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Encyclopedia > Cinema of Russian Empire
European cinema

The first films seen in the Russia Empire were via the Lumière brothers, in Moscow and St. Petersburg in May 1896. In the same month, the first film was shot in Russia, by Lumière cameraman Camille Cerf, a record of the coronation of Nicholas II at the Kremlin in Moscow. Film in Russia became a staple of fairs or rented auditoriums. After the Lumières came representatives from Pathé and Gaumont to open offices, after the turn of the century, to make motion pictures on location for Russian audiences. Theatres were already built, and film renting distributors had already replaced direct sales to exhibitors, when, in 1908, Aleksandr Drankov produced the first Russian narrative film, Stenka Razin, based on events told in a popular folk song and directed by Vladimir Romashkov. Ladislas Starevich made the first Russian animated film (and the first stop motion puppet film with a story) in 1910 - Lucanus Cervus. He continued making animated films (some of which can now be bought on DVD) until his emigration to France following the 1917 October Revolution. He was decorated by the Tsar for his work in 1911. Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... European cinema is the cinema of Europe. ... The Cinema of Albania had its start in the years 1911-1912. ... The cinema of Croatia has suffered in recent years, with quality films being few and far between in comparison to other countries. ... The Czech Republic (both as an independent country and as a part of former Czechoslovakia) was a seedbed for many acclaimed film directors. ... Danish cinema pioneer Peter Elfelt, a photographer, was the first Dane to make a film. ... France has been influential in the development of film as a mass medium and as an art form. ... Cinema in Germany can be traced back to the very beginnings of the medium at the end of the 19th Century and German cinema has made major technical and artistic contributions to film. ... // Beginning In the spring of 1897, the Greeks of Athens had the opportunity and privilege to watch the first cinematic attempts (short movies in journal). The projection of an animated movie resulted in excited reactions and the new-seen spectacle became a usual matter of discussion. ... This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, tone, style, and voice). ... The Luxembourg film industry is quite small, but this is unsurprising given that the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg has a population of only about 400,000 people. ... The Dutch film industry is relatively small, though there have broadly been several very active periods in recent history in which Dutch filmmaking thrived. ... // Directors Józef Arkusz StanisÅ‚aw Bareja Aleksander Ford Wojciech Has Agnieszka Holland Jerzy Hoffman Jerzy Kawalerowicz Krzysztof KieÅ›lowski -- The Three Colors trilogy, The Decalogue Jan Jakub Kolski Kazimierz Kutz Juliusz Machulski Andrzej Munk Marek Piwowski Roman PolaÅ„ski Ladislas Starevich Wladyslaw Starewicz Andrzej Wajda Krzysztof Zanussi Andrzej Zulawski... Portuguese cinema is better known internacionally for its directors Manoel de Oliveira and João César Monteiro. ... The Russian Empire (1896-1917) The first films seen in Russia were via the Lumiere Brothers, in Moscow and St. ... Soviet Cinema should not be used as a synonym for Russian Cinema. Although Russian language films predominated, several of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union contributed films reflecting elements of their pre-Soviet culture, language and history, although sometimes censored by the Central Government. ... Spanish cinema is not held in as high esteem worldwide as French or American cinema. ... Swedish cinema is one of the most widely-known national cinemas in the world, and certainly the most prominent of Scandinavia. ... The first film showing in Turkey was held in the Yildiz Palace, Istanbul in 1896. ... Michael Caine in Get Carter (1971) The United Kingdom has been influential in the technological, commercial, and artistic development of cinema. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Auguste (left) and Louis Lumière. ... Nicholas II of Russia (18 May 1868 - 17 July 1918) (in Russian Николай II (Nikolai II)) was the last Emperor of Russia, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Finland. ... The Moscow Kremlin The Moscow Kremlin (Russian: Московский Кремль) is the best known kremlin (Russian citadel). ... Moscow (Russian: Москва́, Moskva, IPA: ) is the capital of Russia and the countrys principal political, economic, financial, educational and transportation center, located on the river Moskva. ... Pathé or Pathé Frères is the name of various businesses founded and originally run by the Pathé Brothers of France. ... Gaumont Pictures was founded in 1895 by the engineer-turned-inventor, Léon Gaumont (1864-1946). ... A Film distributor is an independent company, a subsidiary company or occasionally an individual, which acts as the final agent between a film production company or some intermediary agent, and a film exhibitor, to the end of securing placement of the producers film on the exhibitors screen. ... A typical megaplex (AMC Ontario Mills 30 in Ontario, California). ... Ladislas Starevich (August 8, 1882 - February 26, 1965), born WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Starewicz, was a Polish, Russian and French stop-motion animator, using insects and animals as his protagonists. ... Stop motion is an animation technique which makes things that are static appear to be moving. ... See also: 1909 in film 1910 1911 in film years in film film Events The newsreel footage of the funeral of King Edward VII of the United Kingdom is shot in Kinemacolor, making it the first color newsreel. ... A memorial statue in Hanko, Finland, commemorating the thousands of emigrants who left the country to start a new life in the United States Emigration is the act and the phenomenon of leaving ones native country to settle abroad. ... The October Revolution, also known as the Bolshevik Revolution, was the second phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917, the first having been instigated by the events around the February Revolution. ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ...

Competition from French, American, German, Danish, British and Italian companies, distributing their country's wares to the eager Russians, developed, but the indigenous industry made such strides over the next five years that 129 fully Russian films - even if many of them were comparatively short - were produced in 1918 alone. In 1912, the Khanzhonkov film studio was operational, and Ivan Mozzhukhin had made his first film there, a feature film of 2000 meters entitled "Oborona Sevastopolya" ("The Defense of Sevastopol"). The same year, a German concern filming in Russia introduced the director Yakov Protazanov to the world with its "Ukhod Velikovo Startsa" ("Departure of the Grand Old Man"), a biography film about Lev Tolstoy. Tsar Nicholas himself made some home movies and appointed an official Court Cinematographer, although he is purported to have written in 1913 that film was "an empty matter...even something harmful...silliness...we should not attribute any significance to such trifles". Aleksandr Aleksejevich Khanzhonkov (1877 - 1945) was Russias first cinema entrepreneur. ... A movie studio is a location, room, building, or group of buildings and/or sound stages, offices and storage facilities, which may include a backlot, where movies are made. ... Ivan Mozzhukhin Ivan Ilyich Mozzhukhin (1888-1939) was a leading Russian silent film actor. ... A reel of film, which predates digital cinematography. ... Yakov A. Protazanov Yakov Alexandrovich Protazanov (1881-1945) was one of the founding fathers of cinema of Russia. ... Leo Nikolayevitch Tolstoy (Russian: Лев Никола́евич Толсто́й) (September 9 (August 28, O.S.), 1828 - November 20 (November 7, O.S.), 1910) was a Russian novelist, reformer, and moral thinker, notable for his influence on Russian literature and politics. ... Home movie, referring to any private or amateur motion picture photographic product shot and printed in any movie film format. ...

Tsar Nicholas gave some special assistance to the makers of "The Defence of Sevastopol" and a few similar films, but the industry was not nationalized nor governmentally subsidized or otherwise controlled. There were also only a few rules of censorship on a national level - such as not making the Tsars characters in a dramatized film - but the filmmakers were largely free to produce for the mass audience; local officials might be more stringent in censoring or banning films. Detective films were popular, and various forms of melodrama. For Vibe Tribes album see Melodrama (album) Poster for The Perils of Pauline (1914). ...

The arrival of World War I in Russia in 1914 sparked a change. Imports dropped drastically, especially insofar as films from Germany and its allies left the market rapidly. Russian filmmakers early on turned to anti-German, "patriotic" films, often hastily made, even being filmed while the scripts were still being written, filling in the gap: in 1916, Russia produced 499 films, over three times the number of just three years earlier, and more of feature length. Russia's allies, in turn, began to import some of the more striking product, including further films by Protazanov and Yevgeni Bauer, a specialist in psychological film, who both impacted, among others, the burgeoning American film industry. Adversely, Russian companies were forbidden to send cameramen to the "front", and war footage had to be imported from France and England: some Russian concerns combined footage from these with enacted war material to create faux documentaries. Also, the Skobolev Committee was established by the government to oversee the making of newsreel and propaganda films. Image File history File links Moszhuserge. ... Image File history File links Moszhuserge. ... Ivan Mozzhukhin Ivan Ilyich Mozzhukhin (1888-1939) was a leading Russian silent film actor. ... Father Sergius (Отец Сергий) is a short fictional story authored by Leo Tolstoy in 1873. ... Yakov A. Protazanov Yakov Alexandrovich Protazanov (1881-1945) was one of the founding fathers of cinema of Russia. ... Combatants Allies: Serbia, Russia, France, Romania, Belgium, British Empire, United States, Italy, and others Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead:5 million Civilian dead:3 million Total dead:8 million Military dead:4 million Civilian dead:3 million Total dead:7 million The First World... A Newsreel is a documentary film that is regularly released in a public presentation place containing filmed news stories. ... The Why We Fight Series depicts the Nazi propaganda machine. ...

And then came the Russian Revolution, on top of the ongoing international War. With audiences demoralized by the latter and turning against the Tsar, film producers began turning out, after the February Revolution, a number of films with anti-Tsarist themes. These, along with the usual retinue of detective films and melodramas, filled theaters when the streets were not filled with revolutionaries. But in the end, as the insurgent Red Army took the country from the post-Romanov Provisional Government by force, the destruction of the infrastructure in the major cities, the failing war-drained economy, the takeover of rural cinemas by local soviets, and the aversion of some in the film industry to communism, the Russian film industry per se had effectively died by the time Lenin on November 8, 1917 proclaimed a new country, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Communism is a philosophical way of thought that pertains to a conjectured future classless, stateless social organization based upon common ownership of the means of production, and can be classified as a branch of the broader socialist movement. ... State motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None (Russian in practice) Capital Moscow (last) Chairman of the Supreme Council Boris Yeltsin Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 December 30, 1922 December 12, 1991 Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 1st in former Soviet Union 17,075,200...

Ironically, the last significant Russian film completed, in 1917, "Otets Sergii" ("Father Sergius") would become the first new film release a year later, in the new country of the Soviets. Ivan Mozzhukhin as Father Sergius in the 1917 film. ...

The R.S.F.S.R. (1917-1991) See: Cinema of the Soviet Union Soviet Cinema should not be used as a synonym for Russian Cinema. Although Russian language films predominated, several of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union contributed films reflecting elements of their pre-Soviet culture, language and history, although sometimes censored by the Central Government. ...

The Russian Federation (1991-present)

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