be dissected. The cingulum is used for the connections of the 2 above described subdivisions and with the parahippocampic gyrus


Cingulate cortex can also be differentiated based on its thalamic connections1: midlline and intralaminar nuclei . To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


External links

BrainMaps is an NIH-funded interactive zoomable high-resolution digital brain atlas and virtual microscope that is based on more than 10 million megapixels (30 terabytes) of scanned images of serial sections of both primate and non-primate brains and that is integrated with a high-speed database for querying...

References

  1. Vogt BA, Rosene DL, Pandya DN, Science 204:205+

 
 

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