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Encyclopedia > Cinema of Russia
EUROPEAN CINEMA

The Russian Empire (1896-1917) The first films seen in Russia were via the Lumiere Brothers, in Moscow and St. Petersburg in May, 1896. In the same month, the first film was shot in Russia, by Lumiere cameraman Camille Cerf, a record of the coronation of Czar Nicholas II at the Kremlin in Moscow. Film in Russia became a staple of fairs or rented auditoriums. After the Lumieres came representatives from Pathe and Gaumont to open offices, after the turn of the century, to make motion pictures on location for Russian audiences. Theaters were already built, and film renting distributors had already replaced direct sales to exhibitors, when, in 1908, Aleksandr Drankov produced the first Russian narrative film, Stenka Razin, based on events told in a popular folk song and directed by V. Romashkov. And that is how Russian film was born. Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... The Cinema of Albania had its start in the years 1911-1912. ... The Czech Republic (both as an independent country and as a part of former Czechoslovakia) was a seedbed for many acclaimed film directors. ... France has been influential in the development of film as a mass medium and as an art form. ... When the film industry first flowered in the period from 1900 to 1915, it took hold in Europe as well as America. ... // Beginning In the spring of 1897, the Greeks of Athens had the opportunity and privilege to watch the first cinematic attempts (short movies in journal). The projection of an animated movie resulted in excited reactions and the new-seen spectacle became a usual matter of discussion. ... The history of Italian cinema began a just few months after the Lumière brothers had discovered it, and it was precisely with a few seconds of film in which Pope Leo XIII was blessing the camera. ... The Luxembourg film industry is quite small, but this is unsurprising given that the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg has a population of only about 400,000 people. ... // Directors Józef Arkusz StanisÅ‚aw Bareja Wojciech Has Agnieszka Holland Jerzy Hoffman Jerzy Kawalerowicz Krzysztof KieÅ›lowski -- The Three Colors trilogy, The Decalogue Jan Jakub Kolski Kazimierz Kutz Andrzej Munk Marek Piwowski Roman PolaÅ„ski Ladislas Starevich Wladyslaw Starewicz Andrzej Wajda Krzysztof Zanussi Andrzej Zulawski Actors and actresses Eugeniusz... Portuguese cinema is better known internacionally for its directors Manoel de Oliveira and João César Monteiro. ... Spanish cinema is not held in as high esteem worldwide as French or American cinema. ... At a rate of, currently, 20 films a year the Swedish film industry is on par with many other North European countries. ... Michael Caine in Get Carter (1971) The United Kingdom has been influential in the technological, commercial and artistic development of cinema. ... The Lumière Brothers, Louis Jean (October 5, 1864–June 6, 1948) and Auguste Marie Louis Nicholas (October 19, 1862–April 10, 1954), were the creators of the cinematographic projector. ... Tsar Nicholas II (18 May 1868 to 17 July 1918)1 was the last crowned Emperor of Russia. ... The Moscow Kremlin The Moscow Kremlin (Russian: Московский Кремль) is the best known kremlin (Russian citadel). ... Saint Basils Cathedral Moscow (Russian/Cyrillic: Москва́, IPA:   listen?) is the capital of Russia, located on the river Moskva, and encompassing 1097. ... A Film distributor is an independent company, a subsidiary company or occasionally an individual, which acts as the final agent between a film production company or some intermediary agent, and a film exhibitor, to the end of securing placement of the producers film on the exhibitors screen. ...


Competition from French, American, German, Danish, British and Italian companies, distributing their country's wares to the eager Russians, developed, but the indigenous industry made such strides over the next five years that 129 fully Russian films - even if many of them were comparatively short - were produced in 1918 alone. In 1912, the Khazhonkov film studio was operational, and Ivan Mozhukhin had made his first film there, a feature film of 2000 meters entitled "Oborona Sevastopolya" ("The Defense of Sevastopol"): Mozhukhin played Napoleon. The same year, a German concern filming in Russia introduced the director Yakov Protazanov to the world with its "Ukhod Velikovo Startsa" ("Departure of the Grand Old Man"), a biography film about Lev Tolstoy. Czar Nicholas himself made some home movies and appointed an official Court Cinematographer, although he is purported to have written in 1913 that film was "an empty matter...even something harmful...silliness...we should not attribute any significance to such trifles". A movie studio is a location, room, building, or group of buildings and/or sound stages, offices and storage facilities, which may include a backlot, where movies are made. ... Ivan Mozhukin was the actor used by Lev Kuleshov in the Kuleshov Experiment. ... For other uses see film (disambiguation) Film refers to the celluliod media on which movies are printed Film — also called movies, the cinema, the silver screen, moving pictures, photoplays, picture shows, flicks, or motion pictures, — is a field that encompasses motion pictures as an art form or as part of... Leo Nikolayevitch Tolstoy (Russian: Лев Никола́евич Толсто́й) (September 9 (August 28, O.S.), 1828 - November 20 (November 7, O.S.), 1910) was a Russian novelist, reformer, and moral thinker, notable for his influence on Russian literature and politics. ...


Czar Nicholas gave some special assistance to the makers of "The Defense of Sevastopol" and a few similar films, but the industry was not nationalized nor governmentally subsidized or otherwise controlled. There were also only a few rules of censorship on a national level - such as not making the Czars characters in a dramatized film - but the filmmakers were largely free to produce for the mass audience; local officials might be more stringent in censoring or banning films. Detective films were popular, and various forms of melodrama. Poster for The Perils of Pauline (1914). ...


The arrival of World War I in Russia in 1914 sparked a change. Imports dropped drastically, especially insofar as films from Germany and its allies left the market rapidly. Russian filmmakers early on turned to anti-German, "patriotic" films, often hastily made, even being filmed while the scripts were still being written, filling in the gap: in 1916, Russia produced 499 films, over three times the number of just three years earlier, and more of feature length. Russia's allies, in turn, began to import some of the more striking product, including further films by Protazonov and Yevgenii Bauer, a specialist in psychological film, who both impacted, among others, the burgeoning American film industry. Adversely, Russian companies were forbidden to send cameramen to the "front", and war footage had to be imported from France and England: some Russian concerns combined footage from these with enacted war material to create faux documentaries. Also, the Skobolev Committee was established by the government to oversee the making of newsreel and propaganda films. A Newsreel is a documentary film that is regularly released in a public presentation place containing filmed news stories. ... A propaganda film is a film, often a documentary, produced for the express purpose of propaganda: convincing the viewer of a certain political point. ...


And then came the Russian Revolution, on top of the ongoing international War. With audiences demoralized by the latter and turning against the Czar, film producers began turning out, after the February Revolution, a number of films with anti-czarist themes. These, along with the usual retinue of detective films and melodramas, filled theaters when the streets were not filled with revolutionaries. But in the end, as the insurgent Red Army took the country from the post-Romanov Provisional Government by force, the destruction of the infrastructure in the major cities, the failing war-drained economy, the takeover of rural cinemas by local soviets, and the aversion of some in the film industry to communism, the Russian film industry per se had effectively died by the time Lenin on November 8, 1917 proclaimed a new country, the Soviet Union, and Russia one of several (albeit the key) constituent "Republics". Ironically, the last significant Russian film completed, in 1917, "Otets Sergii" ("Father Sergius") would become the first new film release a year later, in the new country of the Soviets. This article is about communism as a form of society built around a gift economy, as an ideology that advocates that form of society, and as a popular movement. ...



The R.S.F.S.R. (1917-1991) See: Cinema of the Soviet Union Soviet Cinema should not be used as a synonym for Russian Cinema. Although Russian language films predominated, several of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union contributed films reflecting elements of their pre-occupation culture, language and history whenever permitted by the Central Government. ...


The Russian Republic (1991-present)


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