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Encyclopedia > Cinema of the Soviet Union
European cinema

"Soviet Cinema" should not be used as a synonym for "Russian Cinema". Although Russian language films predominated, several of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union contributed films reflecting elements of their pre-Soviet culture, language and history, although sometimes censored by the Central Government. Most notable for their republican cinema were Armenian SSR, Georgian SSR, Ukrainian SSR, and, to a lesser degree, Lithuanian SSR, Byelorussian SSR and Moldavian SSR. At the same time, the nation's film industry, which was fully nationalized throughout most of the country's history, was guided by philosophies and laws propounded by the monopoly Soviet Communist Party which introduced a new view on the cinema, which was different from the one before or after the existence of the Soviet Union. Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... European cinema is the cinema of Europe. ... The Cinema of Albania had its start in the years 1911-1912. ... The Cinema of Belgium // History Early history While the invention of the cinématographe by the French Lumière brothers is widely regarded as the birth of cinema, a number of developments in photography preceded the advent of film. ... // Directors Slatan Dudow Rangel Valtchanov Nikola Kovachev Sophia Peer Vulo Radev Dimitar Petkov- Opashkata Na Diavola aka Devils Tail Nikola Korabov Ivan Andonov Ludmil Staikov Metodi Andonov Zornitsa-Sophia Vladimir Yanchev Nikolai Volev Actors and actresses See also List of Bulgarian actors Stoyan Bachvarov Rusi Chanev Georgi Cherkelov Stefan... The cinema of Croatia has suffered in recent years, with quality films being few and far between in comparison to other countries. ... The Czech Republic (both as an independent country and as a part of former Czechoslovakia) was a seedbed for many acclaimed film directors. ... Danish cinema pioneer Peter Elfelt, a photographer, was the first Dane to make a film. ... Cinema in Estonia started in 1908 with the production of a newsreel about Swedish King Gustav IV’s visit to Tallinn. ... In Finnish cinema, Aki Kaurismäki is a big name. ... France has been influential in the development of film as a mass medium and as an art form. ... Cinema in Germany can be traced back to the very beginnings of the medium at the end of the 19th Century and German cinema has made major technical and artistic contributions to film. ... // Beginning In the spring of 1897, the Greeks of Athens had the opportunity and privilege to watch the first cinematic attempts (short movies in journal). The projection of an animated movie resulted in excited reactions and the new-seen spectacle became a usual matter of discussion. ... The history of Italian cinema began a just few months after the Lumière brothers had discovered the medium, when Pope Leo XIII was filmed for a few seconds in the act of blessing the camera. ... The Luxembourg film industry is quite small, but this is unsurprising given that the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg has a population of only about 400,000 people. ... The Dutch film industry is relatively small, though there have broadly been several very active periods in recent history in which Dutch filmmaking thrived. ... // Directors Józef Arkusz StanisÅ‚aw Bareja Aleksander Ford Wojciech Has Agnieszka Holland Jerzy Hoffman Jerzy Kawalerowicz Krzysztof KieÅ›lowski -- The Three Colors trilogy, The Decalogue Jan Jakub Kolski Kazimierz Kutz Juliusz Machulski Andrzej Munk Marek Piwowski Roman PolaÅ„ski Ladislas Starevich Wladyslaw Starewicz Andrzej Wajda Krzysztof Zanussi Andrzej Zulawski... Portuguese cinema is better known internacionally for its directors Manoel de Oliveira and João César Monteiro. ... The Cinema of Romania came into being as an affective reality. ... The Russian Empire (1896-1917) The first films seen in Russia were via the Lumiere Brothers, in Moscow and St. ... The first films seen in the Russia Empire were via the Lumière brothers, in Moscow and St. ... Spanish cinema is not held in as high esteem worldwide as French or American cinema. ... Swedish cinema is one of the most widely-known national cinemas in the world, and certainly the most prominent of Scandinavia. ... Michael Caine in Get Carter (1971) The United Kingdom has been influential in the technological, commercial, and artistic development of cinema. ... Russian (Russian: русский язык, russkiy yazyk, ) is the most widely spoken language of Eurasia and the most widespread of the Slavic languages. ... Evolution of the Soviet Republics from 1922 to 1958. ... State motto: ÕŠÖ€Õ¸Õ¬Õ¥Õ¿Õ¡Ö€Õ¶Õ¥Ö€ Õ¢Õ¸Õ¬Õ¸Ö€ Õ¥Ö€Õ¯Ö€Õ¶Õ¥Ö€Õ«, միացեք! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ... State motto: პროლეტარ ყველა ქვეყნისა, შეერთდით! Official language Georgian since 1978 Capital Tbilisi Chairman of the Supreme Council Zviad Gamsakhurdia (at independence) Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until February 25, 1921 December 30, 1922 April 9, 1991 Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 10th in former Soviet Union 69,700 km² -- Population  - Total (1989)  - Density Ranked... State motto: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Official language None. ... State motto: Lithuanian: Visų Å¡alių proletarai, vienykitÄ—s! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Vilnius Official language None. ... State motto: Пралетарыі ўсіх краін, яднайцеся! Belarusian: Workers of the world, unite! Official language None. ... State motto: Пролетарь дин тоате цэриле, униць-вэ! Official language None. ...

Contents


Historical outline

A 1926 Soviet poster for The Battleship Potemkin.
A 1926 Soviet poster for The Battleship Potemkin.

The new state, the Soviet Union, officially came into existence on November 7, 1917. From the outset, it was held that film would be the most ideal propaganda tool for the Soviet Union because of its mass popularity among the established citizenry of the new land; V. I. Lenin, in fact, declared it the most important medium for educating the masses in the ways, means and successes of Communism, a position which was later echoed by Joseph Stalin. Meanwhile, between World War I and the Russian Revolution, most of the film industry, and the general infrastructure needed to support it (e.g. electrical power), was in a shambles. The majority of cinemas had been in the corridor between Moscow and St. Petersburg in Russia, and most were out of commission. Additionally, many of the performers, producers, directors and other artists of pre-Soviet Russia, had fled the country or were moving ahead of the Red Army forces as they pushed further and further south into the remainder of the Russian Empire. Furthermore, the new government did not have the funds to spare for an extensive reworking of the system of filmmaking. Thus, they initially opted for project approval and censorship guidelines while leaving what of the industry remained in private hands. As this amounted mostly to cinema houses, the first Soviet films consisted of recycled films of the Russian Empire and its imports, to the extent that these were not determined to be offensive to the new Soviet ideology. Ironically, the first new film released in the Soviet Union did not exactly fit this mold: this was "Otets Sergii", in English "Father Sergius", a religious film completed during the last weeks of the Russian Empire but not yet exhibited. It appeared on Soviet screens in 1918. ImageMetadata File history File links Bronenosets. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Bronenosets. ... 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Poster of Battleship Potemkin The Battleship Potemkin or Battleship Potemkin (Russian: , ), sometimes The Battleship Potyomkin, is a 1925 silent film directed by Sergei Eisenstein and produced by Mosfilm. ... November 7 is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 54 days remaining. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Vladimir Lenin Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) (April 22 (April 10 (O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism. ... Stalin redirects here. ... Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russian Empire United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Ferdinand Foch Nicholas II Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Reinhard Scheer Franz Josef I Oskar Potiorek Ä°smail Enver Ferdinand I Casualties Military dead: 5,520... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political events in Russia, which, after the elimination of the Russian autocracy system, and the Provisional Government (Duma), resulted in the establishment of the Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... A typical multiplex (AMC Promenade 16 in Woodland Hills, Los Angeles, California). ... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... Ivan Mozzhukhin as Father Sergius in the 1917 film. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...

Poster of First soviet sound film Voucher to Life (1931).
Poster of First soviet sound film Voucher to Life (1931).

Beyond this, the government was principally able to fund only short, educational films, the most notorious of which were the agitki - propaganda films intended to "agitate", or energize and enthuze, the masses to participate fully in approved Soviet activities, and deal effectively with those who remained in opposition to the new order. These short (often one small reel) films were often as not visual aids and accompaniments to live lectures and speeches, and were carried from city to city, town to town, village to village (along with the lecturers) to indoctrinate the entire countryside, even reaching areas where film had not been previously seen. Image File history File links Putevka_v_zhisn_poster. ... Image File history File links Putevka_v_zhisn_poster. ... A sound film (or talkie) is a motion picture with synchronized sound, as opposed to a silent movie. ...


Newsreels, as documentaries, were the other major form of earliest Soviet cinema. Dziga Vertov's newsreel series Kino-Pravda, the best known of these, lasted from 1922 to 1925 and had a propagandistic bent; Vertov used the series to promote Socialist realism but also to experiment with cinema. Dziga Vertov Dziga Vertov (Russian: , January 2, 1896–February 12, 1954) was a Russian documentary film and newsreel director. ... 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Roses for Stalin, Boris Vladimirski, 1949 Socialist realism is a teleologically-oriented style of realistic art which has as its purpose the furtherance of the goals of socialism and communism. ...

Poster a First soviet color film Grunya Kornakova (or Solovej-solovushko) (1936).
Poster a First soviet color film Grunya Kornakova (or Solovej-solovushko) (1936).

Still, in 1921, there was not one functioning cinema in Moscow until late in the year. Its rapid success, utilizing old Russian and imported feature films, jumpstarted the industry significantly, especially insofar as the government did not heavily or directly regulate what was shown, and by 1923 an additional 89 cinemas had opened. Despite extremely high taxation of ticket sales and film rentals, there was an incentive for individuals to begin making feature film product again - there were places to show the films - albeit they now had to conform their subject matter to a Soviet world view. In this context, the directors and writers who had remained in support of the objectives of Communism assumed quick dominance in the industry, as they were the ones who could most reliably and convincingly turn out films that would satisfy government censors. New talent joined the experienced remainder, and an artistic community assembled with the goal of defining "Soviet film" as something distinct and better from the output of "decadent capitalism". The leaders of this community viewed it essential to this goal to be free to experiment with the entire nature of film, a position which would result in several well-known creative efforts but would also result in an unforeseen counter-reaction by the increasingly solidifying administrators of the government-controlled society. Image File history File links Grunya_Kornakova_poster. ... Image File history File links Grunya_Kornakova_poster. ... Color photography was explored throughout the 1800s. ... 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Eisenstein's Battleship Potemkin was released to wide acclaim in 1925; the film was heavily fictionalized and also propagandistic, preaching the party line about the virtues of the proletariat. The party leaders soon found it difficult to control directors' expression, partly because definitive understanding of a film's meaning was elusive. Sergei Eisenstein in 1920s Sergei Eisenstein Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein (Russian: Сергей Михайлович Эйзенштейн, Latvian: Sergejs Eizenšteins) (January 23, 1898 – February 11, 1948) was a revolutionary Soviet theatrical scenic designer-turned-film director and film theorist noted in particular for his silent films Strike, Battleship Potemkin and Oktober, which vastly influenced early documentary... Poster of Battleship Potemkin The Battleship Potemkin or Battleship Potemkin (Russian: , ), sometimes The Battleship Potyomkin, is a 1925 silent film directed by Sergei Eisenstein and produced by Mosfilm. ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ...


One of the most popular films released in 1930s was Circus. Notable films from 1940s include Aleksandr Nevsky and Ivan Grozny. Circus (also known as Tsirk) was a 1936 Soviet melodramatic comedy film. ... Alexander Nevsky is a film directed by Sergei Eisenstein and Dmitry Vasiliev released in 1938, during the Stalin era, with Nikolai Cherkasov in the title role. ... Nikolai Cherkasov as Ivan the Terrible in Eisensteins film of the same name Faina Ranevskaya as Princess Staritskaya in Ivan The Terrible, Part I (1942) Ivan The Terrible was a film about Ivan IV of Russia in three parts made by Russian director Sergei Eisenstein. ...


In the late 1950s and early 1960s Soviet Cinema again flowered, beginning with films such as Ballada o Soldate Ballad of a Soldier that won the 1961 BAFTA Award for Best Film and The Cranes Are Flying. Ballad of a Soldier, (Баллада о солдате, Ballada o soldate) is a 1959 Soviet Union award-winning motion picture drama directed by Grigori Chukhrai that is set in World War II. Storyline Spoiler warning: Ballad of a Soldier is not primarily a war story but recounts, within the context of the turmoil of... British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA) award for Best Picture winners: Categories: | ... DVD cover of the film The Cranes are Flying (Russian: Летят журавли, Letyat zhuravli) is arguably the greatest film to come out of World War II. It was directed by the Georgian-born Soviet director Mikhail Kalatozov in 1957 and starring Aleksey Batalov and Tatiana Samoilova. ...


Vysota (Height) is considered to be one of the best films of the 1950s (it also became the foundation of the Bard movement). Bulat Okudzhava, a pioneer of the Bard genre For other meanings of the word, see Bard (disambiguation). ...

Screenshot from Grigori Chukhrai's Ballad of a Soldier (1959).
Screenshot from Grigori Chukhrai's Ballad of a Soldier (1959).

The 1980s saw a diversification of subject matter. Touchy issues could now be discussed openly. The results were films like Pokayanie (Repentance), which dealt with Stalinist repressions in Georgia, and the allegorical science fiction movie Kin-dza-dza!, which satirized the Soviet life in general. Image File history File links Ballada2. ... Image File history File links Ballada2. ... Grigori Chukhrai, born May 23, 1921 - died October 28, 2001, was a prominent film director and screenwriter in the former Soviet Union. ... Ballad of a Soldier, (Баллада о солдате, Ballada o soldate) is a 1959 Soviet Union award-winning motion picture drama directed by Grigori Chukhrai that is set in World War II. Storyline Spoiler warning: Ballad of a Soldier is not primarily a war story but recounts, within the context of the turmoil of... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Kin-Dza-Dza! (Кин-Дза-Дза! in Russian, pronounced Kin-Dzuh-DZUH) was a 1986 Soviet science fiction film released by the Mosfilm studio and directed by Georgi Daneliya, with a story by Georgi Daneliya and Revaz Gabriadze. ...


Censorship

After Stalin, Soviet filmmakers got a freer hand to film what they believed audiences wanted to see in their film's characters and stories. However, the industry remained a part of the government and if any material was found politically offensive or undesirable, it was either removed, edited or reshot; or it was shelved. In rare cases the filmmakers managed to convince the government of his innoccence and the film was released. The definition of "socialist realism" was liberalized to allow development of more human characters, but communism still had to remain uncriticized in its fundamentals. Additionally, the degree of relative artistic liberality could be changed from administration to administration. Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ...


Oddities created by censorship include:

  • The first chapter of the epic film Освобождение (Liberation) was filmed 20 years after the subsequent three parts. The director had refused to minimize the errors of the Soviet High Command during the first year of the war, and instead waited for a time when he could film this portion accurately.

Image File history File links Rzhevsky. ... Image File history File links Rzhevsky. ... Yury Vasilyevich Yakovlev (born April 25, 1928 in Moscow) was one of the most popular and critically acclaimed Soviet film actors. ... Russian jokes or anekdoty (Russian: анекдо́ты), the most popular form of Russian humour, are short fictional stories or dialogues with a punch line. ... The cover of Ryazanovs memoir book Unsummarized conclusions Eldar Aleksandrovich Ryazanov (Russian: ); b. ... A 1962 poster for the Hussar Ballad. ...

1950s

In the beginning of the Cold War writers, still considered the primary auteurs, were all the more reluctant to take up script writing, and the early 50s saw only a handful of feature films completed during any year. The death of Stalin was a merciful relief to many, and all the more so was the official trashing of his public image as a benign and competent leader by Nikita Khruschev two years later. This latter event gave filmmakers the margin of comfort they needed to move away from the narrow formula stories of socialist realism, expand its boundaries, and begin work on a wider range of entertaining and artistic Soviet films. The Cold War (Russian: Холодная война Kholodnaya Voina) was the protracted geopolitical, ideological, and economic struggle that emerged after World War II between the global superpowers of the Soviet Union and the United States, supported by their military alliance partners. ... Nikita Khrushchev in 1962 Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: Ники́та Серге́евич Хрущёв) (nih-KEE-tah khroo-SHCHYOFF) (April 17, 1894 – September 11, 1971) was the leader of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ...


1960s-70s

The 1960s and 1970s saw the creation of many excellent films, many of which moulded Soviet and post-Soviet culture. They include:

Soviet directors were more concerned with art than with success (They were paid by the academy, and so money was not a critical issue). This contributed to the creation of a large number of more philosophical films. In keeping with Russian character, tragi-comedies were very popular. Soviet films tend to be rather culture-specific and are difficult for many foreigners to understand without having been exposed to the culture first. The Colour of Pomegranates (Sayat Nova) is a 1970 art film by the Armenian director Sergei Parajanov, considered a masterpiece by Fellini, Jean-Luc Godard and Antonioni. ... Federico Fellini Federico Fellini (January 20, 1920 – October 31, 1993) was one of the most influential and widely revered Italian film-makers of the 20th century and is considered to be one of the finest film directors of all time. ... Jean-Luc Godard. ... Michelangelo Antonioni (born September 29, 1912, Ferrara, Emilia Romagna) is an Italian modernist film director whose films are widely considered as some of the most influential in film aesthetic. ... Seventeen Instants of Spring(Семнадцать мгновений весны in Russian) is a Soviet TV series filmed in 1973 based on the book series by novelist Julian Semyonov by the same title. ... Russian jokes or anekdoty (Russian: анекдо́ты), the most popular form of Russian humour, are short fictional stories or dialogues with a punch line. ... Image File history File links Aleksey Batalov in Moscow Does Not Believe In Tears (1980). ... Aleksey Batalov as Gosha in Moscow Does Not Believe In Tears. ... Aleksey Batalov as a plumber Gosha Москва Слезам Не Верит (Moscow Does Not Believe In Tears, Moskva slezam ne verit) is a 1979 Soviet film made by Mosfilm. ... White Sun of the Desert (Beloe Solntse Pustyni/Белое солнце пустыни) (1969), a classic Eastern or Ostern film of the Soviet Union. ... The Ostern (Eastern) or Red Western was the Soviet Union and Iron Curtain countries take on the Western movie. ... U.S. Space Shuttle astronaut Bruce McCandless II using a manned maneuvering unit. ... Solaris (Russian title in Cyrillic lettering: Солярис—English transliteration: Solyaris) is a 1972 Russian film and is also a 2002 US film. ... Aleksey Batalov as a plumber Gosha Москва Слезам Не Верит (Moscow Does Not Believe In Tears, Moskva slezam ne verit) is a 1979 Soviet film made by Mosfilm. ... Nikita Mikhalkov on the 1964 film poster. ... Irony of Fate (original title: Ирония судьбы, или С лёгким паром!, in transcription: Ironiya Sudby ili s Lekhkim Parom ) is a Soviet comedy-drama directed by Eldar Ryazanov based on the script by Emil Braginsky and Ryazanov filmed in 1975. ... Postage stamp devoted to Leonov Yevgeny Pavlovich Leonov (Russian: ; 2 September 1926 – 29 January 1994) was a famous Russian/Soviet actor who played main parts in the most amazing Soviet films. ...


Animation was a respected genre, with many directors experimenting with technique.


These decades were prominent in the production of the Ostern or Red Western. The Ostern (Eastern) or Red Western was the Soviet Union and Iron Curtain countries take on the Western movie. ...


Prominent studios included:

and in the late 1980s: Kinostudiya Lenfilm (Ленфи́льм) was a production unit of the Soviet film industry), with its own film studio, located in Leningrad, R.S.F.S.R.. After the fall of Communism and the foundation of the Russian Republic, it became a quasi-private film production company, retaining its name in spite of... Mosfilm logo was the Statue of the Worker and Kolkhoznitsa at VDNKh Mosfilm film studio (in Cyrillic, Мосфи́льм) is often described as the largest and oldest in Russia and in Europe. ... Central portal of Gorky Film Studio Gorky Film Studio (in Russian, Киностудия имени Горького) is a film studio in Moscow, Russian Federation. ... The Olexandr Dovzhenko Film Studios (Ukrainian: , translit. ... Belarusfilm (Belarusian: , Russian: ) is the main film studio of Belarus. ...

  • Pilot

In the year of the 60th anniversary of the Soviet cinema (1979), on April 25, by the Decision of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, the commemorative Day of the Soviet cinema was established. It was then celebrated in the USSR each year on August 27, the day, on which V. I. Lenin signed a decree on the nationalisation of the cinema and photo industries of the country. This page refers to the year 1979. ... April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (116th in leap years). ... The Supreme Soviet (Russian: , Verhovniy Sovet, literally the Supreme Council) comprised the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments. ... August 27 is the 239th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (240th in leap years), with 126 days remaining. ... Vladimir Lenin Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) (April 22 (April 10 (O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism. ...


Recent history

The collapse of the Soviet Union brought a virtual end to quality cinema (as well as literature) in Russia and the other republics. Image File history File links Mikhalkov. ... Image File history File links Mikhalkov. ... Nikita Mikhalkov in the 2005 Fandorin movie The Councillor of State. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Very few films of note were created for over a decade. These included Oblako-ray (Cloud-Paradise) and Utomlennye Solntsem (Tired of the Sun; released in English as Burnt by the Sun).


Sibirskiy tsiryulnik (Сибирский цирюльник, English title: The Barber of Siberia; 1998) by Nikita Mikhalkov became very famous. 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... Nikita Mikhalkov in the 2005 Fandorin movie The Councillor of State. ...


The new Russia's cinema is more profit-oriented, with artistic needs taking a backseat to more immediate desires. Much low-quality action, comedy and pornography has been filmed.


In 2002, Aleksandr Sokurov filmed Russian Ark, the world's first unedited feature film: recorded in uncompressed high definition, shot in a single take and featuring the world's longest Steadicam shot. The film is 90 minutes long. For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Alexander Nikolayevich Sokurov is a Russian auteur filmmaker from St Petersburg who has been hailed as successor to Andrei Tarkovsky. ... DVD cover Russian Ark (Русский ковчег) is a 2002 movie by Russian director Aleksandr Sokurov in which an unnamed and unseen (by the audience) narrator, voiced by the director, wanders through the Winter Palace (now the Russian State Hermitage Museum) in St. ... To film this recreated Victorian London street scene, the cameraman next to the lamp post is using a steadicam and wearing the harness required to support it. ...


The thematically similar films, The Return (Vozvrashcheniye) and Roads to Koktebel, have also received critical acclaim in recent years. The Return (Vozvrashcheniye) won two prestigious awards at the Venice Film Festival. Vozvrashcheniye (Russian: ), also known as The Return, is an acclaimed 2003 Russian film. ... Vozvrashcheniye (Russian: ), also known as The Return, is an acclaimed 2003 Russian film. ... The Venice Film Festival (it: Mostra Internazionale dArte Cinematografica) is the oldest Film Festival in the World (began in the 1932) and takes place every year in late August/early September on the Lido di Venezia in the historic Palazzo del Cinema on the Lungomare Marconi, in Venice, Italy. ...


Notable filmmakers

Early personalities in the development of the Russian cinema:

Later personalities: Sergei Eisenstein in 1920s Sergei Eisenstein Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein (Russian: Сергей Михайлович Эйзенштейн, Latvian: Sergejs EizenÅ¡teins) (January 23, 1898 – February 11, 1948) was a revolutionary Soviet theatrical scenic designer-turned-film director and film theorist noted in particular for his silent films Strike, Battleship Potemkin and Oktober, which vastly influenced early documentary... Vsevolod Pudovkin Vsevolod Illarionovich Pudovkin (Russian Всеволод Илларионович Пудовкин) (February 16, 1893 - June 20, 1953) was a Russian film director who developed influential theories of montage. ... Alexander Dovzhenko was a Soviet filmmaker. ... Dziga Vertov Dziga Vertov (Russian: , January 2, 1896–February 12, 1954) was a Russian documentary film and newsreel director. ... Lev Vladimirovich Kuleshov (1899 - 1970) was a Russian filmmaker known for his work on film editing and the impact it has on the viewers. ... Yakov A. Protazanov Yakov Alexandrovich Protazanov (1881-1945) was one of the founding fathers of cinema of Russia. ...

Andron Sergeyevich Mikhalkov-Konchalovsky (Russian: ) (born August 20, 1937 in Moscow) is an acclaimed Russian film writer and director. ... Nikita Mikhalkov in the 2005 Fandorin movie The Councillor of State. ... Alexander Nikolayevich Sokurov is a Russian auteur filmmaker from St Petersburg who has been hailed as successor to Andrei Tarkovsky. ... Andrei Tarkovsky Andrei Arsenyevich Tarkovsky (Андре́й Арсе́ньевич Тарко́вский) (April 4, 1932 - December 28, 1986) was a Russian movie director, writer, and actor. ... The cover of Ryazanovs memoir book Unsummarized conclusions Eldar Aleksandrovich Ryazanov (Russian: ); b. ... Leonid Iovich Gaidai (Russian: Леонид Иович Гайдай) (1923–1993) is one of the most popular Soviet comedy directors, enjoying immense popularity and broad public recognition in the former USSR & modern Russia. ... Georgi Daneliya Georgi Daneliya Georgi Danelia (Georgian: გიორგი დანელია, Russian: ; born Tbilisi, 25 August 1930) is a Russian film director of Georgian descent, who became known throughout the Soviet Union for his sad comedies (as he styles them), bittersweet as the life itself. ... Kira Muratova is a Russian film director, screenwriter and actress. ... Sergei Parajanov or Paradjanov (Armenian: [Sargis Hovsepi Parajanyan 9 January 1924 — 20 July 1990). ... Andrey Zvyagintsev (Андрей Звягинцев) is a Russian actor and film-maker noted for his exceptionally successful debut in directing with award-winning drama The Return (2003). ...

See also

There are many movies which are well-remembered and looked upon fondly in the former Soviet republics; famous lines or jokes from these movies are often quoted and some have even become a part of the Russian language as sayings and idioms. ... World cinema is a term used primarily in the West to refer to the films and film industries of non-English language speaking countries. ... The history of Russian animation is a very rich, but so far nearly unexplored field for Western film theory and history. ... Origins of motion picture arts and sciences Any overview of the history of cinema would be remiss to fail to at least mention a long history of literature, storytelling, narrative drama, art, mythology, puppetry, shadow play, cave paintings and perhaps even dreams. ... Here are the movies of the USSR with the greatest number of ticket sales during the year in question. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Cinema of the Soviet Union - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1854 words)
As this amounted mostly to cinema houses, the first Soviet films consisted of recycled films of the Russian Empire and its imports, to the extent that these were not determined to be offensive to the new Soviet ideology.
Soviet films tend to be rather culture-specific and are difficult for many foreigners to understand without having been exposed to the culture first.
In the year of the 60th anniversary of the Soviet cinema (1979), on April 25, by the Decision of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, the commemorative Day of the Soviet cinema was established.
Soviet Union (6849 words)
The Soviet Union was dissolved in 1991, and the successor states are a collection of 15 countries commonly dubbed "the former Soviet Union." Eleven of these states are aligned through a loose confederation known as the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).
The Soviet Union was established in December 1922 as the union of the Russian (colloquially known as Bolshevist Russia), Ukrainian, Belarusian, and Transcaucasian Soviet republics ruled by Bolshevik parties.
The Soviet Union occupied the eastern portion of the European continent and the northern portion of the Asian continent.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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