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Encyclopedia > Cinema of the United States
North American cinema
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Visual arts North American cinema refers collectively to the film output and film industries of North America. ... The cinema of Canada has produced many people who have made an impact in the cinema of the world, despite the small scale of the Canadian film industry. ... The history of cinema in Québec started on June 27, 1896 when the French Louis Minier inaugurated the first movie projection in North America in a Montreal theatre room. ... This article discusses the culture of the United States; for customs and way of life, see Culture of the United States. ... The United States has a history of architecture that includes a wide variety of styles. ... An American comic book is a small magazine originating in the United States containing a narrative in the comics form. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Closely related to the development of American music in the early 20th century was the emergence of a new, and distinctively American, art form -- modern dance. ... American literature refers to written or literary work produced in the area of the United States and Colonial America. ... The United States is home to a wide array of regional styles and scenes. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Theater of the United States is based in the Western tradition, mostly borrowed from the performance styles prevalent in Europe. ... The Rocky Mountains, Landers Peak, 1863 by Albert Bierstadt, one of the Hudson River School painters Visual arts of the United States refers to the history of painting and visual art in the United States. ...

American cinema has had a profound effect on cinema across the world since the early 20th century. Its history is sometimes separated into four main periods: the silent film era, Classical Hollywood cinema, New Hollywood, and the contemporary period (after 1980). (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... A silent film is a film which has no accompanying soundtrack. ... Classical Hollywood cinema designates both a visual and sound style for making motion pictures and a mode of production that arose in the Los Angeles film industry of the 1910s and 1920s. ... New Hollywood or post-classical Hollywood refers to the brief time between roughly 1967 (Bonnie and Clyde, The Graduate) and 1982 (One from the Heart) when a new generation of young filmmakers came to prominence in America, drastically changing not only the way Hollywood films were produced and marketed, but...

Contents

History

Early development

The second recorded instance of photographs capturing and reproducing motion was Eadweard Muybridge's series of photographs of a running horse, which he captured in Palo Alto, California, using a set of still cameras placed in a row. Muybridge's accomplishment led inventors everywhere to attempt to make similar devices that would capture such motion. In the United States, Thomas Alva Edison was among the first to produce such a device, the kinetoscope, whose heavy-handed patent enforcement caused early filmmakers to look for alternatives. A photograph (often just called a photo) is an image (or a representation of that on e. ... Eadweard Muybridge Muybridges The Horse in Motion. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Location in Santa Clara County and the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County Santa Clara Government  - Mayor Yoriko Kishimoto[1] Area  - City 25. ... Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 - October 18, 1931) was an inventor and businessman who developed many important devices. ... Interior view of Kinetoscope with peephole viewer at top of cabinet. ...


In the United States, the first exhibitions of films for large audiences typically followed the intermissions in vaudeville shows. Entrepreneurs began travelling to exhibit their films, bringing to the world the first forays into dramatic filmmaking. The first huge success of American cinema, as well as the largest experimental achievement to this point, was The Great Train Robbery, directed by Edwin S. Porter. In the earliest days of the American film industry, New York was the epicenter of filmmaking. The Kaufman-Astoria film studio in Queens, built during the silent film era, was used by the Marx Brothers and W.C. Fields. Chelsea, Manhattan was also frequently used. Mary Pickford, an Academy Award winning actress, shot some of her early films in this area. However, the better year-round weather of Hollywood made it a better choice for shooting. This article is about the musical variety theatre. ... The Great Train Robbery is a 1903 western film. ... Edwin Stanton Porter (April 21, 1870 - April 30, 1941) was an influential early film pioneer. ... For other uses, see Queens (disambiguation) and Queen. ... This article is about the comedian siblings. ... W. C. Fields (January 29, 1880 - December 25, 1946) was an American comedian and actor. ... Converted townhouses along 23rd Street. ... Mary Pickford (April 8, 1892 – May 29, 1979) was an Oscar-winning Canadian motion picture star and co-founder of United Artists in 1919. ... Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ...


Rise of Hollywood

Cinema of the
United States

1890s
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1900s
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1970s
1970 • 1971 • 1972 • 1973 • 1974
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1980s
1980 • 1981 • 1982 • 1983 • 1984
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1990s
1990 • 1991 • 1992 • 1993 • 1994
1995 • 1996 • 1997 • 1998 • 1999
2000s
2000 • 2001 • 2002 • 2003 • 2004
2005 • 2006 • 2007 • 2008 • 2009

In early 1910, director D.W. Griffith was sent by the Biograph Company to the west coast with his acting troop consisting of actors Blanche Sweet, Lillian Gish, Mary Pickford, Lionel Barrymore, and others. They started filming on a vacant lot near Georgia Street in downtown Los Angeles. The company decided while there to explore new territories and travelled several miles north to a little village that was friendly and enjoyed the movie company filming there. This place was called "Hollywood". Griffith then filmed the first movie ever shot in Hollywood, In Old California, a Biograph melodrama about California in the 1800s, while it belonged to Mexico. Biograph stayed there for months and made several films before returning to New York. After hearing about this wonderful place, in 1913 many movie-makers headed west to avoid the fees imposed by Thomas Edison, who owned patents on the movie-making process. In Los Angeles, California, the studios and Hollywood grew. Before World War I, movies were made in several U.S. cities, but filmmakers gravitated to southern California as the industry developed. They were attracted by the mild climate and reliable sunlight, which made it possible to film movies outdoors year-round, and by the varied scenery that was available. There are several starting points for American cinema, but it was Griffith's Birth of a Nation that pioneered the filmic vocabulary that still dominates celluoid to this day. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is under construction. ... This article is under construction. ... This article is under construction. ... This article is under construction. ... This article is under construction. ... This article is under construction. ... This article is under construction. ... This article is under construction. ... This article is under construction. ... This article is under construction. ... This article is under construction. ... The following is a list of films made from 1900 through 1909. ... . ... This article is under construction. ... This article is under construction. ... This article is under construction. ... This article is under construction. ... This article is under construction. ... This article is under construction. ... This article is under construction. ... This article is under construction. ... This article is under construction. ... This is an incomplete list of films made in the 1910s. ... This article is under construction. ... This article is under construction. ... This article is under construction. ... This article is under construction. ... This article is under construction. ... This article is under construction. ... This article is under construction. ... . ... . ... . ... List of 1920s films Films released in the 1920s include: The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1923) Metropolis (1927) ok yeash your gay this site sucks! Other lists of movies List of years in film in the 1920s 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 Decades in Film... . ... . ... . ... . ... . ... . ... . ... . ... . ... . ... The decade of the 1930s in film involved many significant films. ... . ... . ... . ... . ... . ... . ... . ... . ... . ... . ... Other Lists of Movies List of years in film in the 1940s 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 Decades in Film: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s List of movies See also Film, History of cinema Categories: 1940s ... . ... . ... . ... . ... . ... . ... . ... This article is under construction. ... . ... . ... The decade of the 1950s in film involved many significant films. ... . ... . ... . ... . ... . ... . ... . ... . ... . ... . ... This list includes popular, acclaimed, and otherwise significant (for whatever reason) films of all countries from 1960 to 1969. ... . ... This article is under construction. ... . ... This article is under construction. ... . ... This article is under construction. ... . ... . ... . ... This article is under construction. ... The decade of the 1970s in film involved many significant films. ... . ... . ... . ... . ... . ... . ... This article is under construction. ... . ... . ... . ... The decade of the 1980s in film involved many significant films. ... This article is under construction. ... This article is under construction. ... . ... This article is under construction. ... This article is under construction. ... . ... . ... . ... . ... . ... Films made in the 1990s included: Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A Above the Rim (1994) Ace Ventura: When Nature Calls (1995) Ace Ventura: Pet... This article is under construction. ... This article is under construction. ... This article is under construction. ... This article is under construction. ... This article is under construction. ... . ... This article is under construction. ... . ... This article is under construction. ... This article is under construction. ... The first decade of the 2000s in film involved many significant films. ... This article is under construction. ... This article is under construction. ... This article is under construction. ... This article is under construction. ... This article is under construction. ... This article is under construction. ... This article is under construction. ... This article is under construction. ... This article is under construction. ... David Lewelyn Wark Griffith (January 22, 1875 - July 23, 1948) was an American film director (commonly known as D. W. Griffith) probably best known for his film The Birth of a Nation. ... The American Mutoscope and Biograph Company, was a motion picture company founded in 1895 and active until 1928. ... Blanche Sweet Blanche Sweet (June 18, 1895 - September 6, 1986) was a silent film actress who began her career in the earliest days of the Hollywood motion picture film industry. ... Lillian Diana de Guiche (October 14, 1893 – February 27, 1993), was an Oscar-nominated American actress, better known as Lillian Gish. ... Mary Pickford (April 8, 1892 – May 29, 1979) was an Oscar-winning Canadian motion picture star and co-founder of United Artists in 1919. ... Lionel Barrymore (born Lionel Herbert Blythe on April 28, 1878 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania – November 15, 1954 in Van Nuys, California) was an American Academy Award Winning actor of stage, radio and film. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... ... In early 1910, director D. W. Griffith was sent by the Biograph Company to the west coast with his acting troop consisting of actors Blanche Sweet, Lillian Gish, Mary Pickford, Lionel Barrymore, and others. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... This is a list of Hollywood movie studios. ... ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... The Birth of a Nation is a controversial silent film directed by D.W. Griffith, based on the play The Clansmen and the book The Leopards Spots, both by Thomas Dixon. ...


In the early 1900s, when the medium was new, many Jews found employment in the U.S. film industry. They were able to make their mark in a brand-new business: the exhibition of short films in storefront theaters called nickelodeons, after their admission price of a nickel (five cents). Within a few years, ambitious men like Samuel Goldwyn, Carl Laemmle, Adolph Zukor, Louis B. Mayer, and the Warner Brothers (Harry, Albert, Samuel, and Jack) had switched to the production side of the business. Soon they were the heads of a new kind of enterprise: the movie studio. (It is worth noting that the US had at least one female director, producer and studio head in these early years, Alice Guy Blaché.) They also set the stage for the industry's internationalism; the industry is often accused of Amero-centric provincialism, but simultaneously employs a huge number of foreign-born talent: from Swedish actress Greta Garbo to Australian Nicole Kidman, from Hungarian director Michael Curtiz to Mexican director Alfonso Cuarón. This article is about the decade starting in 1900 and ending in 1909. ... Nickelodeon is an early 20th century form of small, neighborhood movie theaters in which admission was obtained for a nickel. ... Two countries have a coin called a nickel: The United States (see Nickel (U.S. coin)) Canada (see Nickel (Canadian coin)) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Samuel Goldwyn (July 1882 (some sources say 17 August 1882, others 1879 [1]) – 31 January 1974) was an Academy Award and Golden Globe Award-winning producer, also a well-known Hollywood motion picture producer and founding contributor of several motion picture studios. ... Carl Laemmle Birthplace of Carl Laemmle in Laupheim Carl Laemmle (17 January 1867 – 24 September 1939), born in Laupheim, Württemberg, Germany, was a pioneer in American film making and a founder of one of the original major Hollywood movie studios. ... Cukor Adolf (Adolph Zukor) (January 7, 1873–June 10, 1976) was the founder of Paramount Pictures Studios, and one of the greatest film moguls of all time. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Warner Bros. ... A movie studio is a controlled environment for the making of a film. ... Alice Guy-Blaché (July 1, 1873–March 24, 1968) was a pioneer filmmaker who was the first female director in the motion picture industry and is considered to be the first ever director of a fiction film. ... Greta redirects here. ... Nicole Mary Kidman AC (born June 20, 1967), is an Australian [1] actress. ... Michael Curtiz (December 24, 1886 - April 10, 1962) was an Academy Award-winning Hungarian-American film director. ... Alfonso Cuarón Orozco (born November 28, 1961 in Mexico City) is an Academy Award-nominated Mexican film director, screenwriter and producer. ...


Other moviemakers arrived from Europe after World War I: directors like Ernst Lubitsch, Alfred Hitchcock, Fritz Lang, and Jean Renoir; and actors like Rudolph Valentino, Marlene Dietrich, Ronald Colman, and Charles Boyer. They joined a homegrown supply of actors--lured west from the New York City stage after the introduction of sound films--to form one of the 20th century's most remarkable growth industries. At motion pictures' height of popularity in the mid-1940s, the studios were cranking out a total of about 400 movies a year, seen by an audience of 90 million Americans per week. [3]. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Ernst Lubitsch (January 28, 1892 – November 30, 1947), was a German-born Jewish film director. ... Sir Alfred Joseph Hitchcock KBE (August 13, 1899 â€“ April 29, 1980) was an iconic and highly influential British-born film director and producer who pioneered many techniques in the suspense and thriller genres. ... Friedrich Christian Anton Fritz Lang (December 5, 1890 – August 2, 1976) was an Austrian-German-American film director, screenwriter and occasional film producer, one of the best known émigrés from Germanys school of Expressionism. ... Jean Renoir Jean Renoir (September 15, 1894 – February 12, 1979), born in the Montmartre Quarter of Paris, France was a film director. ... Rudolph Valentino (May 6, 1895 – August 23, 1926) was an Italian actor. ... Marlene Dietrich IPA: ; (December 27, 1901 – May 6, 1992) was a German-born American actress, singer, and entertainer. ... Ronald Colman (February 9, 1891 – May 19, 1958) was an Oscar-winning English actor. ... Charles Boyer (August 28, 1899 – August 26, 1978) was a French-American actor who starred in several classic Hollywood films, TV director and TV producer. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949. ...


Sound also became widely used in Hollywood in the late 1920's [[4]]. After the Jazz Singer was successfully released as a Vitaphone talkie in 1927, Hollywood film companies would respond to Warner Bros. and begin to use Vitaphone sound-which Warner Bros. owned until 1928-in future films, and the Western Electric company branch known as Electrical Research Product Incorporated (ERPI)-which was formed as had also gained a monopoly over film sound distribution by May of 1928 as well[[5]].


Parallel foreign-language versions

In the early times of talkies, American studios found that their sound productions were rejected in foreign-language markets and even among speakers of other dialects of English. The synchronization technology was still too primitive for dubbing. One of the solutions was the parallel foreign-language versions. Around 1930, the American companies opened a studio in Joinville-le-Pont, France, where the same sets and wardrobe and even mass scenes were used for different time-sharing crews. Also, foreign unemployed actors, playwrights and winners of photogenia contests were chosen and brought to Hollywood, where they shot parallel versions of the English-language films. These parallel versions had a lower budget, were shot at night and were directed by second-line American directors who did not speak the foreign language. The Spanish-language crews included people like Luis Buñuel, Enrique Jardiel Poncela, Xavier Cugat and Edgar Neville. The productions were not very successful in their intended markets: A sound film (or talkie) is a motion picture with synchronized sound, as opposed to a silent movie. ... In filmmaking, dubbing or looping is the process of recording or replacing voices for a motion picture. ... Joinville-le-Pont is a commune in the southeastern suburbs of Paris, France. ... Alternate uses: see Timesharing Time-sharing is an approach to interactive computing in which a single computer is used to provide apparently simultaneous interactive general-purpose computing to multiple users by sharing processor time. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Enrique Jardiel Poncela (October 15, 1901 – February 18, 1952) was a Spanish playwright. ... Xavier Cugat and his Orchestra 1952 Film featurette - Universal Studios Francesc dAsís Xavier Cugat Mingall de Bru i Deulofeu (1 January 1900 – 27 October 1990) was a Catalan-Cuban bandleader whom many consider to have had more to do with the infusion of Latin music into United States... Edgar Neville Romrée, Count of Berlanga de Duero (December 28, 1899 – April 23, 1967) was a Spanish playwright and film director, a member of the Generation of 27. ...

  • The lower budgets were apparent.
  • Many theater actors had no previous experience in cinema.
  • The original movies were often second-rate themselves, since studios expected that the top productions would sell by themselves.
  • The mix of foreign accents (Castilian, Mexican, Chilean for example in the Spanish case) was odd for the audiences.
  • Some markets lacked sound-equipped theaters.

In spite of this, some productions like the Spanish version of Dracula compare favorably with the original. By the mid-1930s, synchronization had advanced enough for dubbing to become usual. Dracula is a 1931 horror film produced by Universal Pictures Co. ...


Golden Age of Hollywood

During the so-called Golden Age of Hollywood, which lasted from the end of the silent era in American cinema in the late 1920s to the late 1950s, movies were issued from the Hollywood studios like the cars rolling off Henry Ford's assembly lines; the start of the Golden Age was arguably when The Jazz Singer was released in 1927 and increased box-office profits for films as sound was introduced to feature films. Most Hollywood pictures adhered closely to a formula—Western, slapstick comedy, musical, animated cartoon, biopic (biographical picture)—and the same creative teams often worked on films made by the same studio. After The Jazz Singer was released in 1927, Warner Bros. gained huge success and was able to acquire their own string of movie theaters, after purchasing Stanley Theaters and First National Productions in 1928; MGM had also owned a string of theaters since forming in 1924, know through Loews Theaters, and the Fox film Corporation owned the Fox Theatre strings as well. Also, RKO- another company that owned theaters-had formed in 1928 from a merger between Keith-Orpheum Theaters and the Radio Corporation of America[1] RKO formed in response to the monopoly Western Electric's ERPI had over sound in films as well, and began to use sound in films through their own method known as Photophone[6]. Paramount, who already acquired Balaban and Katz in 1926, would answer to the success of Warner Bros. and RKO, and buy a number of theaters in the late 1920's as well, before making their final purchase in 1929, through acquiring all the individual theaters belonging to the Cooperative Box Office, located in Detroit, and dominate the Detroit theaters.[2] For instance, Cedric Gibbons and Herbert Stothart always worked on MGM films, Alfred Newman worked at Twentieth Century Fox for twenty years, Cecil B. De Mille's films were almost all made at Paramount, director Henry King's films were mostly made for Twentieth-Century Fox, etc. And one could usually guess which studio made which film, largely because of the actors who appeared in it; MGM, for example, claimed it had contracted "more stars than there are in heaven." Each studio had its own style and characteristic touches which made it possible to know this - a trait that does not exist today. Yet each movie was a little different, and, unlike the craftsmen who made cars, many of the people who made movies were artists. For example, To Have and Have Not (1944) is famous not only for the first pairing of actors Humphrey Bogart (1899-1957) and Lauren Bacall (1924- ) but also for being written by two future winners of the Nobel Prize in Literature: Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961), author of the novel on which the script was nominally based, and William Faulkner (1897-1962), who worked on the screen adaptation. Classical Hollywood cinema designates both a visual and sound style for making motion pictures and a mode of production that arose in the Los Angeles film industry of the 1910s and 1920s. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about comedic slapstick. ... The musical film is a film genre in which several songs sung by the characters are interwoven into the narrative. ... An animated cartoon is a short, hand-drawn (or made with computers to look similar to something hand-drawn) film for the cinema, television or computer screen, featuring some kind of story or plot (even if it is a very short one). ... A biographical film or biopic is a film about a particular person or group of people, based on events that actually happened. ... Fox Theatre is the name given to several large movie theaters dating from the late 1920s either built by movie mogul William Fox or subsequently purchased by the Fox West Coast theater chain. ... The photophone was originally invented jointly by Alexander Graham Bell and his assistant Sumner Tainter on February 19, 1880. ... Cedric Gibbons in Dublin, Ireland, (23 March 1893 - 26 July 1960 was the art director at MGM studios. ... Herbert Stothart (11 September 1885 - 1 February 1949) was a composer, born of Scottish and Bavarian descent in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. ... MGM logo Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer or MGM, is a large media company, involved primarily in the production and distribution of cinema and television programs. ... Alfred Newman (March 17, 1900 – February 17, 1970) was a major American composer of music for films. ... Related articles FOX Television Network Fox Searchlight Pictures Fox Entertainment Group List of Hollywood movie studios List of movies Variant of current 20th Century Fox logo External links 20th Century Fox Movies official site Twentieth Century Fox is also the punning title of a song by The Doors on their... Cecil Blount DeMille (August 12, 1881 - January 21, 1959) was one of the most successful filmmakers during the first half of the 20th century. ... Paramount Pictures Corporation is an American motion picture production and distribution company, based in Hollywood, California. ... Henry King may refer to: Henry King (poet), (1592-1669), English poet, Bishop of Chichester Henry Churchill King, (1858–1934) theologian and educator; served on King-Crane Commission Henry King, (1855-1923) Australian studio and landscape photographer Henry T. King was a prosecutor at the Nuremberg Trials Herny King (congressman... To Have and Have Not is a 1944 thriller romance war adventure film directed by Howard Hawks and starring Humphrey Bogart and Lauren Bacall that is nominally based on the novel To Have and Have Not by Ernest Hemingway. ... Bogart redirects here. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Betty Joan Perske (born on September 16, 1924), better known as Lauren Bacall, is a Golden Globe– and Tony Award–winning, as well as Academy Award–nominated, American film and stage actress. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ... Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... William Cuthbert Faulkner (September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American novelist and poet whose works feature his native state of Mississippi. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Moviemaking was still a business, however, and motion picture companies made money by operating under the studio system. The major studios kept thousands of people on salary—actors, producers, directors, writers, stuntmen, craftspersons, and technicians. And they owned hundreds of theaters in cities and towns across the nation, theaters that showed their films and that were always in need of fresh material. Throughout the 1930's, MGM dominated the film screen, and had the top stars in Hollywood as well[7]. Another great achievement to the US cinema during this era also came through Walt Disney and his animation. The studio system was a means of film production and distribution dominant in Hollywood from the early 1920s through the early 1950s. ...


Many film historians have remarked upon the many great works of cinema that emerged from this period of highly regimented filmmaking. One reason this was possible is that, with so many movies being made, not every one had to be a big hit. A studio could gamble on a medium-budget feature with a good script and relatively unknown actors: Citizen Kane, directed by Orson Welles (1915-1985) and often regarded as the greatest film of all time, fits that description. In other cases, strong-willed directors like Howard Hawks (1896-1977) and Frank Capra (1897-1991) battled the studios in order to achieve their artistic visions. The apogee of the studio system may have been the year 1939, which saw the release of such classics as The Wizard of Oz, Gone with the Wind, Stagecoach, Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, Wuthering Heights, Only Angels Have Wings, Ninotchka, and Midnight. Among the other films from the Golden Age period that are now considered to be classics: Casablanca, It's a Wonderful Life, the original King Kong, and Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. Citizen Kane is a 1941 mystery/drama film released by RKO Pictures and directed by Orson Welles, his first feature film. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the year. ... This is a partial list of films that have been regarded as the greatest ever. ... Howard Winchester Hawks (May 30, 1896 – December 26, 1977) was an American film director, producer and writer of the classic Hollywood era. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... This article is about the film director. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Wizard of Oz (film) redirects here. ... Gone with the Wind is a 1939 film adapted from Margaret Mitchells 1936 novel of the same name. ... Stagecoach is a 1939 western film, starring Claire Trevor and John Wayne in his breakthrough role. ... Mr. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Only Angels Have Wings is also a song by Renaissance Only Angels Have Wings (1939) is a movie directed by Howard Hawks, starring Cary Grant and Jean Arthur. ... Ninotchka is a 1939 American film by Ernst Lubitsch, starring Greta Garbo and Melvyn Douglas. ... Midnight was a 1939 comedy film directed by Mitchell Leisen and written by Charles Brackett and Billy Wilder based on a story by Edwin Justus Mayer and Franz Schulz. ... This article is about the 1942 film. ... For other uses, see Its a Wonderful Life (disambiguation). ... King Kong in the 1933 film. ... Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs is a 1937 animated feature, the first produced by Walt Disney. ...


Decline of the studio system

The studio system and the Golden Age of Hollywood itself succumbed to two forces in the late 1940s: (1) a federal antitrust action that separated the production of films from their exhibition; and (2) the advent of television. As a result of that antitrust act, actors and technical staff were gradually released from their contracts by movie studios. Now, each film made by a studio could have an entirely different cast and creative team, resulting in the gradual loss of all those characteristics which made MGM, Paramount, Universal, Columbia, RKO, and Twentieth-Century Fox films immediately identifiable. But certain movie people, such as Cecil B. DeMille, either remained contract artists till the end of their careers or used the same creative teams on their films, so that a DeMille film still looked like one whether it was made in 1932 or 1956. The number of movies being made dropped, even as the average budget soared, marking a change in strategy for the industry. Studios now aimed to produce entertainment that could not be offered by television: spectacular, larger-than-life productions, while others would lose the rights to their theatrical film libraries to other companies to sell to television. United States v. ... MGM logo Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer or MGM, is a large media company, involved primarily in the production and distribution of cinema and television programs. ... Paramount Pictures Corporation is an American motion picture production and distribution company, based in Hollywood, California. ... This article is about the American media conglomerate. ... RKO could stand for: RKO Pictures The R.K.O. - finishing manoever (and initials) of WWE professional wrestler Randy Orton. ... Related articles FOX Television Network Fox Searchlight Pictures Fox Entertainment Group List of Hollywood movie studios List of movies Variant of current 20th Century Fox logo External links 20th Century Fox Movies official site Twentieth Century Fox is also the punning title of a song by The Doors on their... Cecil Blount DeMille (August 12, 1881 – January 21, 1959) was one of the most successful filmmakers during the first half of the 20th century. ...


Although television broke the movie industry's hegemony in American entertainment, the rise of television would prove advantageous, in its way, to the movies. This is because public opinion about the quality of television content soon declined, and by contrast, cinema's status began to be regarded more and more as a serious art form as worthy of respect and study as the fine arts. This was complemented with the Miracle Decision in which the Supreme Court of the United States reversed its earlier position and stated that motion pictures were an artform entitled to the protection of the First amendment. Fine art refers to arts that are concerned with beauty or which appealed to taste (SOED 1991). ... Joseph Burstyn, Inc v. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the... “First Amendment” redirects here. ...


The 'New Hollywood' and Post-classical cinema

'Post-classical cinema' is a term used to describe the changing methods of storytelling in the New Hollywood. It has been argued that new approaches to drama and characterization played upon audience expectations acquired in the classical period: chronology may be scrambled, storylines may feature "twist endings", and lines between the antagonist and protagonist may be blurred. The roots of post-classical storytelling may be seen in film noir, in Rebel Without a Cause (1955), and in Hitchcock's storyline-shattering Psycho. For other uses, see Drama (disambiguation). ... A twist ending or surprise ending is an unexpected conclusion or climax to a work of fiction, and which often contains irony or causes the audience to reevaluate the narrative or characters. ... For other uses, see Antagonist (disambiguation). ... A protagonist is the main figure of a piece of literature or drama and has the main part or role. ... Rebel Without a Cause is a 1955 film directed by Nicholas Ray that tells the story of a rebellious teenager who comes to a new town, meets a girl, defies his parents, and faces the local high school bullies. ... Psycho is a 1960 suspense/horror film directed by auteur Alfred Hitchcock from the screenplay by Joseph Stefano about a psychotic killer. ...


'New Hollywood' is a term used to describe the emergence of a new generation of film school-trained directors who had absorbed the techniques developed in Europe in the 1960s; The 1967 film Bonnnie and Clyde marked the beginning of American cinema rebounding as well, as a new generation of films would afterwards gain success at the box offices as well[8]. Filmmakers like Francis Ford Coppola, George Lucas, Brian de Palma, Martin Scorsese, William Friedkin and Steven Spielberg came to produce fare that paid homage to the history of film, and developed upon existing genres and techniques. In the early 1970s, their films were often both critically acclaimed and commercially successful. While the early New Hollywood films like Bonnie and Clyde and Easy Rider had been relatively low-budget affairs with amoral heroes and increased sexuality and violence, the enormous success enjoyed by Coppola, Spielberg and Lucas with The Godfather, Jaws, and Star Wars, respectively helped to give rise to the modern "blockbuster", and induced studios to focus ever more heavily on trying to produce enormous hits. New Hollywood or post-classical Hollywood refers to the brief time between roughly 1967 (Bonnie and Clyde, The Graduate) and 1982 (One from the Heart) when a new generation of young filmmakers came to prominence in America, drastically changing not only the way Hollywood films were produced and marketed, but... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ... Francis Ford Coppola (born April 7, 1939) is a five-time Academy Award winning American film director, producer, and screenwriter. ... George Walton Lucas, Jr. ... Brian De Palma (born Brian Russell DePalma on September 11, 1940 in Newark, New Jersey) is a controversial American film director, best known for directing the Al Pacino classic Scarface, and the Academy Award-winning The Untouchables. ... Martin Marcantonio Luciano Scorsese (IPA: AmE: ; Ita: []) (born November 17, 1942) is an American film director, writer and producer and founder of the World Cinema Foundation. ... William Friedkin (born August 29, 1935 in Chicago, Illinois) is an Academy Award-winning American movie and television director, producer and screenwriter best known for directing The Exorcist and The French Connection in the early 1970s. ... Steven Spielberg (born December 18, 1946)[1] is an American film director and producer. ... Bonnie and Clyde (1967) is a film about Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow, bank robbers who roamed the central United States during the Great Depression. ... Wyatt, Mary (Toni Basil), Billy and Karen (Karen Black) wandering the streets of a parade filled New Orleans. ... This article is about the 1972 film. ... Jaws is a 1975 thriller film directed by Steven Spielberg, based on Peter Benchleys best-selling novel inspired by the Jersey Shore shark attacks of 1916. ... This movie poster for Star Wars depicts many of the films important elements, such as Luke Skywalker, Princess Leia, Han Solo, X-Wing and Y-Wing fighters Star Wars, retitled Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope in 1981 (see note at Title,) is the original (and in chronological... Blockbuster, as applied to film or theater, denotes a very popular and/or successful production. ...


Blockbusters

The drive to produce a spectacle on the movie screen has largely shaped American cinema ever since. Spectacular epics which took advantage of new widescreen processes had been increasingly popular from the 1950s onwards. Since then, American films have become increasingly divided into two categories: blockbusters and independent films. Studios have focused on relying on a handful of extremely expensive releases every year in order to remain profitable. Such blockbusters emphasize spectacle, star power, and high production value, all of which entail an enormous budget. Blockbusters typically rely upon star power and massive advertising to attract a huge audience. A successful blockbuster will attract an audience large enough to offset production costs and reap considerable profits. Such productions carry a substantial risk of failure, and most studios release blockbusters that both over- and underperform in a year. The inner box (green) is the format used in most pre-1952 films and pre-widescreen television. ... The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... Blockbuster, as applied to film or theater, denotes a very popular and/or successful production. ... An independent film, or indie film, is usually a low-budget film that is produced by a small movie studio. ... Advert redirects here. ...


Independent film

Studios supplement these movies with independent productions, made with small budgets and often independently of the studio corporation. Movies made in this manner typically emphasize high professional quality in terms of acting, directing, screenwriting, and other elements associated with production, and also upon creativity and innovation. These movies usually rely upon critical praise or niche marketing to garner an audience. Because of an independent film's low budgets, a successful independent film can have a high profit-to-cost ratio, while a failure will incur minimal losses, allowing for studios to sponsor dozens of such productions in addition to their high-stakes releases.


American independent cinema was revitalized in the late 1980s and early 1990s when another new generation of moviemakers, including Spike Lee, Steven Soderbergh, Kevin Smith, and Quentin Tarantino made movies like, respectively, Do the Right Thing, sex, lies, and videotape, Clerks., and Reservoir Dogs. In terms of directing, screenwriting, editing, and other elements, these movies were innovative and often irreverent, playing with and contradicting the conventions of Hollywood movies. Furthermore, their considerable financial successes and crossover into popular culture reestablished the commercial viability of independent film. Since then, the independent film industry has become more clearly defined and more influential in American cinema. Many of the major studios have capitalised on this by developing subsidiaries to produce similar films; for example Fox Searchlight Pictures. The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Shelton Jackson Lee (born March 20, 1957, in Atlanta, Georgia), better known as Spike Lee, is an Emmy Award - winning, and Academy Award - nominated American film director, producer, writer, and actor noted for his films dealing with controversial social and political issues. ... Steven Andrew Soderbergh (born January 14, 1963 in Atlanta, Georgia) is an American film producer, screenwriter, cinematographer, editor, and Oscar-winning director. ... For other persons named Kevin Smith, see Kevin Smith (disambiguation). ... Quentin Jerome Tarantino (born March 27, 1963) is an American film director, actor, and Oscar winning screenwriter. ... This article is about the 1989 film. ... . The initial letter is shown capitalized due to technical restrictions. ... Clerks. ... For the video game based on the film, see Reservoir Dogs (video game). ... Fox Searchlight Pictures logo. ...


To a lesser degree in the 2000s, film types that were previously considered to have only a minor presence in the mainstream movie market began to arise as more potent American box office draws. These include foreign-language films such as Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon and Hero and documentary films such as Super Size Me, March of the Penguins, and Michael Moore's Bowling for Columbine and Fahrenheit 9/11. For other uses, see Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon (disambiguation). ... Hero (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a Chinese wuxia film, directed by Zhang Yimou with music by Tan Dun. ... Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ... Super Size Me is an Academy Award-nominated 2004 documentary film, directed by and starring Morgan Spurlock, an American independent filmmaker. ... March of the Penguins (French: La Marche de lempereur; literally The Emperors March) is an Academy Award-winning documentary film by Luc Jacquet, co-produced by Bonne Pioche and the National Geographic Society. ... Michael Francis Moore (born April 23, 1954) is an American political-activist, a film director, author, social commentator, and political humorist. ... Bowling for Columbine is a controversial documentary film written, directed, produced by, and starring Michael Moore. ... Fahrenheit 9/11 is a controversial, award-winning documentary film by American left-wing filmmaker Michael Moore which presents a critical look at the presidency of George W. Bush, the War on Terrorism, and its coverage in the American news media. ...


Rise of the home video market

The 1980s and 1990s saw another significant development. The full acceptance of home video by studios opened a vast new business to exploit. Films such as The Secret of NIMH and The Shawshank Redemption, which performed poorly in their theatrical run, were now able to find success in the video market. It also saw the first generation of film makers with access to video tapes emerge. Directors such as Quentin Tarantino and P.T. Anderson had been able to view thousands of films and produced films with vast numbers of references and connections to previous works. This, along with the explosion of independent film and ever-decreasing costs for filmmaking, changed the landscape of American movie-making once again, and led a renaissance of filmmaking among Hollywood's lower and middle-classes—those without access to studio financial resources. The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... The home video business rents and sells videocassettes and DVDs to the public. ... Mrs. ... The Shawshank Redemption is a 1994 drama film, written and directed by Frank Darabont, based on the Stephen King novella, Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption. ... Quentin Jerome Tarantino (born March 27, 1963) is an American film director, actor, and Oscar winning screenwriter. ... Paul Thomas Anderson at the Toronto Film Festival 9/12/2002 Paul Thomas Anderson (born January 1, 1970 in Studio City, California,USA) is an American filmmaker. ...


With the rise of the DVD in the 21st century, DVDs have quickly become even more profitable to studios and have led to an explosion of packaging extra scenes, extended versions, and commentary tracks with the films. DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... 20XX redirects here. ... A major selling point of DVD video is that its storage capacity allows for a wide variety of extra features in addition to the feature film itself. ...


Notable figures in U.S. film

Significant American-born film directors include:

Robert Aldrich (August 9, 1918 – December 5, 1983) was a United States film director, writer and producer notable for a number of films including What Ever Happened to Baby Jane?, Hush, Hush, Sweet Charlotte, and The Dirty Dozen. ... Woody Allen (born Allen Stewart Königsberg on December 1, 1935) is a three-time Academy Award-winning American film director, writer, actor, jazz musician, comedian, and playwright. ... For other persons named Robert Altman, see Robert Altman (disambiguation). ... Paul Thomas Anderson (born June 26, 1970[1] in Studio City, California) is a two-time Oscar nominated American filmmaker. ... Wesley Wales Anderson (born May 1, 1969) is an American writer, producer, and director of films and commercials. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Hal Ashby (September 2, 1929 - December 27, 1988) was an American film director and Academy Award winner. ... Kaleidoscopic Choreography from Footlight Parade, 1933 Busby Berkeley (November 29, 1895 – March 14, 1976), born William Berkeley Enos in Los Angeles, California, was a highly influential Hollywood movie director and musical choreographer. ... Peter Bogdanovich Serbian Cyrillic Петар Богдановић (born July 30, 1939) is a Serbian-American film director, writer and actor. ... Frank Borzage (April 23, 1893 - June 19, 1962) was an American film director and actor famed for his mystical romanticism. ... James L. Brooks (born May 9, 1940) is a three-time Academy Award, nineteen-time Emmy and Golden Globe-winning American producer, writer, and film director. ... Mel Brooks (born June 28, 1926) is an Academy Award-winning American director, writer, comedian, actor and producer best known as a creator of broad film farces and comedy parodies. ... Richard Brooks (May 18, 1912 – March 11, 1992) was a Hollywood film writer, director, and (occasionally) producer. ... Charles Albert Browning, Jr. ... Timothy Tim William Burton (born August 25, 1958) is an Academy Award-nominated American film director, writer and designer notable for the quirky and gothic atmosphere of his films. ... John Howard Carpenter (born January 16, 1948) is an American film director, screenwriter, producer, film score composer and occasional actor. ... John Nicholas Cassavetes (December 9, 1929–February 3, 1989) was a Greek American actor, screenwriter, and director. ... William Castle (April 24, 1914–May 31, 1977) born William Schloss, was an American film director, producer, and actor. ... Michael Cimino (born February 3, 1939, New York City) is an Australia film director. ... Joel and Ethan Coen, known as The Coen Brothers, are Oscar-winning American filmmakers. ... Merian C. Cooper Merian Caldwell Cooper (October 24, 1893, Jacksonville, Florida, USA — April 21, 1973, San Diego, California, USA, died of cancer) was an American aviator, American Air Force and Polish Air Force officer, adventurer, director, screenwriter and producer. ... Francis Ford Coppola (born April 7, 1939) is a five-time Academy Award winning American film director, producer, and screenwriter. ... Roger Corman Roger William Corman (born April 5, 1926), sometimes nicknamed King of the Bs for his output of B-movies (though he himself rejects this appelation as inaccurate), is a prolific American producer and director of low-budget exploitation movies. ... Cameron Bruce Crowe (born July 13, 1957) is an Academy Award winning American writer and film director. ... George Dewey Cukor (July 7, 1899 – January 24, 1983) was an American film director. ... Cecil Blount DeMille (August 12, 1881 – January 21, 1959) was one of the most successful filmmakers during the first half of the 20th century. ... Jonathan Demme (born February 22, 1944, in Baldwin, New York) is an American film director, producer and writer. ... Brian De Palma (born Brian Russell DePalma on September 11, 1940 in Newark, New Jersey) is a controversial American film director, best known for directing the Al Pacino classic Scarface, and the Academy Award-winning The Untouchables. ... For the company founded by Disney, see The Walt Disney Company. ... This article is about the actor/producer/director. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Victor Fleming (February 23, 1883 - January 6, 1949) (sometimes Vic Fleming) was an American film director. ... For other persons named John Ford, see John Ford (disambiguation). ... Bob Fosse, early promotional image Bob Fosse (June 23, 1927 – September 23, 1987) was a musical theater choreographer and director. ... John Michael Frankenheimer (February 19, 1930 – July 6, 2002) was an American film director. ... William Friedkin (born August 29, 1935 in Chicago, Illinois) is an Academy Award-winning American movie and television director, producer and screenwriter best known for directing The Exorcist and The French Connection in the early 1970s. ... Samuel Fuller (1987) Samuel Michael Fuller (August 12, 1912 – October 30, 1997) was an American film director. ... David Lewelyn Wark Griffith (January 22, 1875 - July 23, 1948) was an American film director (commonly known as D. W. Griffith) probably best known for his film The Birth of a Nation. ... Henry Hathaway (March 13, 1898 – February 11, 1985) was an American film director and producer. ... Howard Winchester Hawks (May 30, 1896 – December 26, 1977) was an American film director, producer and writer of the classic Hollywood era. ... George Roy Hill (December 20, 1922 – December 27, 2002) was an American film director. ... Ronald William Howard (born March 1, 1954 in Duncan, Oklahoma) is an American actor, and an Academy Award winning film director, and producer, known for his roles on sitcoms, movies and television. ... For the Welsh murderer, see Howard Hughes (murderer). ... John Marcellus Huston (August 5, 1906 – August 28, 1987) was an American film director and actor. ... Jim Jarmusch Jim Jarmusch (born January 22, 1953 in Akron, Ohio) is a noted American independent film director. ... For the musician and bandleader, see Spike Jones. ... Kubrick redirects here. ... Shelton Jackson Lee (born March 20, 1957, in Atlanta, Georgia), better known as Spike Lee, is an Emmy Award - winning, and Academy Award - nominated American film director, producer, writer, and actor noted for his films dealing with controversial social and political issues. ... Barry Levinson Barry Levinson (born April 6, 1942 in Baltimore, Maryland) is a Jewish-American screenwriter, film director, actor, and producer of film and television. ... Richard Rick Linklater (born July 30, 1961, in Houston, Texas) is an Academy Award nominated American film director and writer. ... George Walton Lucas, Jr. ... Portrait of Sidney Lumet, May 7, 1939. ... For other persons named David Lynch, see David Lynch (disambiguation). ... Terrence Terry Malick (born November 30, 1943 in Waco, Texas) is an Assyrian American film director. ... Joseph Leo Mankiewicz (February 11, 1909–February 6, 1993) was an American Hollywood screenwriter, director and producer. ... Anthony Mann (June 30, 1906 - April 29, 1967), was an American actor and film director. ... Michael Kenneth Mann (born February 5, 1943 in Chicago) is an American film director, screenwriter, and producer. ... Penny Marshall at the 1988 Emmy Awards Penny Marshall (born October 15, 1942) is an American actress, producer and director. ... For the baseball player, see Russ Meyer (baseball player). ... Vincente Minnelli (February 28, 1903 – July 25, 1986) was a famous Hollywood director and accomplished stage director, often considered by critics to be the father of the modern musical. ... Leo McCarey (October 3, 1898 - July 5, 1969) was a movie director, screenwriter and producer. ... Michael Francis Moore (born April 23, 1954) is an American political-activist, a film director, author, social commentator, and political humorist. ... Alan Jay Pakula (April 7, 1928 - November 19, 1998) was an American film producer, writer and director noted for his contributions to the conspiracy thriller genre. ... Constantine Alexander Payne (born February 10, 1961 in Omaha, Nebraska) is an Academy Award winning American film director and screenwriter. ... David Samuel Sam Peckinpah (February 21, 1925 – December 28, 1984) was an American film director who achieved iconic status following the release of his 1969 Western epic The Wild Bunch. ... Arthur Penn (born September 27, 1922 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) is a film director of thoughtful films that dont always find an audience. ... Sydney Pollack (born July 1, 1934 in Lafayette, Indiana) is an American actor, producer, and director. ... Robert (Bob) Rafelson (born February 21, 1933 in New York City) is an American film director, writer and producer. ... For the American opera singer, see Samuel Ramey. ... Nicholas Ray (born Raymond Nicholas Kienzle) (August 7, 1911–June 16, 1979) was an American film director. ... Robert Rossen (March 16, 1908 - February 18, 1966) was an American screenwriter, film director, and producer who was blacklisted by the Hollywood movie studio bosses in the 1950s. ... For other persons named Kevin Smith, see Kevin Smith (disambiguation). ... Ernest B. Schoedsack (June 8, 1893 - December 23, 1979) is probably best remembered for being the co-director of the 1933 film, King Kong. ... Martin Marcantonio Luciano Scorsese (IPA: AmE: ; Ita: []) (born November 17, 1942) is an American film director, writer and producer and founder of the World Cinema Foundation. ... Steven Andrew Soderbergh (born January 14, 1963 in Atlanta, Georgia) is an American film producer, screenwriter, cinematographer, editor, and Oscar-winning director. ... Todd Solondz (born October 15, 1959) is an American writer/director known for his controversial films. ... Steven Spielberg (born December 18, 1946)[1] is an American film director and producer. ... George Stevens examining film from A Place in the Sun. ... William Oliver Stone (born September 15, 1946), known simply as Oliver Stone, is a three-time Academy Award-winning American film director and screenwriter. ... John Eliot Sturges (3 January 1911 – 18 August 1982) Known as The dean of big_budget action movies made during the 1950s and 1960. Sturges movies include The Magnificent Seven, The Great Escape, Gunfight at the O.K. Corral, Ice Station Zebra and Marooned (movie). ... Preston Sturges (August 29, 1898 – August 6, 1959), originally Edmund Preston Biden, was a celebrated screenwriter and director born in Chicago. ... Quentin Jerome Tarantino (born March 27, 1963) is an American film director, actor, and Oscar winning screenwriter. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... King Vidor King Wallis Vidor (February 8, 1894 – November 1, 1982) was an American film director. ... Raoul Walsh as John Wilkes Booth in Birth of a Nation Raoul Walsh (March 11, 1887 – December 31, 1980) was an American film director, actor, founding member of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) and the brother of silent screen actor George Walsh. ... John Waters (born April 22, 1946) is an American filmmaker, writer, personality, visual artist and art collector, who rose to fame in the early 1970s for his transgressive cult films. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Robert Wise (September 10, 1914 – September 14, 2005) was a sound effects editor, film editor, and Academy Award-winning American film producer and director. ... Edward Davis Wood, Jr. ... Robert Lee Bob Zemeckis (born May 14, 1952) is an Academy Award and Golden Globe-winning American movie director, producer and writer. ...

Other iconic American-born actors and actresses include:

For other uses, see Actor (disambiguation). ... Actors in period costume sharing a joke whilst waiting between takes during location filming. ... Jean Arthur (October 17, 1900 – June 19, 1991) was an Oscar-nominated American actress and a major film star of the 1930s and 1940s. ... Fred Astaire (May 10, 1899 – June 22, 1987), born Frederick Austerlitz in Omaha, Nebraska,[1] was an American film and Broadway stage dancer, choreographer, singer and actor. ... Betty Joan Perske (born on September 16, 1924), better known as Lauren Bacall, is a Golden Globe– and Tony Award–winning, as well as Academy Award–nominated, American film and stage actress. ... Anne Bancroft (September 17, 1931 – June 6, 2005) was an iconic Academy, Tony, and Emmy Award-winning American actress. ... This article is about John Barrymore, Sr. ... Lionel Barrymore (born Lionel Herbert Blythe on April 28, 1878 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania – November 15, 1954 in Van Nuys, California) was an American Academy Award Winning actor of stage, radio and film. ... Actor Warner Baxter Warner Baxter (March 29, 1889 - May 7, 1951) was an American actor. ... Henry Warren Beatty (born March 30, 1937), better known as Warren Beatty, is an Academy Award and Golden Globe-winning American actor, producer, screenwriter, and director. ... Bogart redirects here. ... Ernest Borgnine (born Ermes Effron Borgnino in Hamden, Connecticut on January 24, 1917[1][2] ) is a Golden Globe, BAFTA and Academy Award winning American actor. ... Clara Gordon Bow (July 29, 1905 – September 27, 1965) was an American actress and sex symbol, best known for her silent film work in the 1920s. ... Marlon Brando, Jr. ... Walter Brennan (July 25, 1894 – September 21, 1974) was a three time Academy Award winning American actor. ... Jeffrey Leon Bridges (born December 4, 1949) is an Academy Award-nominated American actor. ... For other persons named Charles Bronson, see Charles Bronson (disambiguation). ... Louise Brooks (14 November 1906 – 8 August 1985) was an American dancer, showgirl, and silent film actress. ... Nicolas Cage (born January 7, 1964) is an American actor. ... James Francis Cagney, Jr. ... Lon Chaney (April 1, 1883 – August 26, 1930), nicknamed The Man of a Thousand Faces, was an American actor during the age of silent films. ... Edward Montgomery Clift (October 17, 1920 - July 23, 1966) was an American Academy Award-nominated actor known by the stage name of Montgomery Clift. ... Lee J. Cobb Lee J. Cobb (December 8, 1911 – February 11, 1976) was an American actor. ... Gary Cooper (born Frank James Cooper May 7, 1901 – May 13, 1961) was a two-time Academy Award-winning American film actor of English heritage. ... Kevin Michael Costner (born January 18, 1955) is an American film actor, director and producer. ... Joseph Cheshire Cotten (May 15, 1905–February 6, 1994) was an American stage and screen actor. ... For other persons named Joan Crawford, see Joan Crawford (disambiguation). ... Harry Lillis Bing Crosby (May 3, 1903 – October 14, 1977) was an American singer and actor whose career lasted from 1926 until his death in 1977. ... Tom Cruise (born Thomas Cruise Mapother IV on July 3, 1962) is an Academy Award-nominated, Golden Globe Award-winning American actor and film producer. ... For the American political commentator, see William Kristol. ... For other persons named Tony Curtis, see Tony Curtis (disambiguation). ... For the singer, see Betty Davis, for the meteorologist, see Betty Davis (meteorologist). ... This article is about the entertainer. ... Doris Mary Ann von Kappelhoff (born April 3, 1924)[1] is an American singer, actress, and animal welfare advocate known as Doris Day. ... Robert Mario De Niro, Jr. ... For the film, see James Dean (film). ... John Christopher Depp II[1] (born June 9, 1963) is an American actor, best known for his frequent portrayals of offbeat and eccentric characters such as Jack Sparrow in the Pirates of the Caribbean trilogy and the titular character of Tim Burtons Edward Scissorhands. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... Daniel Michael DeVito Jr. ... Leonardo Wilhelm DiCaprio (born November 11, 1974[1]) is a three-time Academy Award-nominated and Golden Globe Award-winning American actor who garnered world wide fame for his role as Jack Dawson in Titanic. ... Kirk Douglas (born Issur Danielovitch Demsky December 9, 1916) is an iconic American actor and film producer known for his gravelly voice and his recurring roles as the kinds of characters Douglas himself once described as sons of bitches. He is also father to Hollywood actor and producer Michael Douglas. ... Melvyn Edouard Hesselberg (April 5, 1901 – August 4, 1981), better known as Melvyn Douglas, was an American actor who won all three of the entertainment industrys highest awards, two Oscars, one Tony and an Emmy. ... For other people bearing this name, see Michael Douglas (disambiguation) Michael Kirk Douglas (born September 25, 1944) is an American actor and producer, primarily in movies and television. ... Richard Stephen Dreyfuss (born October 29, 1947) is an Academy Award-winning American actor. ... Faye Dunaway (born January 14, 1941, in Bascom, Florida) is an Academy Award-winning American actress. ... Irene Dunne (December 20, 1898 - September 4, 1990) was a five-time Academy Award-nominated American film actress and singer of the 1930s and 1940s. ... “Inka Dinka Doo” redirects here. ... Robert Selden Duvall (born January 5, 1931) is an Academy Award-, two-time Emmy Award-, and four-time Golden Globe Award-winning American film actor and director. ... This article is about the actor/producer/director. ... Douglas Fairbanks (May 23, 1883 – December 12, 1939) was an American actor, screenwriter, director and producer, who became noted for his swashbuckling roles in silent movies such as The Mark of Zorro (1920), The Three Musketeers (1921), Robin Hood (1922), The Thief of Bagdad (1924) and The Black Pirate (1926). ... Sally Margaret Field (born November 6, 1946) is a two-time Academy Award winning American actress. ... Barry Fitzgerald (March 10, 1888 – January 14, 1961) was an Irish actor. ... Henry Jaynes Fonda (May 16, 1905 – August 12, 1982) was a highly acclaimed Academy Award-winning American film and stage actor, best known for his roles as plain-speaking idealists. ... Jane Fonda (born December 21, 1937) is a two-time Academy Award-winning American actress, writer, political activist, former fashion model, and fitness guru. ... For the silent film actor, see Harrison Ford (silent film actor). ... Alicia Christian Foster (born November 19, 1962), better known as Jodie Foster, is a two-time Academy Award-winning American actress, director, and producer. ... Dawsons Creek director, see Morgan J. Freeman. ... William Clark Gable (February 1, 1901 – November 16, 1960) was an Academy Award-winning American film actor. ... Ava Lavinia Gardner (December 24, 1922 – January 25, 1990) was an Academy Award-nominated American film and television actress. ... Judy Garland (born Frances Ethel Gumm; June 10, 1922 - June 22, 1969) was an Academy Award-nominated American film actress and singer, best known for her role as Dorothy Gale in The Wizard of Oz (1939). ... Janet Gaynor (October 6, 1906 – September 14, 1984) was an American actress who, in 1928, became the first winner of the Academy Award for Best Actress. ... Richard Tiffany Gere[1] (born August 31, 1949) is an American actor. ... Mel Columcille Gerard Gibson (born January 3, 1956) is an American-Australian actor, Academy Award winning director and producer. ... John Gilbert John Gilbert (July 10, 1899 - January 9, 1936) was an actor and major star of the silent film era. ... Lillian Diana de Guiche (October 14, 1893 – February 27, 1993), was an Oscar-nominated American actress, better known as Lillian Gish. ... Whoopi Goldberg (born November 13, 1955) is an American actress, comedian, radio presenter, host, and author. ... Gloria Grahame (November 28, 1923 - October 5, 1981) was an Academy Award-winning American film actress. ... Eugene Allen Gene Hackman[1] (born January 30, 1930) is a two-time Academy Award-winning American actor. ... Thomas Jeffrey Hanks (born July 9, 1956) is an American two-time Academy Award-winning film actor, Emmy-winning director, voice-over artist, writer, and movie producer. ... Oliver Hardy (born Norvell Hardy; January 18, 1892 – August 7, 1957) was an American actor, most remembered for his role in one of the worlds most famous double acts, Laurel and Hardy, with his friend Stan Laurel. ... Jean Harlow (March 3, 1911 – June 7, 1937) was an American film actress and sex symbol of the 1930s. ... Goldie Jeanne Hawn (born November 21, 1945) is an Academy Award-winning American actress, director and producer. ... For other persons named Hayward, see Hayward (disambiguation). ... Rita Hayworth (October 17, 1918 – May 14, 1987), was an American actress who reached fame during the 1940s as the eras leading sex symbol. ... It has been suggested that Tom Hepburn be merged into this article or section. ... Charlton Heston (born October 4, 1924) is an American film actor, known for playing larger-than-life heroic roles such as Moses in The Ten Commandments, Colonel George Taylor in Planet of the Apes, and Judah Ben-Hur in Ben-Hur. ... Dustin Lee Hoffman (born August 8, 1937) is a two-time Academy Award-winning, BAFTA-winning, and five-time Golden Globe-winning American method actor. ... William Holden (April 17, 1918 – ca. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Anjelica Huston (born July 8, 1951) is an Academy Award- and Golden Globe Award-winning American actress and former fashion model. ... “Samuel Jackson” redirects here. ... Buster Keaton (born Joseph Frank Keaton, October 4, 1895 – February 1, 1966) was an American silent film comic actor and filmmaker. ... Diane Keaton (born Diane Hall on January 5, 1946) is an Academy Award-winning American film actress, director and producer. ... Harvey Keitel (born May 13, 1939) is an Academy Award-nominated American actor from New York City. ... For the similarly-named American actress, see Jean Kelly. ... For the Mika song, see Grace Kelly (song). ... Alan Walbridge Ladd (September 3, 1913 – November 7, 1964) was an American film actor. ... Veronica Lake (November 14, 1919[1] – July 7, 1973) was a popular American film actress and pin-up model who enjoyed both popular and critical acclaim, especially for her femme fatale roles in film noir with Alan Ladd during the 1940s. ... Burt Lancaster (November 2, 1913 – October 20, 1994) was an Oscar-winning American film actor, noted for his athletic physique (a rare thing for leading men of that time), distinct smile (which he called The Grin) and, later, his willingness to play roles that went against his initial tough guy... Jessica Phyllis Lange (born April 20, 1949) is a two-time Academy Award-winning American actress. ... John Uhler Lemmon III (February 8, 1925 – June 27, 2001), better known as Jack Lemmon, was a two-time Academy Award-winning American actor and comedian. ... For other persons named Jerry Lewis, see Jerry Lewis (disambiguation). ... Harold Clayton Lloyd (April 20, 1893 – March 8, 1971) was an American film actor and director, most famous for his silent comedies. ... Carole Lombard (October 6, 1908 – January 16, 1942) was an American actress. ... Myrna Loy (August 2, 1905 – December 14, 1993) was an American motion picture actress. ... Shirley MacLaine (born April 24, 1934) is an Academy Award-winning American film and theatre actress, well-known not only for her acting, but for her devotion to her belief in reincarnation and aliens. ... Fred MacMurray (August 30, 1908 – November 5, 1991) was an actor who appeared in over one hundred movies and a highly successful television series during a career that lasted from the 1930s to the 1970s. ... Karl Malden (born on March 22, 1912) is an Emmy Award-winning, Oscar-winning and Golden Globe-nominated American actor, known for his expansive manner. ... Fredric March (August 31, 1897 – April 14, 1975) was a two-time Academy Award-winning American actor. ... Dean Martin (born Dino Paul Crocetti, June 7, 1917 – December 25, 1995) was an American singer, film actor, and comedian. ... For other uses, see Steve Martin (disambiguation). ... Lee Marvin (February 19, 1924 – August 29, 1987) was an Academy Award-winning American film actor. ... This article is about the comedian siblings. ... Walter Matthau (October 1, 1920 – July 1, 2000) was an Academy Award-winning American comedy actor best known for his role as Oscar Madison in The Odd Couple and his frequent collaborations with fellow Odd Couple star Jack Lemmon. ... Joel Albert McCrea, (November 5, 1905 - October 20, 1990) was an American film actor. ... Steve McQueen (March 24, 1930 – November 7, 1980) was an Academy Award-nominated American movie actor, nicknamed The King of Cool.[1] He was one of the biggest box-office draws of the 1960s and 1970s due to a popular anti-hero persona. ... Bette Midler (born December 1, 1945) is an American singer, actress and comedienne, also known to her fans as The Divine Miss M. She is named after the actress Bette Davis although Davis pronounced her first name in two syllables, and Midler uses one. ... Liza Minnelli (born March 12, 1946 in Los Angeles, California) is an American actress and singer. ... Thomas Mitchell (July 11, 1892 – December 17, 1962) was an Academy, Emmy, and Tony award winning American film actor as well as a screenplay writer. ... Robert Charles Durman Mitchum (August 6, 1917 – July 1, 1997) was an Academy award nominated American film actor and singer. ... Marilyn Monroe (born Norma Jeane Mortenson; June 1, 1926 – August 5, 1962), was a Golden Globe award winning American actress, model and sex symbol. ... For other uses, see Eddie Murphy (disambiguation). ... William James Bill Murray (born September 21, 1950) is an Academy Award-nominated, Emmy-winning and Golden Globe-winning American comedian and actor. ... This article is about the American actor and race team owner. ... Nicholson as Wilbur Force in The Little Shop of Horrors (1960). ... Donald David Dixon Ronald O’Connor (August 28, 1925 – September 27, 2003) was an American dancer, singer, and actor who came to fame in a series of movies in which he co-starred alternately with Gloria Jean, Peggy Ryan, and Francis the Talking Mule. ... Ryan ONeal (born Patrick Ryan ONeal on April 20, 1941 in Los Angeles, California) is an Oscar-nominated American actor. ... Alfredo James Pacino (born April 25, 1940) is an Academy, Golden Globe, Tony, BAFTA, Emmy, and SAG award winning American actor who is best known for playing the roles of Tony Montana in the 1983 film Scarface and Michael Corleone in The Godfather Trilogy . ... Geraldine Sue Page (November 22, 1924 - June 13, 1987) was an Academy Award, Golden Globe and Emmy Award-winning and Tony Award-nominated American actress. ... Gregory Peck (April 5, 1916 – June 12, 2003) was an Academy Award-winning American film actor. ... Sean Penn (born August 17, 1960) is an Academy Award-winning American film actor and director, known for playing intense, often humorless and unsympathetic characters. ... Anthony Perkins (April 4, 1932 – September 12, 1992) was an Academy Award-nominated American stage and screen actor best known for his role as Norman Bates in Alfred Hitchcocks Psycho and its three sequels, Psycho II, Psycho III and Psycho IV: The Beginning. ... Sir Sidney Poitier KBE, (IPA pronunciation: ) (born February 20, 1927), is an Academy Award-winning Bahamian American actor, film director, and activist. ... William Horatio Powell (July 29, 1892 - March 5, 1984) was an American actor, noted for his sophisticated, cynical roles. ... Tyrone Edmund Power, Jr. ... Vincent Leonard Price Jr. ... Robert Redford (born Charles Robert Redford, Jr. ... Main title caption from Dallas. ... Christopher DOlier Reeve[1] (September 25, 1952 – October 10, 2004) was an American actor, director, producer and writer. ... Burt Reynolds (born Burton Reynolds Jr. ... Debbie Reynolds (born April 1, 1932) is an American actress, dancer and singer. ... Julia Fiona Roberts (born October 28, 1967) is an Academy Award-winning American film actress and former fashion model. ... Paul LeRoy Bustill Robeson (April 9, 1898 – January 23, 1976) was a multi-lingual American actor, athlete, bass-baritone concert singer, writer, civil rights activist, fellow traveler, Spingarn Medal winner, and Stalin Peace Prize laureate. ... Ginger Rogers (Virginia Katherine McMath, July 16, 1911 – April 25, 1995) was an Academy Award-winning American film and stage actress and singer. ... Actor Mickey Rooney speaks at the Pentagon in 2000 during a ceremony honoring the USO. Mickey Rooney (born Joseph Yule, Jr. ... With Bob Hope in 1944. ... Rosalind Russell (June 4, 1907 – November 28, 1976) was a four-time Academy Award nominated and Tony Award winning American film and stage actress, perhaps best known for her role as a fast-talking newspaper reporter in the Howard Hawks screwball comedy His Girl Friday. ... Roy Richard Scheider (born November 10, 1932 in Orange, New Jersey) is an Academy Award-nominated and Golden Globe-nominated American actor. ... George Campbell Scott (October 18, 1927 - September 22, 1999) was a stage and film actor, director, and producer. ... Randolph Scott (January 23, 1898 – March 2, 1987) was an American motion picture actor whose career spanned from 1928 to 1962. ... Sinatra redirects here. ... Mary Elizabeth Sissy Spacek (born December 25, 1949) is an Academy Award-winning American actress and singer. ... Sylvester Stallone (born Sylvester Gardenzio Stallone on July 6, 1946) is a two-time Academy Award-nominated American actor, director, producer and screenwriter. ... Barbara Stanwyck (July 16, 1907 – January 20, 1990) was an American actress of film, stage, and screen . ... For other persons named James Stewart, see James Stewart (disambiguation). ... Sharon Vonne Stone (born March 10, 1958) is an American actress, producer, and former fashion model. ... Mary Louise Streep, mostly known as Meryl Streep (born June 22, 1949) is an Academy Award-winning American actress who has worked in theatre, television, and film. ... Barbra Streisand (pronounced STRY-sand, IPA: ; born April 24, 1942) is an American singer, theatre and film actress, composer, liberal political activist, film producer and director. ... Gloria Swanson (March 27, 1899 - April 4, 1983), was an Academy Award-nominated, Golden Globe-winning American Hollywood actress. ... Shirley Jane Temple (born April 23, 1928) is an American former child actress. ... Spencer Tracy (April 5, 1900 – June 10, 1967) was a two-time Academy Award-winning American film and stage actor who appeared in 74 films from 1930 to 1967. ... John Joseph Travolta (born February 18, 1954) is an Academy Award-nominated, Golden Globe Award-winning American actor, dancer, and singer. ... Claire Trevor (March 8, 1910 - April 8, 2000) was an Academy Award-winning American actress, nicknamed the Queen of Film Noir because of her many appearances in bad girl” roles in film noir and other black-and-white thrillers. ... Lana Turner (February 8, 1921 – June 29, 1995) was an Academy award-nominated American film actress. ... Lee Van Cleef (January 9, 1925 – December 16, 1989) was an American film actor, who appeared mostly in Western and action pictures. ... John Vincent Voight (born December 29, 1938) is an Academy Award-winning American actor. ... Christopher Walken (born March 31, 1943) is an Academy Award-winning American film and theatre actor. ... Denzel Hayes Washington, Jr. ... For other persons named John Wayne, see John Wayne (disambiguation). ... Sigourney Weaver (born Susan Alexandra Weaver on October 8, 1949 in New York City) is an Oscar-nominated American actress. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... MAE-West is a major Internet peering point located in San Jose, California. ... Richard Widmark in Kiss of Death Richard Widmark (born December 26, 1914 in Sunrise, Minnesota) is an Academy Award-nominated American film actor. ... Esther Jane Williams (born August 8, 1921[1][2] or 1922[3]) is a retired United States competitive swimmer and movie star, famous for her musical films that featured elaborate performances with swimming and diving. ... For other persons named Robin Williams, see Robin Williams (disambiguation). ... Shelley Winters (August 18, 1920 – January 14, 2006) was a two-time Academy Award-winning American actress. ... Natalie Wood (July 20, 1938 – November 29, 1981) was a three time Academy Award nominated American film actress. ... Wright in Shadow of a Doubt (1943) Muriel Teresa Wright (October 27, 1918 – March 6, 2005) was an Academy Award-winning American actress, known professionally as Teresa Wright. ... Jane Wyman (January 5, 1917[1]– September 10, 2007) was an Oscar, Golden Globe-winning and Emmy-nominated American actress. ...

Bibliography

Hollywood

  • Christopher Ames, Movies about the movies : Hollywood reflected, University Press of Kentucky, 1997
  • Ward Churchill, Fantasies of the Master Race: Literature, Cinema, and the Colonization of American Indians: Literature, Cinema and the Colonization of American Indians, City Lights Books.,U.S., 1998, ISBN 0872863484
  • George F. Custen, Twentieth Century's Fox: Darryl F. Zanuck and the Culture of Hollywood; New York: BasicBooks, 1997; ISBN 0-465-07619-X
  • Bordwell, David; Staiger, Janet; Thompson, Kristin, The Classical Hollywood Cinema, New York: Columbia University Press, 1985
  • Alan Taylor, We, the media..., genre, star system, representation of news journalism, media mergers, 1976-1999, Peter Lang, 2005, pp. 418. ISBN 3-631-51852-8
  • Steven Alan Carr, Hollywood and anti-semitism : a cultural history up to World War II, Cambridge Univ. Press, 2001
  • Gene Fernett, American Film Studios: An Historical Encyclopedia; Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1988; ISBN 0-7864-1325-5
  • Otto Friedrich, City of Nets: A Portrait of Hollywood in the 1940s; New York: Harper & Row, 1986; ISBN 0-06-015626-0
  • Neal Gabler, An empire of their own : how the Jews invented Hollywood, New York : Crown Publishers, 1988
  • Molly Haskell, From reverence to rape : the treatment of women in the movies, 2. ed., Univ. of Chicago Pr., 1987
  • Mick LaSalle, Complicated Women: Sex and Power in Pre-Code Hollywood; New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000, ISBN 0-312-25207-2
  • Ethan Mordden, The Hollywood Studios: House Style in the Golden Age of the Movies; New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1988; ISBN 0-394-55404-3
  • Stephen Prince, A new pot of gold : Hollywood under the electronic rainbow, 1980 - 1989 (=History of the American cinema, vol. 10), New York : Scribner [etc.], 2000
  • Vincent F. Rocchio, Reel Racism: Confronting Construction of Afro-American Culture, Westview Press, 2000
  • Peter C. Rollins (ed.), Hollywood's Indian : the portrayal of the Native American in film, Univ. Press of Kentucky, 1998
  • Marjorie Rosen, Popcorn Venus: Women, Movies & the American Dream, New York: Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, 1973, ISBN 0-698-10545-1
  • Steven J. Ross, Working class Hollywood : silent film and the shaping of class in America, Princeton University Press, 1998
  • Jean Rouverol, Refugees from Hollywood : a journal of the blacklist years, University of New Mexico Press, 2000
  • Kerry Segrave, American television abroad : Hollywood's attempt to dominate world television, McFarland, 1998
  • Dawn B. Sova, Women in Hollywood : from vamp to studio head, New York : Fromm International Publ., 1998
  • John Trumpbour, Selling Hollywood to the World: U.S. and European Struggles for Mastery of the Global Film Industry, 1920-1950, Cambridge University Press 2002
  • Eileen Whitfield, Pickford : the woman who made Hollyood, Macfarlane Walter & Ross, 1997

American Experimental film

  • Lauren Rabinovitz, Points of resistance : women, power & politics in the New York avant-garde cinema, 1943-71 , 2nd edition, University of Illinois Press, 2003
  • P. Adams Sitney, Visionary Film: The American Avant-Garde 1943-1978, Second Edition, Oxford University Press 1979

American Documentary film

  • Bil Nichols, Newsreel: documentary filmmaking on the American left, New York : Arno Pr., 1980
  • Janet K. Cutler, Phyllis Rauch Klotman, ed., Struggles for Representation: African American Documentary Film and Video, Indiana University Press 2000

Independent film

  • Peter Biskind, Down and Dirty Pictures: Miramax, Sundance and the Rise of Independent Film, Bloomsbury, 2005
  • Greg Merritt, Celluloid Mavericks: A History of American Independent Film, Thunder's Mouth Press, 2001

See also

Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... Hollywood is now such an iconic name that various other locations are nicknamed with Hollywood-inspired names. ... The current version of this article or section advances a limited or personal interpretation of the subject matter. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Hollywood film strike of 2008 is an anticipated strike by three American labor unions representing employees of the film industry. ...

References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ [2]

Allen J. Scott is a professor of geography and public policy at UCLA. Combinatorial Programming, Spatial Analysis, and Planning. ... The Princeton University Press is a publishing house, a division of Princeton University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ...

External links

  • History of Hollywood's Aerial Cinematography
  • Photo exhibit of filmmaking in Florida, presented by the State Archives of Florida
  • Rottentomatoes.com - A large collection of movie reviews and previews from hundreds of critics



  Results from FactBites:
 
Cinema of the United States - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2662 words)
The cinema of the United States, sometimes simply referred to as Hollywood, is typically used in reference to the larger, studio-produced cinema within the U.S. Much like American popular music, the American film industry has had a profound effect on cinema across the world since the early 20th century.
In the United States, Thomas Alva Edison was among the first to produce such a device, the kinetoscope, whose heavy-handed patent enforcement caused early filmmakers to look for alternatives.
This was complemented with the Miracle Decision in which the Supreme Court of the United States reversed its earlier position and stated that motion pictures were an artform entitled to the protection of the First amendment.
Western United States: Information From Answers.com (4012 words)
The states shown in dark red are usually included, while all or portions of the striped states may or may not be considered part of present-day western United States.
Hawaii is the only state in the union in which Asian Americans outnumber residents of European stock, and Asians from many countries have settled in California and other coastal states in several waves of immigration since the 1800s.
Statistics from the 2000 United States Census, adjusted to include the second tier of States west of the Mississippi, show that under that defintion the West would have a population of 91,457,662, including 1,611,447 Indians, or 1.8% of the total, and 22,377,288 Hispanics (the majority Mexican), or 24.5% of the total.
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