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Encyclopedia > Cinematographer

A cinematographer is one photographing with a motion picture camera (the art and science of which is known as cinematography). The title is generally equivalent to director of photography (DP or DoP), used to designate a chief over the camera and lighting crews working on a film, responsible for achieving artistic and technical decisions related to the image. The cinematographer is sometimes also the camera operator. The term cinematographer has been a point of contention for some time now; some professionals insist that it only applies when the director of photography and camera operator are the same person, although this is far from being uniformly the case. To most, cinematographer and director of photography are interchangeable terms. Buster Keaton (born Joseph Frank Keaton, October 4, 1895 – February 1, 1966) was an American silent film comic actor and filmmaker. ... The The Cameraman is a 1928 comedy starring Buster Keaton. ... Photography [fәtɑgrәfi:],[foʊtɑgrәfi:] is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or electronic sensor. ... Categories: Stub | Video and movie technology | Cameras by type ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... Film crew and equipment on a location shoot. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... A Camera Operator uses a camera to capture moving images in events and scenes. ...

Contents

Responsibilities

The English system of camera department hierarchy sometimes firmly separates the duties of the director of photography from that of the camera operator to the point that the DP often has no say whatsoever over more purely operating-based visual elements such as framing. In this case, the DP is often credited as a lighting cameraman. This system means that the director consults the lighting cameraman for lighting and filtration and the operator for framing and lens choices.


In the American system, which is more widely adopted, the rest of the camera department is subordinate to the DP, who, along with the director, has the final word on all decisions related to both lighting and framing.


The cinematographer typically selects the film stock, lens, filters, etc. to realize the scene in accordance with the intentions of the director. Relations between the cinematographer and director vary; in some instances the director will allow the cinematographer complete independence; in others, the director allows little to none, even going so far as to specify aperture and shutter angle. Such a level of involvement is not common once the director and cinematographer have become comfortable with each other. The director will typically convey to the cinematographer what he wants from a scene visually, and allow the cinematographer latitude in achieving that effect. Film stock is the term for photographic film on which films are recorded. ... Photographic lens One of Canons most popular wide angle lenses - 17-40 f/4 L The zoom lens of the Canon Elph A photographic lens (or more correctly, objective) is an optical lens or assembly of lenses used in conjunction with a camera body and mechanism to make images... In photography, a filter is a camera accessory consisting of an optical filter that can be inserted in the optical path. ... The film director, on the right, gives last minute direction to the cast and crew, whilst filming a costume drama on location in London. ... a big (1) and a small (2) aperture For other uses, see Aperture (disambiguation). ... Adjusting the shutter angle affects the amount of time that film is exposed to light. ...


On some shoots, a director may assume the duties of the cinematographer, especially when shooting nude scenes or in other physically intimate settings where the director wishes to have as few people as possible present.


Some of the crew who work under or closely with the cinematographer include:

A Camera Operator uses a camera to capture moving images in events and scenes. ... In cinematography, a focus puller or first assistant camera (1 AC) is the member of a film crew responsible for keeping the cameras focus right during a shoot. ... A clapper loader is part of a film crew, whose name refers to the tasks of operating the clapperboard (slate) at the beginning of each take and loading the raw film stock into camera magazines. ... In film, the second unit is a separate team that shoots footage which is of lesser importance for the final motion picture, as opposed to the first unit, which shoots all scenes involving actors, or at least the stars of the film. ... A gaffer in the motion picture industry is the head of the electrical department, responsible for the execution (and sometimes the design) of the lighting plan for a production. ... In a film crew there are two kinds of best boy; Best Boy Electric and Best Boy Grip. ... In American film-making, the key grip is the chief grip on the set. ... In a film crew there are two kinds of best boy; Best Boy Electric and Best Boy Grip. ... In cinematography, the dolly grip is the individual who operates the camera dolly. ... In the U.S. and Canada, grips are lighting and rigging technicians in the film and video industries. ... Production designer is a term used in the movie and television industries to refer to the person responsible for the overall look of a filmed event such as films, TV programs, music videos or adverts. ... The term art director, is an overall title for a variety of similar job functions in advertising, publishing, film and television, the Internet, and video games. ... Costume designer is a cinema term which refers to a person whose responsibilty is to design costumes for a movie or stage production. ... Color grading is the process of altering and enhancing the color of a motion picture or television image, either electronically, photo-chemically or digitally. ... A colorist is an artist who colors comic art reading it for production as a comic book. ...

Societies and trade organizations

An elite group of American cinematographers are members of the American Society of Cinematographers; this organization represents the upper echelon of talent and is dedicated to the advancement of cinematography. Membership is by invitation only. Equivalents in other countries include the Canadian Society of Cinematographers, the British Society of Cinematographers and the Australian Cinematographers Society. Members of these organizations are entitled to put designatory letters after their names (i.e., M. David Mullen, ASC). Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A American Society of Cinematographers Argentine Society of Cinematographers, aka Asociación Argentina de Autores de Fotografía Cinematográfica... The American Society of Cinematographers (ASC) is not a labor union or guild, but rather an educational, cultural and professional organization. ... Category: ... The Australian Cinematographers Society was established to— * Further the advancement of cinematography in all fields and give due recognition to the outstanding work performed by Australian cinematographers. ... M. David Mullen(A.S.C.) is an Japanese-American cinematographer born in 1962. ...


There are other similar organizations in many countries, including Argentina, Germany, Italy, Spain and India.


In some countries, cinematography is a unionized field. In America, cinematographers (and directors of photography, camera operators, camera assistants and still photographers) are represented by Local 600 of the International Cinematographers Society, a division of the labor union IATSE. In Canada, they are represented by IATSE Locals 667 and 669. ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... The International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employes, or I.A.T.S.E., (Full name: International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employes, Moving Picture Technicians, Artists and Allied Crafts of the United States, Its Territories and Canada) is a labor union. ... The International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employes, or I.A.T.S.E., (Full name: International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employes, Moving Picture Technicians, Artists and Allied Crafts of the United States, Its Territories and Canada) is a labor union. ...


Noted cinematographers

See Category:Cinematographers and Academy Award for Best Cinematography

Charles Rosher the first recipient in 1928 The Academy Award for Best Cinematography is awarded each year to a cinematographer for his work in one particular motion picture. ...

Miscellaneous

The documentary film Visions of Light is an excellent look at the progression of the art of cinematography across film history, and includes interviews with many famous cinematographers. It is a good introduction for those interested in the field, and includes much in the way of archival footage, anecdotes, and famous cinematographers commenting on whom they looked up to. Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ... Visions of Light is a documentary about the art of cinematography from 1992. ...


See also

‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... A film being made in Warsaw, Bracka street Filmmaking is the process of making a film, from an initial story idea or commission through scriptwriting, shooting, editing and finally distribution to an audience. ... This is a list of film formats known to have been developed for shooting or viewing motion pictures since the development of such photographic technology towards the end of the 19th century. ... This is a list of film-related topics. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Cinematography - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1313 words)
In the film industry, the cinematographer is responsible for the technical caliber of the images, but also works closely with the director to ensure that the aesthetics are supporting the story being told.
A professional who engages in cinematography, known as a cinematographer or Director of Photography (DP or DOP) makes many creative and interpretive decisions during the course of his or her work, from pre-production, shooting to post-production, all of which affect the overall feel and look of the motion picture.
The cinematographer can select the range of his or her color film stocks: three-color Technicolor yields rich, saturated colors which are very different from Eastman Kodak color strips.
Cinematographer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (618 words)
A cinematographer (from 'cinema photographer') is one photographing with a motion picture camera (the art and science of which is known as cinematography).
The term cinematographer has been a point of contention for some time now; some professionals insist that it only applies when the director of photography and camera operator are the same person, although this is far from being uniformly the case.
Relations between the cinematographer and director vary; in some instances the director will allow the cinematographer complete independence; in others, the director allows little to none, even going so far as to specify aperture and shutter angle.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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