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Encyclopedia > Cinema of Italy
European cinema

The history of Italian cinema began just a few months after the Lumière brothers had discovered the medium, when Pope Leo XIII was filmed for a few seconds in the act of blessing the camera. Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... European cinema is the cinema of Europe. ... The Cinema of Albania had its start in the years 1911-1912. ... The Cinema of Belgium // History Early history While the invention of the cinématographe by the French Lumière brothers is widely regarded as the birth of cinema, a number of developments in photography preceded the advent of film. ... // Directors Slatan Dudow Rangel Valtchanov Nikola Kovachev Sophia Peer Vulo Radev Dimitar Petkov- Opashkata Na Diavola aka Devils Tail Nikola Korabov Ivan Andonov Ludmil Staikov Metodi Andonov Zornitsa-Sophia Vladimir Yanchev Nikolai Volev Actors and actresses See also List of Bulgarian actors Stoyan Bachvarov Rusi Chanev Georgi Cherkelov Stefan... The cinema of Croatia has suffered in recent years, with quality films being few and far between in comparison to other countries. ... The Czech Republic (both as an independent country and as a part of former Czechoslovakia) was a seedbed for many acclaimed film directors. ... Danish cinema pioneer Peter Elfelt, a photographer, was the first Dane to make a film. ... Cinema in Estonia started in 1908 with the production of a newsreel about Swedish King Gustav IV’s visit to Tallinn. ... Norwegian Anneke von der Lippe as the Faroese Barbara in the 1997 Danish motion picture The Faroe Islands do not have a long history of cinema. ... In Finnish cinema, Aki Kaurismäki is a big name. ... France has been influential in the development of film as a mass medium and as an art form. ... Cinema in Germany can be traced back to the very beginnings of the medium at the end of the 19th Century and German cinema has made major technical and artistic contributions to film. ... // Beginning In the spring of 1897, the Greeks of Athens had the opportunity and privilege to watch the first cinematic attempts (short movies in journal). The projection of an animated movie resulted in excited reactions and the new-seen spectacle became a usual matter of discussion. ... The Irish film industry has grown somewhat in recent years thanks partly to the promotion of the sector by Bord Scannán na hÉireann (The Irish Film Board) and the introduction of heavy tax breaks. ... The Luxembourg film industry is quite small, but this is unsurprising given that the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg has a population of only about 400,000 people. ... The Dutch film industry has long been renowned for its documentaries. ... // Directors Józef Arkusz StanisÅ‚aw Bareja Aleksander Ford Wojciech Has Agnieszka Holland Jerzy Hoffman Jerzy Kawalerowicz Krzysztof KieÅ›lowski -- The Three Colors trilogy, The Decalogue Jan Jakub Kolski Kazimierz Kutz Juliusz Machulski Andrzej Munk Marek Piwowski Roman PolaÅ„ski Ladislas Starevich Wladyslaw Starewicz Andrzej Wajda Krzysztof Zanussi Andrzej Zulawski... Portuguese cinema is better known internacionally for its directors Manoel de Oliveira and João César Monteiro. ... The Cinema of Romania came into being as an affective reality. ... The first films seen in the Russia Empire were via the Lumière brothers, in Moscow and St. ... Soviet Cinema should not be used as a synonym for Russian Cinema. Although Russian language films predominated, several of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union contributed films reflecting elements of their pre-Soviet culture, language and history, although sometimes censored by the Central Government. ... Spanish cinema is not held in as high esteem worldwide as French or American cinema. ... Swedish cinema is one of the most widely-known national cinemas in the world, and certainly the most prominent of Scandinavia. ... Michael Caine in Get Carter (1971). ... Auguste (left) and Louis Lumière. ... Pope Leo XIII, born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci (March 2, 1810 – July 20, 1903), was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, having succeeded Pope Pius IX (1846–78) on February 20, 1878 and reigning until his death in 1903. ...

Contents

Early years

The Italian film industry took shape between 1903 and 1908, led by three major organizations - the Roman Cines, the Ambrosio of Turin and Itala Film. Other companies were soon to follow in Milan and Naples. In a short period of time, these early companies attained a respectable production quality and soon were selling films abroad as well as inside Italy. 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Nickname: The Eternal City Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 8th century BC Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1,285 km²  (496. ... Alessandra Ambrosio Alessandra Ambrosio (born April 11, 1981) is a Brazilian female model . ... Country Italy Region Piedmont Province Turin (TO) Mayor Sergio Chiamparino (The Union) Elevation 240 m Area 130 km² Population  - Total (as of December 31, 2004) 902,255  - Density 6928/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Torinesi Dialing code 011 Postal code 10100 Patron St. ... Country Italy Region Lombardy Province Milan (MI) Mayor Letizia Moratti Elevation 120 m Area 182 km² Population  - Total (as of December 31, 2004) 1,308,311  - Density 6,988/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Milanesi Dialing code 02 Postal code 20100 Patron St. ... Country Italy Region Campania Province Naples (NA) Mayor Rosa Russo Jervolino Elevation 17 m Area 117 km² Population  - Total (as of December 31, 2004) 1,000,470  - Density 8,457/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Napoletani Dialing code 081 Postal code 80100 Patron Saint Januarius  - Day September...


One of the first Italian filoni (sub-genres) was the historical film: the first work in the genre was Filoteo Alberini's La presa di Roma, 20 settembre 1870 (The Capture of Rome, September 20, 1870), filmed in 1905. Other films portrayed famous historical figures such as Nero, Messalina, Spartacus, Julius Caesar and Cleopatra. Arturo Ambrosio's Ultimi giorni di Pompei (1908 - The Last Days of Pompeii) quickly became famous, so famous that it was remade by Mario Caserini in 1913. In the same year Enrico Guazzoni directed the widely appreciated Mark Antony and Cleopatra. 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Nero[1] Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (December 15, 37 – June 9, 68), born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, also called Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, was the fifth and last Roman Emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty (54–68). ... Valeria Messalina (PIR1 V 161) , sometimes spelled Messallina, Mesalina ( 20-48) was a Roman Empress and third wife to Roman Emperor Claudius. ... Spartacus by Denis Foyatier, 1830 Spartacus (ca. ... Gāius Jūlius Caesar (IPA: ;[1]), July 12 or July 13, 100 BC – March 15, 44 BC) was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men in world history. ... Cleopatra was a co-ruler of Egypt with her father (Ptolemy XII Auletes), her brothers/husbands Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV, consummated a liaison with Gaius Julius Caesar that solidified her grip on the throne, and, after Caesars assassination, aligned with Mark Antony, with whom she produced twins. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... A computer-generated depiction of the eruption of Vesuvius in AD 79 which buried Pompeii, from the BBCs Pompeii: The Last Day. ... For his relatives, see Marcus Antonius (disambiguation). ...


Actresses Lyda Borelli, Francesca Bertini and Pina Menichelli were the first "divas" (stars), specialising in passionate tragedies. Francesca Bertini became the first "star" of cinema, as well as the first actress to appear on film partly naked. Francesca Bertini (April 11, 1888 - January 1, 1985) born Elena Seracini Vitiello in Florence, Italy, was an Italian silent film actress. ... Francesca Bertini (April 11, 1888 - January 1, 1985) born Elena Seracini Vitiello in Florence, Italy, was an Italian silent film actress. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Other filoni featured social themes, often based on published literature. In 1916 the film Cenere (Ash) was based on Grazia Deledda's book, and interpreted by the theatre actress Eleonora Duse (also famous as Gabriele D'Annunzio's lover). 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Grazia Deledda (September 27, 1871 – August 15, 1936), born in Nuoro, Sardinia, was an Italian writer whose works won her a Nobel Prize for Literature in 1926. ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... Eleonora Duse (October 3, 1858–April 21, 1924), was an Italian actress, often known simply as Duse. ... dAnnunzio. ...


Cinecittà

Main article: Cinecittà
Cinecittà studios
Cinecittà studios

Meanwhile, Fascism had created a board of judgment for popular culture. This administration suggested, with Mussolini's full approval, the creation of some important structures for Italian cinema. An area was founded in southeast Rome to build ex novo a town exclusively for cinema, dubbed the Cinecittà. The town was conceived in order to provide everything necessary for filmmaking: theatres, technical services, and even a cinematography school for younger apprentices. Even today, many films are shot entirely in Cinecittà. At the same time Vittorio Mussolini, the son of the dictator, created a national production company and organised the work of the most gifted authors, directors and actors (including even some political opponents), thereby creating an interesting communication network a Cinecittà (Italian for Cinema City) is a large film studio in Rome. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1728x2304, 2285 KB) Summary Entrance of the Cinecittà studios in Rome, Italy, own work, summer 2005 Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cinema of Italy Cinecitt... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1728x2304, 2285 KB) Summary Entrance of the Cinecittà studios in Rome, Italy, own work, summer 2005 Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cinema of Italy Cinecitt... Italian fascism (in Italian, fascismo) was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ...


Neorealism

Main article: Italian neorealism

Italian cinema had only a small price to pay for dictatorship. With the approaching war, many works were produced for propaganda purposes, as is the case in many countries at-war. Nevertheless, in 1942 Blasetti produced his Quattro passi tra le nuvole (Four Steps in the Clouds), which is the story of a humble employee, considered by many as the first neorealist work. Italian neorealism is a film movement which started in 1943 with Ossessione and ended in 1952 with Umberto D.. The movement is characterized by stories set amongst the poor and working class, filmed in long takes on location, frequently using non-actors for secondary and sometimes primary roles. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... An Australian anti-conscription propaganda poster from World War One Propaganda is a specific type of message presentation directly aimed at influencing the opinions or behaviour of people, rather than impartially providing information. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ...


Neorealism exploded soon after the war, with unforgettable works such as Rossellini's trilogy and with extraordinary actors such as Anna Magnani, as an attempt to describe the difficult economic and moral conditions of Italy and the changes in public mentality in everyday life. Also, because Cinecittà was occupied by refugees, films were shot outdoors, on the devastated roads of a defeated country. This genre soon also became an important political tool, although in most cases directors were able to keep a distinguishing barrier between art and politics. Italian neorealism is a film movement which started in 1943 with Ossessione and ended in 1952 with Umberto D.. The movement is characterized by stories set amongst the poor and working class, filmed in long takes on location, frequently using non-actors for secondary and sometimes primary roles. ... Anna Magnani. ...


Poetry and cruelty of life were harmonically combined in the works that Vittorio De Sica wrote and directed together with screenwriter Cesare Zavattini: among them, Sciuscià (Shoeshine - 1946), Ladri di Biciclette (The Bicycle Thief, 1948) and Miracolo a Milano (Miracle in Milan, 1950). The sad, bitter Umberto D. (1952), the touching story of a poor old man with his little dog, who life forces to beg for alms against his dignity in the loneliness of the new society, is perhaps De Sica's masterpiece and one of the most important works in Italian cinema. Baptised with a heavy polemic with government, that would have censored it for alleged anti-national sentiments, the film was not a commercial success and since then it has been shown on Italian television only a few times. Yet it is perhaps the most violent attack, in the apparent quietness of the action, against the rules of the new economy, the new mentality, the new values, and it happens to have at the same time both a conservative and a progressive view. Vittorio de Sica (July 7, 1901 - November 13, 1974) was an Italian neorealist director and actor. ... Cesare Zavattini (September 20, 1902-October 13, 1989) was a Italian screenwriter noted for neo-realist films. ... Shoeshine (Italian title Sciuscià) is a 1946 film and the first major work by Vittorio De Sica. ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Ladri di biciclette (literally translated as Bicycle Thieves) is a 1948 Italian neorealist film known in its US English release as The Bicycle Thief. ... Ladri di biciclette (literally translated as Bicycle Thieves) is a 1948 Italian neorealist film known in its US English release as The Bicycle Thief. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Umberto D. is a 1952 Italian film, directed by Vittorio De Sica. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Pink neorealism and Comedy

It has been said that after "Umberto D." nothing more could be added to neorealism. Whether because of this, or for other reasons, neorealism effectively ended with this film. Following works turned toward lighter atmospheres, perhaps more coherent with the improving conditions of the country, and this genre has been called pink neorealism. It was this filone that allowed better "equipped" actresses to become real celebrities: the encouraging figures of Sophia Loren, Gina Lollobrigida, Silvana Pampanini, Lucia Bosé, together with other beauties like Eleonora Rossi Drago, Silvana Mangano, Claudia Cardinale, and Stefania Sandrelli populated the imaginations of Italians just before the so-called "boom" of the 1960s. Soon pink neorealism was replaced by the Commedia all'Italiana (Italian Comedy), a unique genre that, born on an ideally humouristic line, talked instead very seriously about important social themes. Sophia Loren in the film, La Donna Del Fiume Sophia Loren (born September 20, 1934) is an Academy Award-winning actress (film and stage) widely considered to be the most famous Italian actress. ... Gina Lollobrigida (born on July 4, 1927) is an Italian actress who was born Luigina Lollobrigida in Subiaco, Italy in the Lazioregion. ... Lucia Bosé - Miss Italia 1947 Lucia Bosé (28 January 1931) is a successful Italian actress, who was at the height of her fame during the period of Italian Neorealism, the 1940s and 1950s. ... A theatrical poster for 1949s Riso Amaro (Bitter Rice). ... Claudia Cardinale (born April 15, 1938) is an Italian actress born in Tunis, Tunisia to Italian parents. ... Stefania Sandrelli (born June 5, 1946) is an Italian actress, famous for her many roles in the commedia allItaliana, starting from 1960s. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ...


At this time, on the more commercial side of production, the phenomenon of Totò, a Neapolitan actor who is acclaimed as the major Italian comic, exploded. His films (often with Peppino De Filippo and almost always with Mario Castellani) expressed a sort of neorealistic satire, in the means of a guitto as well as with the art of the great dramatic actor he also was, like Pier Paolo Pasolini would have shown. A "film-machine" who produced dozens of titles per year, his repertoire was frequently repeated. His personal story (a prince born in the poorest rione of Naples), his unique twisted face, his special mimic expressions and his gesture, created an inimitable personage and made this man one of the most beloved Italians in his own country. Antonio De Curtis Totò was the stage name of Antonio de Curtis (born Antonio Clemente, February 15, 1898, Naples - April 15, 1967, Rome), a Neapolitan actor, writer, and songwriter. ... Italian actor (Naples, August 24, 1903 - Rome, January 27, 1980). ... Pier Paolo Pasolini (March 5, 1922 - November 2, 1975) was an Italian poet, intellectual, film director, and writer. ... Country Italy Region Campania Province Naples (NA) Mayor Rosa Russo Jervolino Elevation 17 m Area 117 km² Population  - Total (as of December 31, 2004) 1,000,470  - Density 8,457/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Napoletani Dialing code 081 Postal code 80100 Patron Saint Januarius  - Day September...


Italian Comedy is generally considered to have started with Mario Monicelli's I soliti Ignoti (Big Deal on Madonna Street) and derives its name from the title of Pietro Germi's Divorzio all'Italiana (Divorce Italian Style - 1961). For a long time this definition was used with a derogatory intention. Mario Monicelli Mario Monicelli (born May 15, 1915) is an Italian director and screenplays writer, one of the masters of the Commedia allItaliana (Comedy Italian style). ... I soliti ignoti, is a 1958 Italian language film, directed by Mario Monicelli. ... Pietro Germi (Genova, September 14, 1914 - Rome February 22, 1975) was an Italian actor, screenwriter, and director. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ...


Vittorio Gassman, Marcello Mastroianni, Ugo Tognazzi, Alberto Sordi, Claudia Cardinale, Monica Vitti and Nino Manfredi were among the stars of these movies, that described the years of the economical reprise and investigated Italian dress, a sort of self-ethnological research. Vittorio Gassman Vittorio Gassman (Il Mattatore) (September 1, 1922 – June 29, 2000) was an Italian theatre and film actor and director. ... Marcello Mastroianni in 1958 Marcello Vincenzo Domenico Mastroianni (September 28, 1924 – December 19, 1996) was an Italian film actor. ... Ugo Tognazzi (March 23, 1922 - October 27, 1990) was an Italian film, TV and theatre actor, director and screenwriter. ... Alberto Sordi (1920-2003), year: ?. Alberto Sordi a. ... Claudia Cardinale (born April 15, 1938) is an Italian actress born in Tunis, Tunisia to Italian parents. ... Actress Monica Vitti in Michelangelo Antonionis LAvventura (1960). ... Nino Manfredi (March 22, 1921 - June 4, 2004) was an Italian actor. ...


In 1961, Dino Risi directed Il sorpasso, now a cult-movie, then Una vita difficile (A Difficult Life), I mostri (The Monsters, also known as 15 From Rome), In nome del Popolo Italiano (In the Name of the Italian People) and Profumo di donna (Scent of a Woman). 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ...


Monicelli's works include La grande guerra (The Great War), I compagni (Comrades, also known as The Organizer), L'armata Brancaleone, Vogliamo i colonnelli (We Want the Colonels), Romanzo popolare (Popular Romance) and Amici miei.


The Spaghetti Western

Main article: Spaghetti Western

At the same time, another genre, the Spaghetti Western began to achieve great success, not only in Italy, but throughout the world. These films differed from traditional westerns not only in that they were filmed in Italy on low budgets, but also by their unique, vivid cinematography. The most important and popular spaghetti westerns were those of Sergio Leone, whose Dollars Trilogy, consisting of A Fistful of Dollars, For A Few Dollars More, and The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly, which also featured Clint Eastwood and scores by Ennio Morricone, came to define the genre. Movie poster for Once Upon a Time in the West Spaghetti Westerns is a nickname for a broad sub-genre of Western film that emerged in the mid-1960s, so named because most of them were produced by Italian studios. ... Movie poster for Once Upon a Time in the West Spaghetti Westerns is a nickname for a broad sub-genre of Western film that emerged in the mid-1960s, so named because most of them were produced by Italian studios. ... The Western is an American genre in literature and film. ... Sergio Leone (January 3, 1929 – April 30, 1989) was an Italian film director who is considered to be one of the greatest Western directors of all time. ... The Dollars Trilogy, also known as The Man with No Name Trilogy, refers to the three Spaghetti Westerns starring Clint Eastwood and directed by Sergio Leone: A Fistful of Dollars (1964) For a Few Dollars More (1965) The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly (1966) Categories: | ... A Fistful of Dollars (Per un pugno di dollari in Italy, and officially on-screen in the United States as simply Fistful of Dollars) is a 1964 film directed by Sergio Leone and starring Clint Eastwood. ... For a Few Dollars More (Per qualche dollaro in piu) is a 1965 film directed by Sergio Leone and starring Clint Eastwood and Lee Van Cleef. ... The Good, the Bad and the Ugly (Il buono, il brutto, il cattivo) is a 1966 Spaghetti Western film directed by Sergio Leone and starring Clint Eastwood (the Good), Lee van Cleef (the Bad), and Eli Wallach (the Ugly). ... This article refers to the actor/producer/director. ... Ennio Morricone. ...


Also considered spaghetti westerns is a genre of film that married the traditional western ambience with the comic tradition of the Commedia all'italiana. Included among such films are Lo chiamavano Trinità... and ...continuavano a chiamarlo Trinità, which featured Bud Spencer and Terence Hill, the stage names of Carlo Pedersoli and Mario Girotti, respectively. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Trinity is STILL My Name! (Sometimes known as My Name is Still Trinity) is a 1972 spaghetti western by Direct Source Special Products Inc. ... Bud Spencer (born October 31, 1929), born as Carlo Pedersoli, is a famous Italian actor, known for his size (6 4½ (1. ... Terence Hill (born Mario Girotti March 29, 1939) is an Italian-born actor. ... Bud Spencer (born October 31, 1929), born as Carlo Pedersoli, is a famous Italian actor. ... Terence Hill (born Mario Girotti March 29, 1939) is an Italian-born actor. ...


Gore Galore

During the late 1970s and early 1980s, Italian cinema became internationall synonimous with violent horror films which were primarily produced for the video market and were credited with fuelling the video nasty era in the United Kingdom. Video is the technology of electronically capturing, recording, processing, storing, transmitting, and reconstructing a sequence of still images which represent scenes in motion. ... Video nasty was a term coined in the United Kingdom in the 1980s that originally applied to a number of films distributed on video that were held by some to be unfit for domestic viewing. ...



Directors included Lucio Fulci, Joe D'Amato, Umberto Lenzi and Ruggero Deodato. Some of the most notorious films faced legal challenges in the United Kingdom, after the Video Recordings Act or 1984, it became a legal offence to poses a copy of such films as Cannibal Holocaust and SS Experiment Camp. Italian films of this period are usually grouped together as exploitation films. Lucio Fulci (born June 17, 1927 in Rome, Italy - died March 13, 1996 in Rome, Italy (diabetes-related illness)) was an Italian film director, screenwriter and actor. ... Laura Gemser in Joe dAmatos Emanuelle and the Last Cannibals ( 1977) Joe DAmato (born Aristide Massaccesi on December 15, 1936 , in Rome, Italy, died January 23, 1999) was an Italian director of numerous horror and hardcore pornography titles. ... Umbero Lenzi (Massa Marittima, Italy, August 6, 1931), is an Italian film director who has mainly been active in low budget crime films. ... Ruggero Deodato, born May 7, 1939 in Potenza, Italy, film director, actor, screen writer. ... The Video Recordings Act is a UK Act of Parliament that was passed into law in 1984. ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cannibal Holocaust (1980) is a controversial exploitation film directed by Ruggero Deodato. ... Exploitation is the name given to genre of films, extant since the earliest days of moviemaking, but popularized in the 1970s. ...


Italian studios were charged with stepping over the line in many countries with the late 70s series of Nazi exploitation films. These included the notious but comparatively tame SS Experiment Camp and the far more graphic Gestapo's Last Orgy. These films showed, in great detail, sexual crimes against prisoners at concentration camps. The factuality of these films was cavalier at best and they were almost uninanimously branded as distasteful. These films are still banned in the United Kingdom and other countries. National Socialism redirects here. ... Exploitation is the name given to genre of films, extant since the earliest days of moviemaking, but popularized in the 1970s. ...


The Crisis of the 1980s

Between the late 1970s and mid-1980s, Italian cinema endured a long period of crisis. During this time, "art films" became increasingly isolated, separating from the mainstream Italian cinema. Among the major artistic films of this era were La città delle donne of Fellini, L'albero degli zoccoli by Ermanno Olmi, winner of the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival, and Bianca by Nanni Moretti. Although not entirely Italian, Bertolucci's The Last Emperor, winner of 9 Oscars, cannot be ignored. La città delle donne is a 1980 film written and directed by Federico Fellini. ... Ermanno Olmi (born July 24, 1931) is a noted Italian director. ... The Palme dOr (Golden Palm) is the name of the highest prize given to a film at the Cannes Film Festival. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Bianca is a female personal name (from Latin White), and has been borne by a number of people, real and fictional, and other objects: Bianca is an alter ego of the singer Mariah Carey. ... Giovanni (Nanni) Moretti (born August 19, 1953) is an Italian film director. ... The Last Emperor is a 1987 biographical film which tells the life story of Aisin-Gioro Puyi, the last Emperor of China. ...


At the same time, "trash films" reached great success with the Italian public. Films of little artistic value, these comedies reached their popularity by confronting Italian social taboos, most notably in the sexual sphere. Several actors, including Lino Banfi, Diego Abatantuono, Alvaro Vitali, Gloria Guida and Edwige Fenech owe much of their popularity to these films. Diego Abatantuono portrayed on the poster of Il toro (1994), directed by Carlo Mazzacurati. ... Gloria Guida (born November 19, 1955) is an Italian actress and model. ... Edwige Fenech (born December 24, 1948 in Annaba (former French Bône), Algeria) is an Italian actress and film producer. ...


Also considered part of the trash genre are a group of films that have the ragionier Fantozzi, a comic personage invented by Paolo Villaggio; this character had a great impact on Italian society, to such a degree that the adjective fantozziano entered the lexicon. Of the many films telling of Fantozzi's misadventures, the most notable were Fantozzi and Il secondo tragico Fantozzi. Ugo Fantozzi Paolo Villaggio (born in Genova, 31 December 1932) is an Italian actor, writer, director and comedian, famous especially for his grotesque irony and satire. ... Paolo Villaggio as Ugo Fantozzi. ...


1990 to Today

A new generation of directors has helped return Italian cinema to a healthy level since the end of the 1980s. The sign-bearer for this renaissance is Nuovo Cinema Paradiso, for which Giuseppe Tornatore won the Oscar for Best Foreign Film in 1990. This victory was followed two years later by another, when Gabriele Salvatores's Mediterraneo won the same prize. Another exploit was in 1998 when Roberto Benigni won three oscars for his movie Life is Beautiful (La vita è bella) (Best Actor, Best Foreign Film, Best Music). In 2001 Nanni Moretti's film La stanza del figlio (The son's room) received the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival. Nuovo Cinema Paradiso (1989) is an Italian film written and directed by Giuseppe Tornatore. ... Giuseppe Tornatore (born 27 May 1956 in Bagheria, Sicily) is an Italian film director. ... Gabriele Salvatores (July 30, 1950, Naples), is an Italian Academy Award-winner film director and screenwriter. ... Mediterraneo is an Italian film which won the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film in 1991. ... This is a list of film-related events in 1998. ... Roberto Benigni as Johnny Stecchino Roberto Benigni (born October 27, 1952) is an Oscar-winning Italian film and television actor and director. ... Life Is Beautiful (in Italian La vita è bella) is a 1997 Italian language film which tells the story of an Italian Jew, Guido Orefice (played by Roberto Benigni, who also directed the film), who lives in his own romantic fairy tale world, but must learn how to use that dreamy... This is a list of film-related events in 2001. ... Giovanni (Nanni) Moretti (born August 19, 1953) is an Italian film director. ... The Sons Room (Italian language: La stanza del figlio) is a 2001 film directed by Nanni Moretti. ... The Palme dOr (Golden Palm) is the name of the highest prize given to a film at the Cannes Film Festival. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Renowned figures

Directors

Heres a complete list of film directors from Italy. ...

Actors and Actresses

This is an incomplete list of actors from Italy, which generally means those who reside in Italy or those who have appeared largely in Italy film productions. ... This is a complete list of actress from Italy. ...

Literature

  • Bacon, Henry. 1998. Visconti: Explorations of Beauty and Decay. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
  • Ben-Ghiat, Ruth. 'The Fascist War Trilogy'. Forgacs, David , Lutton, Sarah and Nowell-Smith Geoffrey.Eds. Roberto Rossellini: Magician of the Real . London: BFI
  • Bernardi, Sandro. 2000. 'Rosselini's Landscapes: Nature, Myth,History'. Forgacs, David , Lutton, Sarah and Nowell-Smith Geoffrey.Eds. Roberto Rossellini: Magician of the Real . London: BFI
  • Bondanella, Peter. 2002. The Films of Federico Fellini. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-57573-7
  • Bondanella, Peter. 3rd edition. 2002. Italian Cinema: From Neorealism to the Present. New York and London: Continuum
  • Clark, Martin. 1984. Modern Italy 1871-1982. London: Longman
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This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Origins of motion picture arts and sciences Any overview of the history of cinema would be remiss to fail to at least mention a long history of literature, storytelling, narrative drama, art, mythology, puppetry, shadow play, cave paintings and perhaps even dreams. ... The film director, on the right, gives last minute direction to the cast and crew, whilst filming a costume drama on location in London. ...

External links

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Italy - definition of Italy - Labor Law Talk Dictionary (1345 words)
The Italy of modern times became a nation-state belatedly — on March 17, 1861, when most of the states of the peninsula and the Two Sicilies were united under king Victor Emmanuel II of the Savoy dynasty, hitherto king of Sardinia, a realm that included Piedmont.
Italy was a charter member of NATO and the European Union, and hence joined the growing political and economic unification of Western Europe, including the introduction of the Euro in 1999.
Italy is well-known for its art, culture, and several monuments, among them the leaning tower of Pisa and the Roman Colosseum, as well as for its food (pizza, pasta, etc.), wine, lifestyle, elegance, design, cinema, theatre, literature, poetry, visual arts, music (notably Opera), holidays, and generally speaking, for taste.
italy - Toseeka Search Results (5754 words)
Italy is called "il Belpaese" (Italian for "beautiful country") by its inhabitants, due to the beauty and variety of its landscapes and for having the world's largest artistic patrimony; the country is home to the greatest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites (41 as of July 13 2006).
Today, Italy is a highly developed country with the 7th highest GDP in 2006, a member of the G8 and a founding member of what is now the European Union, having signed the Treaty of Rome in 1957.
Italy supported Franco's revolution in Spanish civil war and Hitler's pretensions in central Europe, accepting the annexation of Austria to Germany in 1938, although the disappearance of a buffer state between mighty Germany and Italy was unfavourable for the country.
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